Suppression of the Society of Jesus
The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire, the Two Sicilies, Parma, the Spanish Empire and Austria and Hungary is a complex topic. Analysis of the reasons is complicated by the political maneuvering in each country, not carried on in the open but has left some trail of evidence; the papacy reluctantly went along with the demands of the various Catholic kingdoms involved, advanced no theological reason for the suppression. The power and wealth of the Society of Jesus with its influential educational system was confronted by adversaries in this time of cultural change in Europe, leading to the revolutions that would follow. Monarchies attempting to centralize and secularize political power viewed the Jesuits as being too international, too allied to the papacy, too autonomous from the monarchs in whose territory they operated. By the brief Dominus ac Redemptor Pope Clement XIV suppressed the Society of Jesus, as a fait accompli and with no reasons given. Russia and the United States allowed the Jesuits to continue their work, Catherine the Great allowed the founding of a new novitiate in Russia.
Soon after their restoration by Pope Pius VII in 1814, the Jesuits began returning to most of the places from which they had been expelled. Prior to the eighteenth-century suppression of the Jesuits in many countries, there was an early ban in territories of the Venetian Republic between 1606 and 1656/7, begun and ended as part of disputes between the Republic and the Papacy, beginning with the Venetian Interdict. By the mid-18th century, the Society had acquired a reputation in Europe for political maneuvering and economic success. Monarchs in many European states grew progressively wary of what they saw as undue interference from a foreign entity; the expulsion of Jesuits from their states had the added benefit of allowing governments to impound the Society's accumulated wealth and possessions. However, historian Charles Gibson cautions, "ow far this served as a motive for the expulsion we do not know."Various states took advantage of different events in order to take action. The series of political struggles between various monarchs France and Portugal, began with disputes over territory in 1750 and culminated in suspension of diplomatic relations and dissolution of the Society by the Pope over most of Europe, some executions.
The Portuguese Empire, the Two Sicilies and the Spanish Empire were involved to one degree or another. The conflicts began with trade disputes, in 1750 in Portugal, in 1755 in France, in the late 1750s in the Two Sicilies. In 1758 the government of Joseph I of Portugal took advantage of the waning powers of Pope Benedict XIV and deported Jesuits from South America after relocating the Jesuits and their native workers, fighting a brief conflict, formally suppressing the order in 1759. In 1762 the Parlement Français, ruled against the Society in a huge bankruptcy case under pressure from a host of groups – from within the Church but secular notables and the king's mistress. Austria and the Two Sicilies suppressed the order by decree in 1767. There were long-standing tensions between the Portuguese crown and the Jesuits, which increased when the Count of Oeiras became the monarch's minister of state, culminating in the expulsion of the Jesuits in 1759; the Távora affair in 1758 could be considered a pretext for the expulsion and crown confiscation of Jesuit assets.
According to historians James Lockhart and Stuart B. Schwartz, the Jesuits' "independence, wealth, control of education, ties to Rome made the Jesuits obvious targets for Pombal's brand of extreme regalism."Portugal's quarrel with the Jesuits began over an exchange of South American colonial territory with Spain. By a secret treaty of 1750, Portugal relinquished to Spain the contested Colonia del Sacramento at the mouth of the Rio de la Plata in exchange for the Seven Reductions of Paraguay, the autonomous Jesuit missions, nominal Spanish colonial territory; the native Guaraní, who lived in the mission territories, were ordered to quit their country and settle across the Uruguay. Owing to the harsh conditions, the Guaraní rose in arms against the transfer, the so-called Guaraní War ensued, it was a disaster for the Guaraní. In Portugal a battle escalated with inflammatory pamphlets denouncing or defending the Jesuits who for over a century had protected the Guarani from enslavement through a network of Reductions, as depicted in The Mission.
The Portuguese colonizers secured the expulsion of the Jesuits. On 1 April 1758, Pombal persuaded the aged Pope Benedict XIV to appoint the Portuguese Cardinal Saldanha to investigate allegations against the Jesuits. Benedict was skeptical as to the gravity of the alleged abuses, he ordered a "minute inquiry", but so as to safeguard the reputation of the Society, all serious matters were to be referred back to him. Benedict died the following month on May 3. On May 15 Saldanha, having received the papal brief only a fortnight before, declared that the Jesuits were guilty of having exercised "illicit and scandalous commerce," both in Portugal and in its colonies, he had not visited Jesuit houses as ordered, pronounced on the issues which the pope had reserved to himself. Pombal implicated the Jesuits in the Távora affair, an attempted assassination of the king on 3 September 1758, on the grounds of their friendship with some of the supposed conspirators. On 19 January 1759, he issued a decree sequestering the property of the Society in the Portuguese dominions and the following September deported the Portuguese fathers, about one thousand in number, to the Pontifical States, keeping the foreigners in prison.
Colegio de San Gregorio
The Colegio de San Gregorio is an Isabelline style building located in the city of Valladolid, in Castile and León, Spain, it was a college and now is housing the Museo Nacional de Escultura museum. This building is one of the best examples of the architectural style known as Isabelline, the characteristic architectural style of the Crown of Castile region during the Catholic Monarchs' reign. Among other sections highlights its courtyard and its facade for its refined decoration, elegant proportions and the number of symbologies, it was founded as a teaching institution. Aimed at College of Theology for Dominican friars, it has acquired a doctrinal authority and acted as a spiritual and political hotbed in the Central region of Spain's Renaissance and Baroque periods; the University of Valladolid was founded in the 13th-century during the Alfonso X of Castile the Wise's reign. In Valladolid the Colegio Mayor Santa Cruz was created in late 15th-century; the creation of the College, under the title of the Doctor of the Church Saint Gregory the Great, was work of Dominican Alonso de Burgos, the Catholic Monarchs's confessor and Bishop of the dioceses of Córdoba and Palencia.
The foundation of the college was confirmed by with Papal Bull of Pope Innocent VIII in 1487, accepted as Royal patronage by Queen Isabella the Catholic in 1500, after the founder's death. It attached to the Convento de San Pablo, which Friar Alonso had been its prior, its foundation was subject to the assignment of the Capilla del Crucifijo, attached to the Epistle's arm of the Dominican church, to become his own funeral chapel, which acquired dual function to serve as a chapel for college. Work began in 1488 in a process from the inside to outside; the Royal shields in the corners of the Large courtyard still do not present the Granada's symbol suggests that this part would be completed before 1492. The building is assumed to completed in 1496. Little documentation has been localized on its construction, without knowing conclusively who were their creators, it seems that were incorporated the most famous stonemasons and carvers who at that time were working in Castile, making the set conform as a paradigmatic example of the various trends of Castilian stonework in late-15th century, with Juan Guas and Juan de Talavera responsible for traces and construction of the Friar Alonso's funerary chapel, Simón de Colonia for its main altar, the founder's sepulcher replaced by another commissioned to Felipe Bigarny, without being known the causes, other works at the college, or Gil de Siloé and Diego de la Cruz as commissioners for the chapel's altarpiece.
In 1524 the building was expanded with the addition of a wing to the west as traces of Gaspar de Solórzano, the so-called Edificio de las Azoteas, jutting out from the rest because it had four floors high. There remains of this building's section. Since its founding, the college became a focus of influence of the Early-Modern Age, in which were formed theologians, men of letters, universities's founders, kings's advisers or jurists, like Bartolomé de las Casas, Melchor Cano, Luis de Granada or Francisco de Vitoria, in which took place in 1550-1551, for example, the famous Valladolid debate, in which Friar Bartolomé de las Casas defended the indigenous peoples of the America's rights, against Juan Ginés de Sepúlveda supporter of the rights for the dominion of the conquerors towards the Indigenous, whom he considered inferior beings. In 1577 due to the beneficence of Spaniard Juan Solano, O. P. former bishop of Cusco, The College of San Gregorio served as a model for the transformation of the Dominican studium at Santa Maria sopra Minerva in Rome into the College of St. Thomas, forerunner of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.
But with the 18th-century and the arrival of the Enlightenment, the opposition to the ruling Bourbon dynasty exercised by the colleges as debilitating elements of the absolutism implanted, San Gregorio was losing its influence. It arrived 19th-century, during the Napoleonic French invasion it was used as a barracks, with the suppression of the Regular orders of 1820 it was abandoned, although in the Absolutist Restoration of 1823 was reoccupied, was for a short period and again abandoned; the confiscation and expropriation gave way to its use as a prison, a dependencies for the Civil Government, National Institute, the Normal Schools of Teachers, etc. In 1884 it was declared a National Monument, as in the following years lost some of the roofs and disappeared the Metaphysics classroom and the corridor attached to the facade leading to the chapel; the structure of the Colegio de San Gregorio is today classified into seven elements: Portada monumental, Visitor reception area, Patio de los Estudios, Patio Grande, Monumental staircase, ruins of the Edificio de las Azoteas.
Its architecture, which include, above all, the facade and the courtyard, is considered as one of the best examples of Isabelline art developed in Crown of Castile region during the Catholic Monarchs's reign, which begin to shows the new ideas that came with the beginning of the Early-Modern Age. The facade, plain facing and topped with a crest, stands out above all for its spectacular main facade, which by its stylistic features it sets regarding the workshop of Gil de Siloé, a Flemish origin artist, at that time in Bur
Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Oaxaca the Free and Sovereign State of Oaxaca, is one of the 31 states which, along with Mexico City, make up the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 570 municipalities, of which 418 are governed by the system of usos y costumbres with recognized local forms of self-governance, its capital city is Oaxaca de Juárez. Oaxaca is located in Southeastern Mexico, it is bordered by the states of Guerrero to the west, Puebla to the northwest, Veracruz to the north, Chiapas to the east. To the south, Oaxaca has a significant coastline on the Pacific Ocean; the state is best known for its indigenous cultures. The most numerous and best known are the Zapotecs and the Mixtecs, but there are sixteen that are recognized; these cultures have survived better than most others in Mexico due to the state's rugged and isolating terrain. Most live in the Central Valleys region, an economically important area for tourism, with people attracted for its archeological sites such as Monte Albán, Mitla, its various native cultures and crafts.
Another important tourist area is the coast, which has the major resort of Huatulco and sandy beaches of Puerto Escondido, Puerto Ángel, Bahia de Tembo, Mazunte. Oaxaca is one of the most biologically diverse states in Mexico, ranking in the top three, along with Chiapas and Veracruz, for numbers of reptiles, amphibians and plants; the name of the state comes from the name of Oaxaca. This name comes from the Nahuatl word "Huaxyacac", which refers to a tree called a "guaje" found around the capital city; the name was applied to the Valley of Oaxaca by Nahuatl-speaking Aztecs and passed on to the Spanish during the conquest of the Oaxaca region. The modern state was created in 1824, the state seal was designed by Alfredo Canseco Feraud and approved by the government of Eduardo Vasconcelos. Nahuatl word "Huaxyacac" was transliterated as "Oaxaca" using Medieval Spanish orthography, in which the x represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative, making "Oaxaca" pronounced as. However, during the sixteenth century the voiceless fricative sound evolved into a voiceless velar fricative, Oaxaca began to be pronounced.
In present-day Spanish, Oaxaca is pronounced or, the latter pronunciation used in dialects of southern Mexico, the Caribbean, much of Central America, some places in South America, the Canary Islands and western Andalusia in Spain where has become a voiceless glottal fricative. Most of what is known about prehistoric Oaxaca comes from work in the Central Valleys region. Evidence of human habitation dating back to about 11,000 years BC has been found in the Guilá Naquitz cave near the town of Mitla; this area was recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2010 in recognition for the "earliest known evidence of domesticated plants in the continent, while corn cob fragments from the same cave are said to be the earliest documented evidence for the domestication of maize." More finds of nomadic peoples date back to about 5000 BC, with some evidence of the beginning of agriculture. By 2000 BC, agriculture had been established in the Central Valleys region of the state, with sedentary villages.
The diet developed around this time would remain until the Spanish Conquest, consisting of harvested corn, chocolate, chili peppers and gourds. Meat was hunted and included tepescuintle, deer, peccary and iguana; the oldest known major settlements, such as Yanhuitlán and Laguna Zope are located in this area as well. The latter settlement is known for its small figures called "pretty women" or "baby face." Between 1200 and 900 BC, pottery was being produced in the area as well. This pottery has been linked with similar work done in Guatemala. Other important settlements from the same time period include Tierras Largas, San José Mogote and Guadalupe, whose ceramics show Olmec influence; the major native language family, Oto-Manguean, is thought to have been spoken in northern Oaxaca around 4400 BC and to have evolved into nine distinct branches by 1500 BC. Historic events in Oaxaca as far back as the 12th century are described in pictographic codices painted by Zapotecs and Mixtecs in the beginning of the colonial period, but outside of the information that can be obtained through their study, little historical information from pre-colonial Oaxaca exist, our knowledge of this period relies on archaeological remains.
By 500 BC, the central valleys of Oaxaca were inhabited by the Zapotecs, with the Mixtecs on the western side. These two groups were in conflict throughout the pre-Hispanic period. Archeological evidence indicates that between 750 and 1521, there may have been population peaks of as high as 2.5 million. The Zapotecs were the earliest to gain dominance over the Central Valleys region; the first major dominion was centered in Monte Albán, which flourished from 500 BC until AD 750. At its height, Monte Albán was home to some 25,000 people and was the capital city of the Zapotec nation, it remained a secondary center of power for the Zapotecs until the Mixtecs overran it in 1325. The site contains a number of notable features including the Danzantes, a set of stone reliefs and the finding of fine quality ceramics. Starting from AD 750 previous large urban centers such as Monte Alban fell across the Oaxaca area and smaller dominions grew and evolved unti
Charles III of Spain
Charles III was King of Spain, after ruling Naples as Charles VII and Sicily as Charles V. He was the fifth son of Philip V of Spain, the eldest son of Philip's second wife, Elisabeth Farnese. A proponent of enlightened absolutism, he succeeded to the Spanish throne on 10 August 1759, upon the death of his half-brother Ferdinand VI, who left no heirs. In 1731, the 15-year-old Charles became the Duke of Parma and Piacenza, as Charles I, following the death of his childless granduncle Antonio Farnese. In 1738 he married Princess Maria Amalia of Saxony, daughter of Augustus III of Poland and an educated, cultured woman who gave birth to 13 children, eight of whom reached adulthood. Charles and Maria Amalia resided in Naples for 19 years; as King of Spain, Charles III made far-reaching reforms such as promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce, modernising agriculture. He tried to reduce the influence of the Church and avoided costly wars, his previous experience as King of Naples and Sicily proved valuable.
He did not achieve complete control over Spain's finances, was sometimes obliged to borrow to meet expenses, but most of his reforms proved to be successful and his legacy lives on to this day. Historian Stanley Payne wrote that Charles III "was the most successful European ruler of his generation, he had provided firm, intelligent leadership. He had chosen capable ministers.... Personal life had won the respect of the people." In 1713, the Treaty of Utrecht concluded the War of the Spanish Succession and reduced the political and military power of Spain, which the House of Bourbon had ruled since 1700. Under the terms of the treaty, the Spanish Empire retained its American territories, but ceded to Habsburg Austria the Southern Netherlands, the kingdoms of Naples and Sardinia, the Duchy of Milan, the State of Presidi. Moreover, the House of Savoy gained the Kingdom of Sicily, the Kingdom of Great Britain gained the island of Menorca and the fortress at Gibraltar. In 1700, Charles' father a French prince, became King of Spain as Philip V.
For the remainder of his reign, he continually attempted to regain the ceded territories. In 1714, after the death of the king's first wife, the Princess Maria Luisa Gabriella of Savoy, the Piacenzan Cardinal Giulio Alberoni arranged the marriage between Philip and the ambitious Elisabeth Farnese and stepdaughter of Francesco Farnese, Duke of Parma. Elisabeth and Philip married on 24 December 1714. On 20 January 1716, Elisabeth gave birth to the Infante Charles of Spain at the Real Alcázar of Madrid, he was fourth in line to the Spanish throne, after three elder half-brothers: the Infante Luis, Prince of Asturias, the Infante Felipe, Ferdinand. Because the Duke Francesco of Parma and his heir were childless, Elisabeth sought the duchies of Parma and Piacenza for Charles, she sought for him the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, because Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany was childless. He was a distant cousin of hers, related via her great-grandmother Margherita de' Medici, giving Charles a claim to the title through that lineage.
The birth of Charles encouraged the Prime Minister Alberoni to start laying out grand plans for Europe. In 1717 he ordered the Spanish invasion of Sardinia. In 1718, Alberoni ordered the invasion of Sicily, ruled by the House of Savoy. In the same year Charles' first sister, Infanta Mariana Victoria was born on 31 March. In reaction to the Quadruple Alliance of 1718, the Duke of Savoy joined the Alliance and went to war with Spain; this war led to the dismissal of Alberoni by Philip in 1719. The Treaty of The Hague of 1720 included the recognition of Charles as heir to the Italian Duchies of Parma and Piacenza. Charles' half-brother, Infante Philip Peter, died on 29 December 1719, putting Charles third in line to the throne after Louis and Ferdinand, he would retain his position behind these two until they died and he succeeded to the Spanish throne. His second full brother, Infante Philip of Spain, was born on 15 March 1720. Beginning in 1721, King Philip had been negotiating with the Duke of Orléans, the French regent, to arrange three Franco-Spanish marriages that could ease tense relations.
The young Louis XV of France would marry the three-year-old Infanta Mariana Victoria and thus she would become Queen of France. Charles himself would be engaged to Philippine Elisabeth, the fifth surviving daughter of the Duke of Orléans. In 1726 Charles met Philippine Élisabeth for the first time, they embraced affectionately and kissed one another, it appears to me that he does not displease her. Thus, since this evening they do not like to leave one another, she says a hundred pretty things. She has the mind of an angel, my son is only too happy to possess her... She has charged me to tell you that she loves you with all her heart, that she is quite content with her husband." And to the duchesse d'Orléans she writes: "I find her the most beautiful and most lovable child in the world. It is the most pleasing thing imaginable to se
A priest or priestess is a religious leader authorized to perform the sacred rituals of a religion as a mediatory agent between humans and one or more deities. They have the authority or power to administer religious rites, their office or position is the priesthood, a term which may apply to such persons collectively. According to the trifunctional hypothesis of prehistoric Proto-Indo-European society, priests have existed since the earliest of times and in the simplest societies, most as a result of agricultural surplus and consequent social stratification; the necessity to read sacred texts and keep temple or church records helped foster literacy in many early societies. Priests exist in many religions today, such as all or some branches of Judaism, Buddhism and Hinduism, they are regarded as having privileged contact with the deity or deities of the religion to which they subscribe interpreting the meaning of events and performing the rituals of the religion. There is no common definition of the duties of priesthood between faiths.
These include blessing worshipers with prayers of joy at marriages, after a birth, at consecrations, teaching the wisdom and dogma of the faith at any regular worship service, mediating and easing the experience of grief and death at funerals – maintaining a spiritual connection to the afterlife in faiths where such a concept exists. Administering religious building grounds and office affairs and papers, including any religious library or collection of sacred texts, is commonly a responsibility – for example, the modern term for clerical duties in a secular office refers to the duties of a cleric; the question of which religions have a "priest" depends on how the titles of leaders are used or translated into English. In some cases, leaders are more like those that other believers will turn to for advice on spiritual matters, less of a "person authorized to perform the sacred rituals." For example, clergy in Roman Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy are priests, but in Protestant Christianity they are minister and pastor.
The terms priest and priestess are sufficiently generic that they may be used in an anthropological sense to describe the religious mediators of an unknown or otherwise unspecified religion. In many religions, being a priest or priestess is a full-time position, ruling out any other career. Many Christian priests and pastors choose or are mandated to dedicate themselves to their churches and receive their living directly from their churches. In other cases it is a part-time role. For example, in the early history of Iceland the chieftains were titled goði, a word meaning "priest"; as seen in the saga of Hrafnkell Freysgoði, being a priest consisted of offering periodic sacrifices to the Norse gods and goddesses. In some religions, being a priest or priestess is by human election or human choice. In Judaism the priesthood is inherited in familial lines. In a theocracy, a society is governed by its priesthood; the word "priest", is derived from Greek via Latin presbyter, the term for "elder" elders of Jewish or Christian communities in late antiquity.
The Latin presbyter represents Greek πρεσβύτερος presbúteros, the regular Latin word for "priest" being sacerdos, corresponding to ἱερεύς hiereús. It is possible that the Latin word was loaned into Old English, only from Old English reached other Germanic languages via the Anglo-Saxon mission to the continent, giving Old Icelandic prestr, Old Swedish präster, Old High German priast. Old High German has the disyllabic priester, priestar derived from Latin independently via Old French presbtre. Αn alternative theory makes priest cognate with Old High German priast, from Vulgar Latin *prevost "one put over others", from Latin praepositus "person placed in charge". That English should have only the single term priest to translate presbyter and sacerdos came to be seen as a problem in English Bible translations; the presbyter is the minister who both presides and instructs a Christian congregation, while the sacerdos, offerer of sacrifices, or in a Christian context the eucharist, performs "mediatorial offices between God and man".
The feminine English noun, was coined in the 17th century, to refer to female priests of the pre-Christian religions of classical antiquity. In the 20th century, the word was used in controversies surrounding the women ordained in the Anglican communion, who are referred to as "priests", irrespective of gender, the term priestess is considered archaic in Christianity. In historical polytheism, a priest administers the sacrifice to a deity in elaborate ritual. In the Ancient Near East, the priesthood acted on behalf of the deities in managing their property. Priestesses in antiquity performed sacred prostitution, in Ancient Greece, some priestesses such as Pythia, priestess at Delphi, acted as oracles. Sumerian en were top-ranking priestesses who were distinguished with special ceremonial attire and held equal status to high priests, they owned property, transacted business, initiated the hieros gamos with priests and kings. Enheduanna was the first known holder of the title en. Nadītu served as priestesses in the temples of Inanna in the city of Uruk.
They were recruited from the highest families in the land and were supposed to remain childless, own
San Pedro y San Pablo College, Mexico City
The San Pedro y San Pablo College colonial church and school complex built in late 16th and early 17th centuries, located in the historical center of Mexico City district of Mexico City, Mexico. Today the church section of the complex houses the Museum of the Constitutions of Mexico−Museo de las Constituciones; the former school section of the complex stretches along San Ildefonso Street to Republica de Venezuela Street. San Pedro y San Pablo College was the second college founded by Jesuits in the Viceroyalty of New Spain; the Jesuit missionaries were sent to the new colony in the 16th century for Jesuit Reductions version of Indian Reductions, to found new missions and schools. The missionary group that founded the college was led by Father Pedro Sanchez. and the official founding occurred in 1574 with the name of Colegio Máximo de San Pedro y San Pablo. It was called "Máximo" because it was built to oversee the training of priests in Mexico City, Puebla, Zacatecas, Guatemala and Mérida. Construction of the facility began in 1576, funded by others.
The college's church, on the corner of El Carmen and San Ildefonso, was built by Jesuit architect Diego Lopez de Arbaizo between 1576 and 1603. The church annex was completed in 1603 by Diego Lopez de Albaize, the rest of the college complex was finished in 1645; the purpose of the college was to provide university-level education to young Criollo men, at least descended from white European colonial settlers. It was divided into the Lesser Schools, which taught humanities and Greek/Latin grammar, the Superior Schools, which focused on theology, the arts and philosophy; the institution educated young men for both religious and secular vocations. It reached its peak during the first half of the 18th century when it had about 800 students enrolled; the school building was given to civil authorities, who first used it as a barracks and to house the Nacional Monte de Piedad "credit union" charity foundation. The church was transferred to Augustinians; the altarpieces and other decorative objects were redistributed to other churches to the Metropolitan Tabernacle of the Mexico City Cathedral, where many of these pieces still remain.
During this time, the complex began to deteriorate. When the Jesuits received permission to return to colonial Mexico, fifty years in 1816, they found the complex nearly in ruins, they worked to rebuild both the church and the school, with much of the physical reconstruction done by Cristóbal Rodríguez. However, San Pedro y San Pablo College never returned to its function due to the concurrent Mexican War of Independence against Spain. Shortly after Mexican independence was first declared in 1821, several important events occurred in the church building. In 1823, after proclaiming the independence of Mexico, Agustín de Iturbide held meetings here which led to the promulgation of the "Reglamento Provisional del Imperio". In the following year, the initial sessions of the Constitutional Congress were held here, which wrote the first Federal Constitution of Mexico in 1824. After Iturbide's short reign as emperor, Guadalupe Victoria was sworn in as the first president of Mexico here; the church reopened for worship from 1832 to 1850, but closed to become the library of San Gregorio College.
During this time, the Virgin of Loreto image of Mexico City was here from 1832 to 1850 when it was thought that the Nuestra Señora de Loreto Church it belonged to might collapse. The space had quite a number of uses such as a dance hall, an army depot and barracks, a correctional school called Mamelucos, a mental hospital, a storage facility for Customs. From 1921 to 1927, the building was remodeled by José Vasconcelos and inaugurated as a "Hall of Discussion" with an office dedicated to a campaign against illiteracy. Vasconcelos had the church building redecorated, adding a number of important early modern mural works by artists such as Xavier Guerrero and Roberto Montenegro. From 1927 to 1930, the building was converted to workshops for the Academy of San Carlos, which had become integrated with the re-established National University; the Escuela Popular Nocturna de Música occupied part of the building. In this way, the complex became part of University property. In the early 1930s the university made it part of the National Preparatory School, shortly after that it was used as a secondary school, a School of Theater, an exhibition hall, other uses.
In 1944, the church part was inaugurated by President Ávila Camacho as the National Periodical Archive, which it remained until 1979. In 1996 the Museum of Light was established with a gallery in the building; the facade of the church section of the college was built in the Spanish Baroque and Neoclassical styles. It has a portal, flanked by two pairs of Doric pilasters, which extend up to frame a window, stained-glass in the design of the coat-of-arms of UNAM. Above the window is a triangular pediment; the portal is topped with a large curved pediment with a small crest bearing the coat-of-arms of Spain. The bell tower of the church is situated behind the main façade; the inside of the church is in the form of a cross, with thick interior buttresses that marked off space for the church's various chapels. These buttresses extend upwards to support a handkerchi