Clara Maria Pope
Clara Maria Leigh or Clara Maria Pope was a British painter and botanical artist. Born in London, Leigh was christened in 1767 at St Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe, her father was an amateur artist. She work as an artist's model for a number of years, she married the painter Francis Wheatley in the 1780s, they had four children. Leigh began by painting miniatures, by 1796 she was exhibiting at the Royal Academy, her husband died in 1801, Leigh struggled to support her family. An accomplished botanical artist by this stage, her work was noticed for its beauty and accuracy by Samuel Curtis, the publisher of the Botanical Magazine, she created notable full-sized illustrations for Curtis's Botanical Magazine as well as for his other works, Monograph on the Genus Camellia and The Beauties of Flora. She was supported in her work by the architect Sir John Soane, who commissioned the watercolour The Flowers of Shakespeare, which depicts a bust of the bard in Soane's collection surrounded by all the flowers mentioned in Shakespeare's works.
In 1807, Leigh married painter Alexander Pope, becoming his third wife. She taught painting, her students included Princess Sophia of Gloucester and other members of the British aristocracy. Pope died in London in 1838
Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment. She was part of a coup d'etat. Vorontsova-Dashkova was the first woman in the world to head a national academy of sciences and helped found the Russian Academy, she published prolifically, with original and translated works on many subjects. Born Countess Yekaterina Vorontsova, she was the third daughter of Count Roman Vorontsov, a member of the Senate, was distinguished for her intellectual gifts, her uncle Mikhail Illarionovich and brother Alexander Romanovich both served as Imperial Chancellors, while her brother Semyon was Russian ambassador to Great Britain, a celebrated Anglophile. She received an exceptionally good education, having displayed from a early age the abilities and tastes which made her whole career so singular, she was well versed in mathematics. In general literature, her favorite authors were Bayle, Boileau and Helvétius.
While still a girl, she was connected with the Russian court, became one of the leaders of the party that attached itself to the Grand Duchess Catherine Alexeyevna. Before she was sixteen, she married Prince Mikhail Ivanovich Dashkov, a prominent Russian nobleman of Rurikid stock, in February 1759, went to reside with him in Moscow, she learned Russian there to communicate with her in-laws. After the death of Prince Dashkov, she gave herself up to her children, to literature, to politics. In 1762, she was at Saint Petersburg and took, according to her own account, the leading part in the coup d'état by which Catherine was raised to the throne. Another course of events would have resulted in the elevation of the Princess Dashkova's elder sister, the former emperor's mistress, in whose favor he made no secret of his intention to depose Catherine, her relations with the new empress were not of cordial nature, though she continued to be devotedly loyal. She disliked the men Catherine the Great chose to take as lovers, resented the graces and devotion shown to them by the Empress.
Her blunt manners, her unconcealed scorn of the male favorites that in her eye disgraced the court, also her sense of unrequited merit, produced an estrangement between her and the empress, which ended in her asking permission to travel abroad. Permission was granted, shortly thereafter she departed, but remained a loyal supporter of Catherine, the two women remained friends; the true cause of her request to leave was said to have been the refusal by Catherine the Great of her request to be appointed colonel of the imperial guards. Her husband having meanwhile died, she set out in 1768 on an extended tour through Europe, she was received with great consideration at foreign courts, her literary and scientific reputation procured her the entrée to the society of the learned in most of the capitals of Europe. In Paris, she secured the warm admiration of Diderot and Voltaire, she showed in various ways a strong liking for Britain and the British. She corresponded with Garrick, Dr. Blair, Principal Robertson.
She lived in Edinburgh from 1777 to 1779, donated a collection of Russian commemorative medals to the University of Edinburgh. Her son became an adjutant of Grigory Potyomkin, she travelled in Ireland, where she can be seen watching a review of the Irish Volunteers in a picture by Francis Wheatley in November 1779. She was friends with daughter of Jonathan Shipley, in London, she met Benjamin Franklin in Paris on 3 February 1781. "The Princess and the Patriot: Ekaterina Dashkova, Benjamin Franklin and the Age of Enlightenment" exhibition was held in Philadelphia, U. S. A. from February to December 2006. Benjamin Franklin and Dashkova met only once, in Paris in 1781. Franklin was 75 and Dashkova was 37. Franklin and Dashkova were both evidently impressed with each other. Franklin invited Dashkova to become the first woman to join the American Philosophical Society, the only one to be so honored for another 80 years. Dashkova reciprocated by making him the first American member of the Russian Academy.
The correspondence between Franklin and Dashkova was the highlight of the exhibition. In 1782, Dashkova returned to the Russian capital, was at once taken into favor by the empress, who sympathized with her in her literary tastes, in her desire to elevate Russian to a high place among the literary languages of Europe. After her return, the princess was appointed Director of the Imperial Academy of Arts and Sciences. Theoretically the head of the Academy was always its President. Dashkova was the first woman in the world to head a national academy of sciences. Although not a scientist herself, Dashkova restored the failing institution to prominence and intellectual respectability; this came at a critical time in the history of science, its transformation from what was called natural philosophy practiced by gifted amateurs, to a professional enterprise. In 1784 Dashkova was named the fi
Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki
Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki is the principal public gallery in Auckland, New Zealand, has the most extensive collection of national and international art in New Zealand. It hosts travelling international exhibitions. Set below the hilltop Albert Park in the central-city area of Auckland, the gallery was established in 1888 as the first permanent art gallery in New Zealand; the building housed the Auckland Art Gallery as well as the Auckland public library opening with collections donated by benefactors Governor Sir George Grey and James Tannock Mackelvie. This was the second public art gallery in New Zealand opened three years after the Dunedin Public Art Gallery in 1884. Wellington's New Zealand Academy of Fine Arts opened in 1892 and a Wellington Public Library in 1893. In 2009, it was announced that the museum received a donation from American businessman Julian Robertson, valued at over $100 million, the largest of its kind in the region; the works will be received from the owner's estate.
Throughout the 1870s many people in Auckland felt the city needed a municipal art collection but the newly established Auckland City Council was unwilling to commit funds to such a project. Following pressure by such eminent people as Sir Maurice O'Rorke and others, the building of a combined Art Gallery & Library was made necessary by the promise of significant bequests from two major benefactors. Grey had promised books for a municipal library as early as 1872 and donated large numbers of manuscripts, rare books and paintings from his collection to the Auckland Gallery & Library, he gave material to Cape Town, where he had been governor. The Grey bequest includes works by Henry Fuseli, William Blake and David Wilkie. Mackelvie was a businessman who had retained an interest in Auckland affairs after returning to Britain. In the early 1880s he announced a gift of 105 framed watercolours, oil paintings, a collection of drawings, his gift amounted to 140 items, including paintings, decorative arts and furniture from his London residence, these form the core of the Mackelvie Trust Collection, shared between the Auckland City Art Gallery, the Public Library and the Auckland Museum.
Mackelvie's will stipulated a separate gallery to display his bequest, this was not popular with the city authorities but a special room was dedicated to the collection in 1893 and the top lit Mackelvie Gallery was built in 1916. The Mackelvie Trust continues to purchase art works to add to the collection which now includes significant 20th-century bronzes by Archipenko, Epstein and Elisabeth Frink; the Auckland Gallery collection was dominated by European old master paintings following the standard taste of the 19th century. Today the collection has expanded to include a wider variety of periods and media, numbers over 15,000 artworks. Many New Zealand and Pacific artists are represented, as well as Europe and material from the Middle Ages to the present day. Notable New Zealand artists with extensive representation include Gretchen Albrecht, Marti Friedlander, C. F. Goldie, Alfred Henry O'Keeffe, Frances Hodgkins, Gottfried Lindauer and Colin McCahon; some of these works were donated by the artists themselves.
In 1915 a collection of paintings of Māori by Gottfried Lindauer was donated to the Gallery by Henry Partridge, an Auckland businessman. He made the gift on the proviso that the people of Auckland raise 10,000 pounds for the Belgium Relief Fund; the money was raised within a few weeks. Another major benefactor was Lucy Carrington Wertheim. Miss Wertheim was an art gallery owner in London and through her support of expatriate artist Frances Hodgkins bestowed on the Auckland Art Gallery a representative collection of British paintings from the interwar period, her gifts in 1948 and 1950 totalled 154 works by modern British artists, including Christopher Wood, Frances Hodgkins, Phelan Gibb, R. O. Dunlop and Alfred Wallis; the Wertheim collection was displayed in a separate room opened by the Mayor J. A. C. Allum on 2 December 1948. In 1953 Rex Nan Kivell donated an important collection of prints, including work by George French Angas, Sydney Parkinson, Nicholas Chevalier, Augustus Earle; the 1960s saw the arrival of a collection of European medieval art.
In 1967 the Spencer collection of early English and New Zealand watercolours was donated, this included early New Zealand views by John Gully, John Hoyt, John Kinder. In 1982 on the death of Dr Walter Auburn, print collector and valued adviser to the Gallery's prints and drawings department, the Mackelvie Trust received his magnificent collection of over one and a half thousand prints, including work by Callot, della Bella and Hollar. In 1952 Eric Westbrook was appointed as the first full-time director of the Art Gallery, he was succeeded in 1955 by Peter Tomory who stayed until 1965. Both men sought to revitalise the Gallery and introduce modern art to a conservative public in the face of resistance from a hostile City Council; the 1956 Spring Exhibition'Object and Image' showed works by modern artists such as John Weeks, Louise Henderson, Milan Mrkusich, Colin McCahon, Kase Jackson and Ross Fraser. Other controversial exhibitions, including Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth, resulted in serious confrontation between the Council and Tomory, resulting in his resignation.
Tomory's intended purchase of Hepworth's Torso II in 1963 changed the climate
Covent Garden is a district in Greater London, on the eastern fringes of the West End, between Charing Cross Road and Drury Lane. It is associated with the former fruit-and-vegetable market in the central square, now a popular shopping and tourist site, with the Royal Opera House, known as "Covent Garden"; the district is divided by the main thoroughfare of Long Acre, north of, given over to independent shops centred on Neal's Yard and Seven Dials, while the south contains the central square with its street performers and most of the historical buildings and entertainment facilities, including the London Transport Museum and the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane. The area was settled in the 7th century when it became the heart of the Anglo-Saxon trading town of Lundenwic, abandoned at the end of the 9th century. By 1200, part of it had been walled off by Westminster Abbey for use as arable land and orchards. Referred to as "the garden of the Abbey and Convent", "the Covent Garden", it was seized by Henry VIII and granted to the Earls of Bedford in 1552.
The 4th Earl commissioned Inigo Jones to build some fine houses to attract wealthy tenants. Jones designed the Italianate arcaded square along with the church of St Paul's; the design of the square was new to London and had a significant influence on modern town planning, acting as the prototype for new estates as London grew. By 1654 a small open-air fruit-and-vegetable market had developed on the south side of the fashionable square. Both the market and the surrounding area fell into disrepute, as taverns, coffee-houses and brothels opened up. By the 18th century it had become a well-known red-light district. An Act of Parliament was drawn up to control the area, Charles Fowler's neo-classical building was erected in 1830 to cover and help organise the market; the market grew and further buildings were added: the Floral Hall, Charter Market, in 1904 the Jubilee Market. By the end of the 1960s traffic congestion was causing problems, in 1974 the market relocated to the New Covent Garden Market about three miles south-west at Nine Elms.
The central building re-opened as a shopping centre in 1980 and is now a tourist location containing cafes, small shops, a craft market called the Apple Market, along with another market held in the Jubilee Hall. Covent Garden falls within the London boroughs of Westminster and Camden and the parliamentary constituencies of Cities of London and Westminster and Holborn and St Pancras; the area has been served by the Piccadilly line at Covent Garden Underground station since 1907. What would become the Strand on the southern boundary of the future Covent Garden was used during the Roman period as part of a route to Silchester, known as Iter VII on the Antonine Itinerary. Excavations in 2006 at St Martin-in-the-Fields revealed a late Roman grave, suggesting the locale had been a sacred site; the area to the north of the Strand was long thought to have remained as unsettled fields until the 16th century, but theories by Alan Vince and Martin Biddle that there had been an Anglo-Saxon settlement to the west of the old Roman town of Londinium were borne out by excavations in 1985 and 2005.
These revealed Covent Garden as the centre of a trading town called Lundenwic, developed around 600 AD, which stretched from Trafalgar Square to Aldwych. Alfred the Great shifted the settlement into the old Roman town of Londinium from around 886 AD onwards, leaving no mark of the old town, the site returned to fields. A document from 1200 AD mentions a walled garden owned by the Benedictine monks of the Abbey of St Peter, Westminster. A document, dated between 1250 and 1283, refers to "the garden of the Abbot and Convent of Westminster". By the 13th century this had become a 40-acre quadrangle of mixed orchard, meadow and arable land, lying between modern-day St Martin's Lane and Drury Lane, Floral Street and Maiden Lane; the use of the name "Covent"—an Anglo-French term for a religious community, equivalent to "monastery" or "convent"—appears in a document in 1515, when the Abbey, letting out parcels of land along the north side of the Strand for inns and market gardens, granted a lease of the walled garden, referring to it as "a garden called Covent Garden".
This is how it was recorded from on. After the Dissolution of the Monasteries in 1540, Henry VIII took the land belonging to Westminster Abbey for himself, his son, Edward VI, granted it to the John Russell, 1st Earl of Bedford, in 1552. The Russell family, who in 1694 were advanced in their peerage from Earl to Duke of Bedford, held the land until 1918. Russell built Bedford House and garden on part of the land, with an entrance on the Strand, the large garden stretching back along the south side of the old walled-off convent garden. In 1630, 4th Earl of Bedford, Francis Russell commissioned Inigo Jones to design and build a church and three terraces of fine houses around a large square or piazza; this had been prompted by Charles I taking offence at the condition of the road and houses along Long Acre, which were the responsibility of Russell and Henry Carey, 2nd Earl of Monmouth. Russell and Carey complained that under the 1625 Proclamation concerning Buildings, which restricted building in and around London, they could not build new houses.
For a fee of £2,000, the King granted Russell a licence to build as many new houses on his land as he "shall thinke fitt and convenient". The houses attracted the wealthy, though they moved out when a market developed on the south side of the square around 1654, coffee houses and prostitutes moved in; the Bedford Estate was expanded in 1669 to include Bloomsbury, when L
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
A portrait is a painting, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant. The intent is to display the likeness and the mood of the person. For this reason, in photography a portrait is not a snapshot, but a composed image of a person in a still position. A portrait shows a person looking directly at the painter or photographer, in order to most engage the subject with the viewer. Most early representations that are intended to show an individual are of rulers, tend to follow idealizing artistic conventions, rather than the individual features of the subject's body, though when there is no other evidence as to the ruler's appearance the degree of idealization can be hard to assess. Nonetheless, many subjects, such as Akhenaten and some other Egyptian pharaohs, can be recognised by their distinctive features; the 28 surviving rather small statues of Gudea, ruler of Lagash in Sumeria between c. 2144–2124 BC, show a consistent appearance with some individuality.
Some of the earliest surviving painted portraits of people who were not rulers are the Greco-Roman funeral portraits that survived in the dry climate of Egypt's Fayum district. These are the only paintings from the classical world that have survived, apart from frescos, though many sculptures and portraits on coins have fared better. Although the appearance of the figures differs they are idealized, all show young people, making it uncertain whether they were painted from life; the art of the portrait flourished in Ancient Greek and Roman sculpture, where sitters demanded individualized and realistic portraits unflattering ones. During the 4th century, the portrait began to retreat in favor of an idealized symbol of what that person looked like. In the Europe of the Early Middle Ages representations of individuals are generalized. True portraits of the outward appearance of individuals re-emerged in the late Middle Ages, in tomb monuments, donor portraits, miniatures in illuminated manuscripts and panel paintings.
Moche culture of Peru was one of the few ancient civilizations. These works represent anatomical features in great detail; the individuals portrayed would have been recognizable without the need for other symbols or a written reference to their names. The individuals portrayed were members of the ruling elite, priests and distinguished artisans, they were represented during several stages of their lives. The faces of gods were depicted. To date, no portraits of women have been found. There is particular emphasis on the representation of the details of headdresses, body adornment and face painting. One of the best-known portraits in the Western world is Leonardo da Vinci's painting titled Mona Lisa, a painting of Lisa del Giocondo. What has been claimed as the world's oldest known portrait was found in 2006 in the Vilhonneur grotto near Angoulême and is thought to be 27,000 years old; when the artist creates a portrait of him- or herself, it is called a self-portrait. Identifiable examples become numerous in the late Middle Ages.
But if the definition is extended, the first was by the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten's sculptor Bak, who carved a representation of himself and his wife Taheri c. 1365 BC. However, it seems that self-portraits go back to the cave paintings, the earliest representational art, literature records several classical examples that are now lost; the official portrait is a photographic production of record and dissemination of important personalities, notably kings and governors. It is decorated with official colors and symbols such as flag, presidential stripes and coat of arms of countries, states or municipalities. There is connotation as an image of events and meetings. Portrait photography is a popular commercial industry all over the world. Many people enjoy having professionally made family portraits to hang in their homes, or special portraits to commemorate certain events, such as graduations or weddings. Since the dawn of photography, people have made portraits; the popularity of the daguerreotype in the middle of the 19th century was due in large part to the demand for inexpensive portraiture.
Studios sprang up in cities around the world, some cranking out more than 500 plates a day. The style of these early works reflected the technical challenges associated with 30-second exposure times and the painterly aesthetic of the time. Subjects were seated against plain backgrounds and lit with the soft light of an overhead window and whatever else could be reflected with mirrors; as photographic techniques developed, an intrepid group of photographers took their talents out of the studio and onto battlefields, across oceans and into remote wilderness. William Shew's Daguerreotype Saloon, Roger Fenton's Photographic Van and Mathew Brady's What-is-it? Wagon set the standards for making other photographs in the field. In politics, portraits of the leader are used as a symbol of the state. In most countries it is common protocol for a portrait of the head of state to appear in important government buildings. Excessive use of a leader's portrait, such as that done of Joseph Stalin, Adolf Hitler, or Mao Zedong, can be indicative of a personality cult.
In literature the term portrait refers to analysis of a person or thing. A written portrait gives deep insight, offers an analysis that goes far beyond the superficial. For example, American author Patricia Cornwell wrote a best-selling book entitled Portrait of a Killer about
Irish Volunteers (18th century)
The Volunteers were local militias raised by local initiative in Ireland in 1778. Their original purpose was to guard against invasion and to preserve law and order at a time when British soldiers were withdrawn from Ireland to fight abroad during the American Revolutionary War and the government failed to organise its own militia. Taking advantage of Britain's preoccupation with its rebelling American colonies, the Volunteers were able to pressure Westminster into conceding legislative independence to the Dublin parliament. Members of the Belfast 1st Volunteer Company laid the foundations for the establishment of the United Irishmen organisation; the majority of Volunteer members however were inclined towards the yeomanry, which fought and helped defeat the United Irishmen in the Irish rebellion of 1798. As far back as 1715 and 1745, self-constituted bodies of defensive local forces where formed in anticipation of Stuart invasions. For example, in 1744 with the declaration of war with France and in 1745 the landing of Prince Charles Edward in Scotland, a corps of 100 men was enrolled in Cork, known as "The True Blues", which formed one of the regiments of the "United Independent Volunteers".
In 1757 and 1760 there were volunteer units formed due to the Seven Years' War and due to the French landing at Carrickfergus in 1760. The roll-call of the militia that marched on the French at Swinford listed in the "Collectanea politica", published in 1803, was titled "Ulster volunteers in 1760". From 1766 onwards units were embodied by local landlords in various parts of the country for the preservation of peace and the protection of property. Early volunteer groups included: First Volunteers of Ireland; the rise of the Volunteers was a spontaneous event fired by patriotism and the threat of invasion, as another French landing was anticipated when war broke out in 1778. With British troops being dispatched from Ireland for the war with the American colonies, the landed gentry reacted nervously, misunderstandings arose about Ireland's defence capabilities. Claims that Ireland was ill-prepared for an attack, along with alleged negligence from Dublin Castle, was used to justify the existence of Volunteer companies and their role in defending Ireland.
In fact around 4,000 soldiers had been dispatched to the American colonies, leaving as many as 9,000 behind in Ireland. The Volunteers were built upon existing foundations. Dublin Castle had created militias throughout the 18th century, however these had fallen into disuse; the Volunteers filled the gap left behind, with half of its officers having held commissions in the militia. Historian Thomas Bartlett claims that the purpose of the militia as defined in 1715 would have fitted with the aims of the Volunteers: "of suppressing... all such insurrections and rebellions, repelling of invasions". Along with this, Irish Protestants of all ranks had a long, strong tradition of self-defence, having formed groups to resist and pursue agrarian insurgents and keeping a watchful eye on Catholics when threats arose; the Volunteers were independent of the Irish Parliament and Dublin Castle, this was an established fact by 1779. It is claimed that had the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, John Hobart, 2nd Earl of Buckinghamshire, been more pro-active and assertive the Volunteers could have come under some form of government control.
The regular military deemed the Volunteers of low value in regards to helping repulse a foreign threat. Instead they held the view that they could be a "serviceable riot police", it was this that they distinguished themselves for. For example, Volunteer companies did duty whilst regular troops had been called away, whilst others were used to pursue agrarian insurgents; when musicians were organised in Dublin following the introduction of a bill in the Irish Parliament seeking to outlaw textile workers' combinations, the Volunteers were mobilised to maintain the peace in case of public disorder. The British victory over the Spanish off Cape St. Vincent in 1780 saw the fear of invasion dissipate, causing the Volunteers to become involved in politics, they started off agitating for reforms and measures to promote Ireland's prosperity, but they moved from peaceful persuasion to "the threat of armed dictatorship". The Volunteers however were marked by liberal political views. For instance although only Anglican Protestants were allowed to bear arms under the Penal Laws, the Volunteers admitted Presbyterians and a limited number of Catholics, reflecting the recent Catholic Relief Act of 1778.
The Volunteers additionally provided a patriotic outlet, with each corps becoming a debating society. This brought about a shift in power with the Volunteers being controlled by progressive politically minded people and not by the Establishment; the Volunteers saw the annual Protestant commemorations such as the Battle of the Boyne and the Battle of Aughrim become displays of patriotic sentiment. In Dublin on 4 November 1779, the Volunteers took advantage of the annual commemoration of King William III's birthday, marching to his statue in College Green and demonstrating for Free Trade between Ireland and England. Under the Navigation Acts, Irish goods had been subject to tariffs upon entering England, whereas English goods could pass into Ireland; the Volunteers paraded armed with the slogan, "Free Trade or this", as referring to cannon. cited "Free trade or a Speedy Revolution". According to Liz Curtis the English regime in Ireland was vulnerable, the Volunteers used this to press for concessions from England using their new-found strength.
This demand of the V