Percy Williams Bridgman
Percy Williams Bridgman was an American physicist who received the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the physics of high pressures. He wrote extensively on the scientific method and on other aspects of the philosophy of science; the Bridgman effect and the Bridgman–Stockbarger technique are named after him. Known to family and friends as "Peter", Bridgman was born in Cambridge and grew up in nearby Auburndale, Massachusetts. Bridgman's parents were both born in New England, his father, Raymond Landon Bridgman, was "profoundly religious and idealistic" and worked as a newspaper reporter assigned to state politics. His mother, Mary Ann Maria Williams, was described as "more conventional and competitive". Bridgman attended both elementary and high school in Auburndale, where he excelled at competitions in the classroom, on the playground, while playing chess. Described as both shy and proud, his home life consisted of family music, card games, domestic and garden chores; the family was religious.
However, Bridgman became an atheist. Bridgman entered Harvard University in 1900, studied physics through to his Ph. D. From 1910 until his retirement, he taught at Harvard, becoming a full professor in 1919. In 1905, he began investigating the properties of matter under high pressure. A machinery malfunction led him to modify his pressure apparatus; this was a huge improvement over previous machinery, which could achieve pressures of only 3,000 kgf/cm2. This new apparatus led to an abundance of new findings, including a study of the compressibility and thermal conductivity, tensile strength and viscosity of more than 100 different compounds. Bridgman is known for his studies of electrical conduction in metals and properties of crystals, he is the eponym for Bridgman's thermodynamic equations. Bridgman made many improvements to his high-pressure apparatus over the years, unsuccessfully attempted the synthesis of diamond many times, his philosophy of science book The Logic of Modern Physics advocated operationalism and coined the term operational definition.
In 1938 he participated in the International Committee composed to organise the International Congresses for the Unity of Science. He was one of the 11 signatories to the Russell–Einstein Manifesto. Bridgman married Olive Ware, of Hartford, Connecticut, in 1912. Ware's father, Edmund Asa Ware, was the first president of Atlanta University; the couple were married for 50 years, living most of that time in Cambridge. The family had a summer home in Randolph, New Hampshire, where Bridgman was known as a skilled mountain climber. Bridgman was a "penetrating analytical thinker" with a "fertile mechanical imagination" and exceptional manual dexterity, he was a skilled plumber and carpenter, known to shun the assistance of professionals in these matters. He was fond of music and played the piano, took pride in his flower and vegetable gardens. Bridgman committed suicide by gunshot after suffering from metastatic cancer for some time, his suicide note read. This is the last day I will be able to do it myself."
Bridgman's words have been quoted by many in the assisted suicide debate. Bridgman received Doctors, honoris causa from Stevens Institute, Brooklyn Polytechnic, Princeton and Yale, he received the Bingham Medal from the Society of Rheology, the Rumford Prize from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Elliott Cresson Medal from the Franklin Institute, the Gold Medal from Bakhuys Roozeboom Fund from the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Comstock Prize of the National Academy of Sciences. Bridgman was a member of the American Physical Society and was its President in 1942, he was a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Philosophical Society, the National Academy of Sciences. He was a Foreign Member of the Royal Honorary Fellow of the Physical Society of London; the Percy W. Bridgman House, in Massachusetts, is a U. S. National Historic Landmark designated in 1975. In 2014, the Commission on New Minerals and Classification of the International Mineralogical Association approved the name bridgmanite for perovskite-structured SiO3, the Earth's most abundant mineral, in honor of his high-pressure research.
—. Dimensional Analysis. New Haven: Yale University Press. OCLC 840631. —. A Condensed Collection of Thermodynamics Formulas. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. OCLC 594940689. —. The Logic of Modern Physics. New York: Macmillan. OCLC 17522325. Online excerpt. —. The Thermodynamics of Electrical Phenomena in Metals. New York: Macmillan. —. The Nature of Physical Theory. Dover. OCLC 1298653. —. The Intelligent Individual and Society. New York: MacMillan. OCLC 1488461. —. The Nature of Thermodynamics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780844605128. OCLC 4614803. —. The Physics of High Pressure. London: G. Bell. OCLC 8122603. —. Reflections of a Physicist. New York: Philosophical Library. OCLC 583047. —. Studies in large plastic flow and fracture: with special emphasis on the effects of hydrostatic pressure. New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC 7435297. — (195
Lyman James Briggs
Lyman James Briggs was an American engineer and administrator. He was a director of the National Bureau of Standards during the Great Depression and chairman of the Uranium Committee before America entered the Second World War; the Lyman Briggs College at Michigan State University is named in his honor. Briggs was born on a farm in Assyria, near Battle Creek, Michigan, he was the eldest of two brothers in a family that descended from Clement Briggs, who arrived in America in 1621 on the Fortune, the first ship to follow the Mayflower. He grew up in an outdoor life with duties to attend such as would be found on an active farm in the late 19th century, he went to the Briggs School built by his grandfather and was a teacher there. Briggs entered Michigan Agricultural College in East Lansing, entering by examination at age 15. Michigan State was a Land Grant college, so courses were taught in agriculture and mechanical arts, he majored in agriculture, but by graduation time in 1893 his interests had moved on to mechanical engineering and physics.
He next entered the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, completing a master's degree in physics in 1895. From there he entered Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore and began work on his PhD. In 1896 Briggs married Katharine Cook whom he met as an undergraduate at Michigan Agricultural College. Lyman and Katharine Cook Briggs had a boy, Albert and a girl, Isabel. Albert died in infancy, Isabel would marry Clarence Myers and go on to generate the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator with her mother. In 1896 he joined the US Department of Agriculture in Washington, D. C. While in Washington, he continued his research at Johns Hopkins under Henry Augustus Rowland. Although he spent time working with the newly discovered Roentgen Rays, he graduated in 1903 with a Ph. D. in agriculture with a dissertation On the absorption of water vapor and of certain salts in aqueous solution by quartz. He was elected to the Cosmos Club the same year. In Briggs' first professional position he was put in charge of the Physics Laboratory of the US Department of Agriculture.
He was one of a new breed of multi-disciplinary scientists studying the biology and ecology of plant life. His research work was concentrated on water retention of soils and he was a founder of the science of soil physics. In 1906 he devised a soil classification technique called the moisture equivalent based on centrifuging, now thought of as the first Pedotransfer function. In the same year he organized a biophysical laboratory that became the Bureau of Plant Industry. Briggs worked with Homer Leroy Shantz on the effect of environment on the water uptake by plants, was an early contributor to ecology. Briggs was detailed by an Executive Order to the Department of Commerce's Bureau of Standards in 1917 due to mobilization pressures of World War I. There he developed an artificial horizon device for naval vessels with John Hayford which established a stable zenith independent of the roll of the vessel for the aiming of naval guns; this allowed for the roll of the ship to be observed, so that the firing of the guns could be timed with the roll of the ship.
The device was so successful. A confidential report called the Hayford–Briggs report was given to the Navy, but never published. In 1920 Briggs left the Department of Agriculture and joined the National Bureau of Standards, where he was chief of the Engineering Physics Division, he appointed Hugh L. Dryden to head the Aerodynamics Physics Section, together they pioneered research in the aerodynamics of airfoils moving near the speed of sound in an airstream; this work had significant application in developing blade forms for aircraft propellers. He retained an interest in navigational devices, with Paul R. Heyl invented the Heyl–Briggs earth inductor compass; the compass used a spinning electric coil subjected to the magnetic field of the Earth to determine the bearing of an airplane in relation to the Earth's magnetic field. For this invention, they received the Magellan Medal of the American Philosophical Society in 1922; this type of compass was used by Admiral Byrd in his flight to the North Pole and by Charles Lindbergh on his 1927 trans-Atlantic flight.
In 1926 Briggs was appointed assistant director for research and testing by National Bureau of Standards Director George Kimball Burgess. On Burgess's death in 1932, Briggs was nominated by US President Herbert C. Hoover to Burgess as director of the National Bureau of Standards. However, none of Hoover's nominations were acted on by the US Congress. After Franklin D. Roosevelt took office as president in 1933 he was pressed to name "a good Democrat" as director of the National Bureau of Standards. Roosevelt, not wishing to make a patronage appointment, replied, "I haven't the slightest idea whether Briggs is a Republican or a Democrat, it was the height of the depression and his first task was to reduce costs 50%. He managed to save the jobs of about 2/3 of the career employees by putting many on part-time employment and transferring others to the American Standards Association while they continued their work at the bureau, he emphasized doing work with direct economic impact and got money from the Works Progress Administration to hire unemployed mathematicians to develop math tables.
Due to Briggs outstanding persuasive powers, he managed to get Congress to increase its appropriation for the
William Francis Magie
William Francis Magie was an American physicist, a founder of the American Physical Society and the first professor of physics at Princeton University, where he had graduated and where he served for two decades as dean of the faculty. His papers on the contact angle of liquids and solids and on the specific heat of solutions were notable, as was his text Principles of Physics. Magie, William Francis, translator.. The Second Law of Thermodynamics at Google Books: Memoirs by Carnot and Thomson. Magie, William Francis.. Principles of physics, designed for use as a textbook of general physics. New York: Century. Principles of physics at Google Books Magie, William Francis.. A Source Book in Physics. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Includes selections and translations of classic works in physics. A source book in physics at Google Books Finding aid for William Francis Magie papers at Princeton
Urbana is a city in and the county seat of Champaign County, United States. The population is estimated at 41,989 as of July 1, 2017. Urbana is the tenth-most populous city in Illinois outside of the Chicago metropolitan area, it is included in the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area. Urbana is notable for sharing the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign with its sister city of Champaign; the Urbana area was first settled in 1822, when it was called "Big Grove". When the county of Champaign was organized in 1833, the county seat was located on 40 acres of land, 20 acres donated by William T. Webber and 20 acres by Col. M. W. Busey, considered to be the city's founder, the name "Urbana" was adopted after Urbana, the hometown of State Senator Vance; the creation of the new town was celebrated for the first time in July 4, 1833. Stores began opening beginning in 1834; the first mills were founded in c.1838-50. The town's first church was built c.1840 with the Baptist Church following in 1855 and the Methodist Church in 1856.
The Presbyterian Church was founded in 1856. The city's first school was built in 1854. Urbana suffered a setback when the Chicago branch of the Illinois Central Railroad, expected to pass through town, was instead laid down two miles west, where the land was flatter; the town of West Urbana grew up around the train depot built there in 1854, in 1861 its name was changed to Champaign. The competition between the two cities provoked Urbana to tear down the ten-year-old County Courthouse and replace it with a much larger and fancier structure, to ensure that the county seat would remain in Urbana. Champaign-Urbana was selected as the site for a new state agricultural school, thanks to the efforts of Clark Griggs. Illinois Industrial University, which would evolve into the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, opened in 1868 with 77 students. A number of efforts to merge Urbana and Champaign have failed at the polls. On October 9, 1871 a fire burned much of downtown Urbana. Children playing with matches started the fire.
Downtown Urbana is located west of the intersection of its two busiest streets: U. S. 10 and U. S. 45. Most of Urbana lies south of I-74. There are three exits: Lincoln and University; the Lincoln exit is closest to the University of Illinois, while the Cunningham exit goes to downtown Urbana. The University exit goes to downtown Urbana as well as Illinois Route 130 to Philo; the Norfolk Southern operates an east to west line through Urbana. The NS line connects industries in eastern Urbana to the Norfolk Southern main line at Mansfield, west of Champaign; the line now operated by Norfolk Southern is the former Peoria & Eastern Railway operated as part of the Big Four, New York Central, Penn Central, Conrail systems, being sold by Conrail to Norfolk Southern in 1996. Construction of the line was begun by the Danville, Urbana and Pekin Railroad; this short-lived entity became part of the Indianapolis and Western Railway before the railroad was completed. A branch line of the Norfolk and Western Railway used to connect Urbana with the main line from Danville to Decatur at Sidney, but this was first rerouted and closed in the early 1990s.
Willard Airport serves the city. As of the census of 2000, there were 36,395 people, 14,327 households, 6,217 families residing in the city; the population density was 3,468.3 people per square mile. There were 15,311 housing units at an average density of 1,459.1/sq mi. The racial makeup of the city was 67.01% White, 14.34% African American, 0.18% Native American, 14.24% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 1.76% from other races, 2.45% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.54% of the population. There were 14,327 households out of which 20.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.2% were married couples living together, 8.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 56.6% were non-families. 36.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.83. In the city, the population was spread out with 14.9% under the age of 18, 36.2% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 13.2% from 45 to 64, 9.3% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 25 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 111.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $27,819, the median income for a family was $42,655. Males had a median income of $32,827 versus $26,349 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,969. About 13.3% of families and 27.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.5% of those under age 18 and 7.2% of those age 65 or over. Urbana has Mayor-Council government, of the strong-mayor form; the city council has seven members, each elected from a different ward. The mayor is elected in a citywide vote. Urbana is located at 40°6′35″N 88°12′15″W. According to the 2010 census, Urbana has a total area of 11.69 square miles, of which 11.65 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. Urbana borders the city of Champaign; the main campus of the University of Illinois is situated on this border. Together, these two cities are referred to as Urbana-Champaign (the designation used by th
New York University
New York University is a private research university founded in New York City but now with campuses and locations throughout the world. Founded in 1831, NYU's historical campus is in New York City; as a global university, students can graduate from its degree-granting campuses in NYU Abu Dhabi and NYU Shanghai, as well as study at its 12 academic centers in Accra, Buenos Aires, London, Los Angeles, Paris, Sydney, Tel Aviv, Washington, D. C. For the class that matriculated in the fall of 2019, NYU received nearly 85,000 applications for its undergraduate programs. In 2018, NYU was ranked amongst the top 40 universities worldwide by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, Times Higher Education World University Rankings, U. S. News & World Report. Alumni include heads of state, eminent scientists and entrepreneurs, media figures, founders and CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, astronauts; as of March 2019, 37 Nobel Laureates, 8 Turing Award winners, 5 Fields Medalists, over 30 Academy Award winners, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, hundreds of members of the National Academies of Sciences and United States Congress have been affiliated as faculty or alumni.
Globally, NYU is ranked 7th by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings for producing alumni who are millionaires, 4th by Wealth-X for producing ultra high net-worth and billionaire alumni. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish "in this immense and fast-growing city... a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all". A three-day-long "literary and scientific convention" held in City Hall in 1830 and attended by over 100 delegates debated the terms of a plan for a new university; these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18, 1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the city's merchants and traders. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institution's first president. On April 21, 1831, the new institution received its charter and was incorporated as the University of the City of New York by the New York State Legislature.
The university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, situated near City Hall. In 1835, the School of Law, NYU's first professional school, was established. Although the impetus to found a new school was a reaction by evangelical Presbyterians to what they perceived as the Episcopalianism of Columbia College, NYU was created non-denominational, unlike many American colleges at the time. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU, it became one of the nation's largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding; the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus. NYU had a desire to follow New York City's development further uptown. NYU's move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken.
The University Heights campus was far more spacious. As a result, most of the university's operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYU's administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the graduate schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the downtown undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the "Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead, Long Island"; this extension would become a independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, a nonprofit organization of leading public and private research universities. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the city's institutions, including NYU. Feeling the pressures of imminent bankruptcy, NYU President James McNaughton Hester negotiated the sale of the University Heights campus to the City University of New York, which occurred in 1973.
In 1973, the New York University School of Engineering and Science merged into Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, which merged back into NYU in 2014 forming the present Tandon School of Engineering. After the sale of the Bronx campus, University College merged with Washington Square College. In the 1980s, under the leadership of President John Brademas, NYU launched a billion-dollar campaign, spent entirely on updating facilities; the campaign was set to complete in 15 years, but ended up being completed in 10. In 1991, L. Jay Oliva was inaugurated the 14th president of the university. Following his inauguration, he moved to form the League of World Universities, an international organization consisting of rectors and presidents from urban universities across six continents; the league and its 47 representatives gather every two years to discuss global issues in education. In 2003 President John Sexton launched a $2.5 billion campaign for funds to be spent on faculty and financial aid resources.
Under Sextons leadership, NYU began its radical transformation into a global university. In 2009, the university responded to a series of New York Times interviews that showed a pattern of labor abuses in its fledgling Abu Dhabi location, creating a statement of
Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its motion, behavior through space and time, that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy the oldest. Over much of the past two millennia, chemistry and certain branches of mathematics, were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, the boundaries of physics which are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics enable advances in new technologies.
For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have transformed modern-day society, such as television, domestic appliances, nuclear weapons. Astronomy is one of the oldest natural sciences. Early civilizations dating back to beyond 3000 BCE, such as the Sumerians, ancient Egyptians, the Indus Valley Civilization, had a predictive knowledge and a basic understanding of the motions of the Sun and stars; the stars and planets were worshipped, believed to represent gods. While the explanations for the observed positions of the stars were unscientific and lacking in evidence, these early observations laid the foundation for astronomy, as the stars were found to traverse great circles across the sky, which however did not explain the positions of the planets. According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy.
Egyptian astronomers left monuments showing knowledge of the constellations and the motions of the celestial bodies, while Greek poet Homer wrote of various celestial objects in his Iliad and Odyssey. Natural philosophy has its origins in Greece during the Archaic period, when pre-Socratic philosophers like Thales rejected non-naturalistic explanations for natural phenomena and proclaimed that every event had a natural cause, they proposed ideas verified by reason and observation, many of their hypotheses proved successful in experiment. The Western Roman Empire fell in the fifth century, this resulted in a decline in intellectual pursuits in the western part of Europe. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire resisted the attacks from the barbarians, continued to advance various fields of learning, including physics. In the sixth century Isidore of Miletus created an important compilation of Archimedes' works that are copied in the Archimedes Palimpsest. In sixth century Europe John Philoponus, a Byzantine scholar, questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics and noting its flaws.
He introduced the theory of impetus. Aristotle's physics was not scrutinized until John Philoponus appeared, unlike Aristotle who based his physics on verbal argument, Philoponus relied on observation. On Aristotle's physics John Philoponus wrote: “But this is erroneous, our view may be corroborated by actual observation more than by any sort of verbal argument. For if you let fall from the same height two weights of which one is many times as heavy as the other, you will see that the ratio of the times required for the motion does not depend on the ratio of the weights, but that the difference in time is a small one, and so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other”John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration for Galileo Galilei ten centuries during the Scientific Revolution.
Galileo cited Philoponus in his works when arguing that Aristotelian physics was flawed. In the 1300s Jean Buridan, a teacher in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris, developed the concept of impetus, it was a step toward the modern ideas of momentum. Islamic scholarship inherited Aristotelian physics from the Greeks and during the Islamic Golden Age developed it further placing emphasis on observation and a priori reasoning, developing early forms of the scientific method; the most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn al-Haytham, in which he conclusively disproved the ancient Greek idea about vision, but came up with a new theory. In the book, he presented a study of the phenomenon of the camera obscura (his thousand-year-old
Edward Leamington Nichols
Edward Leamington Nichols was an American physicist. He was born of American parentage at Leamington and received his education at Cornell University, graduating in 1875. After Studying at Leipzig, Göttingen he was appointed fellow in physics at Johns Hopkins, he spent some time in the Thomas Edison laboratory at Menlo Park, N. J. and subsequently became professor of physics and chemistry in the Central University of Kentucky, professor of physics and astronomy at the University of Kansas, professor of physics at Cornell University. He was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences, was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Physical Society, served as a member of the visiting committee of the United States Bureau of Standards; the degrees of LL. D. and Sc. D. were conferred on Professor Nichols by the University of Pennsylvania and Dartmouth College respectively. He was the author of several college textbooks on physics. In 1927 he was awarded the Franklin Institute's Elliott Cresson Medal.
In 1929 he was awarded the Frederic Ives Medal by the OSA. He was adviser of numerous outstanding scientists in Cornell University including Ernest Nichols, Arthur Foley, Rolla Roy Ramsey, his PhD adviser was Johann Benedict Listing in Georg-August-Universität Göttingen. A laboratory manual of physics and applied electricity v. 1 A laboratory manual of physics and applied electricity v. 2 The galvanometer: a series of lectures The elements of physics. A college text-book v. 1. Mechanics and heat The elements of physics. A college text-book v. 2. Electricity and magnetism The elements of physics. A college text-book v. 3. Light and sound The outlines of physics: an elementary text-book Questions and exercises to be used in connection with Outlines of physics, an elementary text-book Studies in luminescence Fluorescence of the uranyl salts This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead.
Edward Leamington Nichols — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of SciencesE. L. Nichols and the Physical ReviewFounding of the Physical Review Cornell University, Ithaca New YorkObituariesErnest Merritt, Edward Leamington Nichols, Physical Review, 53, 1. Edward L. Nichols: 1854-1937, Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science, 42, 51 Ernest Merritt, Biographical memoir of Edward Leamington Nichols, Biographical memoirs of the National Academy of the Sciences, 21