Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando
The Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando, located on the Calle de Alcalá in the heart of Madrid functions as a museum and gallery. The academy was established by royal decree in 1744. About twenty years the enlightened monarch Charles III purchased a palace in Madrid as the academy's new home; the building had been designed by José Benito de Churriguera for the Goyeneche family. The king commissioned Diego de Villanueva to convert the building for academic use, employing a neoclassical style in place of Churriguera's baroque design. Doubling as a museum and gallery, today it houses a fine art collection of paintings from the 15th to 20th centuries: Arcimboldo, Giovanni Bellini, Antonio Allegri da Correggio, Guido Reni, Zurbarán, Fragonard, Giuseppe Pirovani, Juan Gris, Pablo Serrano, Lorenzo Quiros, among others; the academy is the headquarters of the Madrid Academy of Art. The first graduate of the academy was Bárbara María Hueva. Francisco Goya was once one of the academy's directors, its alumni include Felip Pedrell, Pablo Picasso, Kiko Argüello, Salvador Dalí, Antonio López García, Juan Luna, Oscar de la Renta, Fernando Botero.
Enlightenment in Spain Media related to Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando at Wikimedia Commons Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando Android and iOS Official mobile app
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
John, Prince of Asturias
John, Prince of Asturias, was the only son of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon who survived to adulthood. John was born in Seville in 1478 to the sovereigns of Castile, Isabella I and Ferdinand V. At the time, his parents were involved in the War of Castilian Succession against Isabella's niece Joanna la Beltraneja, wife of King Afonso V of Portugal. John's birth helped consolidate Isabella's position as sovereign as she had given birth to a legitimate male heir. At the time of his birth, he had one elder sister Isabella, his parents won the war against the Queen of Portugal. To negotiate a peace settlement with Isabella, King Afonso sent Infanta Duchess of Viseu; the two women met in March 1479. Beatrice was Isabella's maternal aunt. By terms of the treaty they negotiated, the Queen of Portugal was given two options: she could either wed Prince John, waiting 13 or 14 years until the prince was old enough to be married or she could enter a convent. Isabella I was quite an attentive mother for such a busy queen.
John, being her only son, had a special place in her heart and she referred to him affectionately as ’my angel’ when he was being reprimanded by her, John's wetnurse was Maria de Guzman, a member of the powerful Spanish House of Mendoza. It was believed in the fifteenth century that a wetnurse could influence the character of the baby to whom she fed breast milk. Therefore, a healthy woman, with a placid disposition was ideal. John's paternal grandfather, King John II of Aragon, took close interest in the infant prince, he suggested that Prince John be educated in Aragon as opposed to Castile, which Isabella most rejected at once. In 1492, Columbus named the newly discovered island of Cuba as Isla Juana in deference to Prince John, at that time the heir apparent. Isabella and Ferdinand, together with their cousin, Duke Francis II of Brittany, planned the alliance of their respective heirs and Anne, but the plan came to nothing due to John's frail constitution. Isabella and Ferdinand came to plan a double alliance with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, for the marriage of his children, Archduke Philip the Handsome and Archduchess Margaret of Austria.
Around the same time, King Charles VIII of France invaded Italy and marched to take Naples which belonged to a branch of the House of Trastamara. Ferdinand II therefore was against the French. With both powers angered at France, marriage was the way to seal the alliance between the two. On 20 January 1495 in Antwerp, a preliminary alliance, which included a wedding of Prince John with Maximilian’s daughter was agreed. Maximilian's son Philip and John's sister Joanna were to be married; as heir to the throne Isabella and Ferdinand paid special attention to John's education. His original tutor was the Dominican Fray Diego Deza who taught Theology at the University of Salamanca. Deza was later remembered as the Grand Inquisitor of Spain, he taught the young Prince in Theology as he was not a renaissance humanist. In the late 1480s, Isabella would ask the Italian humanist Peter Martyr d'Anghiera to come and broaden the Prince's education. Isabella worried that John would grow up pampered and wilful if he lacked peers and companions of his own age.
Therefore, she invited the sons of aristocrats to live at court. She invited a older group of young aristocrats so that her son would see older young men and that he would aspire to be more like them. Among these youths were young men who would become famous in their own right, Nicolás de Ovando y Cáceres, the future governor of the Indies, Gonzalo Fernández de Oviedo y Valdés the future historian of the Indies. John's education insisted that he and his companions learned to ride and joust, to hawk and hunt, to play chess and cards, to sing and recite poetry. John was naturally gifted in music and was able to play the flute and the Clavichord with ease and great skill, he developed a fine tenor voice and sang with his siblings and companions at court. Infanta Joanna left Spain to marry Philip the Handsome in late 1496. Philip's sister, Margaret of Austria, aged 18, married John on April 3 the following year in Burgos Cathedral, it was a good marriage and John was devoted to Margaret. All of Isabella’s children had a passionate nature, although it was a political alliance, it was a deep love match.
The amount of time they spent in bed made the court physicians uneasy about the Prince's health. The lust he felt for his wife bothered him; the Princess of Asturias was easy to love, she had a sharp sense of humor. Her first betrothal to Charles VIII ended, her engagement to the Prince of Asturias seemed doomed when the ship carrying her to Spain hit a storm in the Bay of Biscay. In haste, she wrote her own epitaph. "Here lies Margot, the willing bride,Twice married - but a virgin when she died." On 4 October 1497, a messenger came to John's parents and informed them that their son lay dangerously ill in Salamanca. He and his wife Margaret had arrived a week earlier, on the way to the wedding of his older sister in Portugal. At once Ferdinand rushed to his son's bedside while Isabella remained behind fretting over the life of her only son. Ferdinand was
Classicism, in the arts, refers to a high regard for a classical period, classical antiquity in the Western tradition, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint and compression we are objecting to the classicism of classic art. A violent emphasis or a sudden acceleration of rhythmic movement would have destroyed those qualities of balance and completeness through which it retained until the present century its position of authority in the restricted repertoire of visual images." Classicism, as Clark noted, implies a canon of accepted ideal forms, whether in the Western canon that he was examining in The Nude, or the literary Chinese classics or Chinese art, where the revival of classic styles is a recurring feature. Classicism is a force, present in post-medieval European and European influenced traditions. Classicism is a specific genre of philosophy, expressing itself in literature, architecture and music, which has Ancient Greek and Roman sources and an emphasis on society.
It was expressed in the Neoclassicism of the Age of Enlightenment. Classicism is a recurrent tendency in the Late Antique period, had a major revival in Carolingian and Ottonian art. There was another, more durable revival in the Italian renaissance when the fall of Byzantium and rising trade with the Islamic cultures brought a flood of knowledge about, from, the antiquity of Europe; until that time, the identification with antiquity had been seen as a continuous history of Christendom from the conversion of Roman Emperor Constantine I. Renaissance classicism introduced a host of elements into European culture, including the application of mathematics and empiricism into art, humanism and depictive realism, formalism, it introduced Polytheism, or "paganism", the juxtaposition of ancient and modern. The classicism of the Renaissance led to, gave way to, a different sense of what was "classical" in the 16th and 17th centuries. In this period, classicism took on more overtly structural overtones of orderliness, the use of geometry and grids, the importance of rigorous discipline and pedagogy, as well as the formation of schools of art and music.
The court of Louis XIV was seen as the center of this form of classicism, with its references to the gods of Olympus as a symbolic prop for absolutism, its adherence to axiomatic and deductive reasoning, its love of order and predictability. This period sought the revival of classical art forms, including Greek music. Opera, in its modern European form, had its roots in attempts to recreate the combination of singing and dancing with theatre thought to be the Greek norm. Examples of this appeal to classicism included Dante and Shakespeare in poetry and theatre. Tudor drama, in particular, modeled itself after classical ideals and divided works into Tragedy and Comedy. Studying Ancient Greek became regarded as essential for a well-rounded education in the liberal arts; the Renaissance explicitly returned to architectural models and techniques associated with Greek and Roman antiquity, including the golden rectangle as a key proportion for buildings, the classical orders of columns, as well as a host of ornament and detail associated with Greek and Roman architecture.
They began reviving plastic arts such as bronze casting for sculpture, used the classical naturalism as the foundation of drawing and sculpture. The Age of Enlightenment identified itself with a vision of antiquity which, while continuous with the classicism of the previous century, was shaken by the physics of Sir Isaac Newton, the improvements in machinery and measurement, a sense of liberation which they saw as being present in the Greek civilization in its struggles against the Persian Empire; the ornate and complexly integrated forms of the baroque were to give way to a series of movements that regarded themselves expressly as "classical" or "neo-classical", or would be labelled as such. For example, the painting of Jacques-Louis David was seen as an attempt to return to formal balance, clarity and vigor in art; the 19th century saw the classical age as being the precursor of academicism, including such movements as uniformitarianism in the sciences, the creation of rigorous categories in artistic fields.
Various movements of the romantic period saw themselves as classical revolts against a prevailing trend of emotionalism and irregularity, for example the Pre-Raphaelites. By this point, classicism was old enough; the 19th century continued or extended many classical programs in the sciences, most notably the Newtonian program to account for the movement of energy between bodies by means of exchange of mechanical and thermal energy. The 20th century saw a number of changes in the sciences. Classicism was used both by those who rejected, or saw as temporary, transfigurations in the political and social world and by those who embraced the changes as a means to overthrow the perceived weight of the 19th century. Thus, both pre-20th century disciplines were labelled "classical" and modern movements in art which saw themselves as aligned with light, sparseness of texture, formal coherence. In the present day philosophy classicism is use
Maria Christina of Austria
Maria Christina Henriette Desideria Felicitas Raineria of Austria known as Maria Christina Henrietta Désirée Félicité Rénière was Queen of Spain as the second wife of King Alfonso XII. She was regent during the vacancy of the throne between her husband's death and her son's birth, during the minority of their son, Alfonso XIII, between 1885 and 1902. Known to her family as Christa, she was born at Židlochovice Castle, near Brünn, in Moravia, a daughter of Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, Archduchess Elisabeth Franziska of Austria, her paternal grandparents were Archduke Charles of Austria and Princess Henriette Alexandrine of Nassau-Weilburg. Various sources attributed good traits to Maria Christina before her marriage. One states she was "tall, fair and well educated", she was Princess-Abbess of the Theresian Imperial Ladies Chapter of the Castle of Prague. Maria Christina married King Alfonso XII of Spain on 29 November 1879 at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, became the mother of his only three legitimate children: Infanta María de las Mercedes of Spain.
She lived a discreet life as queen. She was the first Germanic queen consort in half-a-century since Maria Josepha Amalia of Saxony, the third wife of Ferdinand VII and the last one to date; when the King died, Maria Christina was pregnant, so the throne was vacant, depending on whether Maria Christina's unborn child was a male or a female. During this period, Maria Christina ruled as regent until her child, a son, was born, Alfonso XIII of Spain from birth. Maria Christina continued as regent until Alfonso XIII attained his majority in 1902, her chief adviser and head of government was Práxedes Mateo Sagasta. Her rule is described as well-balanced and in accordance with respect for constitutional rights, many political reforms were instated during her regency to prevent political conflicts and chaos, her role was ceremonial, her purpose was to preserve the crown for her son until he became an adult. After her son's marriage in 1906, she lost her position as first lady at court. Alfonso XIII continued to look to her on many occasions for advice.
She was the 805th Dame of the Royal Order of Queen Maria Luisa. In February 1929, after some weeks of heart disease, she died at the Royal Palace in Madrid and is buried at El Escorial. Sir Charles Petrie, Alfonso XIII's biographer, maintained that the Queen dowager's death had a disastrous effect on her son, that the latter never recovered politically from the blow. Within little more than two years the monarchy had collapsed. ===References=== Campos y Fernández de Sevilla, Francisco-Javier. María Cristina de Habsburgo y la Regencia, 1885–1902. San Lorenzo de El Escorial: Estudios Superiores del Escorial, Real Colegio Universitario "María Cristina", 1994. Cancio R. Capote, Rita Maria; the Function of Maria Christina of Austria's Regency, 1885–1902, in Preserving the Spanish Monarchy. México: Ediciones Botas, 1957. Figueroa y Torres, Alvaro de, Conde de Romanones. Doña María Cristina de Habsburgo Lorena, la discreta regente de España. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe, 1934. Martín Alonso, Aurelio. Diez y seis años de regencia, María Cristina de Hapsburgo-Lorena, 1885–1902.
Barcelona: L. Tasso, 1914. Thoma, Helga. Habsburgs letzte Herrscherin: Maria Christine, Erzherzogin von Österreich, Königin-Regentin von Spanien. Wien-Klosterneuburg: Edition Va Bene, 2003. Wormeley Latimer, Elizabeth. Spain in the Nineteenth Century. Chicago: A. C. McClurg & Co. Newspaper clippings about Maria Christina of Austria in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
Landscape painting known as landscape art, is the depiction of landscapes in art – natural scenery such as mountains, trees and forests where the main subject is a wide view – with its elements arranged into a coherent composition. In other works, landscape backgrounds for figures can still form an important part of the work. Sky is always included in the view, weather is an element of the composition. Detailed landscapes as a distinct subject are not found in all artistic traditions, develop when there is a sophisticated tradition of representing other subjects; the two main traditions spring from Western painting and Chinese art, going back well over a thousand years in both cases. The recognition of a spiritual element in landscape art is present from its beginnings in East Asian art, drawing on Daoism and other philosophical traditions, but in the West only becomes explicit with Romanticism. Landscape views in art may be imaginary, or copied from reality with varying degrees of accuracy.
If the primary purpose of a picture is to depict an actual, specific place including buildings prominently, it is called a topographical view. Such views common as prints in the West, are seen as inferior to fine art landscapes, although the distinction is not always meaningful; the word "landscape" entered the modern English language as landskip, an anglicization of the Dutch landschap, around the start of the 17th century, purely as a term for works of art, with its first use as a word for a painting in 1598. Within a few decades it was used to describe vistas in poetry, as a term for real views; however the cognate term landscaef or landskipe for a cleared patch of land had existed in Old English, though it is not recorded from Middle English. The earliest forms of art around the world depict little that could be called landscape, although ground-lines and sometimes indications of mountains, trees or other natural features are included; the earliest "pure landscapes" with no human figures are frescos from Minoan Greece of around 1500 BCE.
Hunting scenes those set in the enclosed vista of the reed beds of the Nile Delta from Ancient Egypt, can give a strong sense of place, but the emphasis is on individual plant forms and human and animal figures rather than the overall landscape setting. The frescos from the Tomb of Nebamun, now in the British Museum, are a famous example. For a coherent depiction of a whole landscape, some rough system of perspective, or scaling for distance, is needed, this seems from literary evidence to have first been developed in Ancient Greece in the Hellenistic period, although no large-scale examples survive. More ancient Roman landscapes survive, from the 1st century BCE onwards frescos of landscapes decorating rooms that have been preserved at archaeological sites of Pompeii and elsewhere, mosaics; the Chinese ink painting tradition of shan shui, or "pure" landscape, in which the only sign of human life is a sage, or a glimpse of his hut, uses sophisticated landscape backgrounds to figure subjects, landscape art of this period retains a classic and much-imitated status within the Chinese tradition.
Both the Roman and Chinese traditions show grand panoramas of imaginary landscapes backed with a range of spectacular mountains – in China with waterfalls and in Rome including sea, lakes or rivers. These were used, as in the example illustrated, to bridge the gap between a foreground scene with figures and a distant panoramic vista, a persistent problem for landscape artists; the Chinese style showed only a distant view, or used dead ground or mist to avoid that difficulty. A major contrast between landscape painting in the West and East Asia has been that while in the West until the 19th century it occupied a low position in the accepted hierarchy of genres, in East Asia the classic Chinese mountain-water ink painting was traditionally the most prestigious form of visual art. Aesthetic theories in both regions gave the highest status to the works seen to require the most imagination from the artist. In the West this was history painting, but in East Asia it was the imaginary landscape, where famous practitioners were, at least in theory, amateur literati, including several Emperors of both China and Japan.
They were also poets whose lines and images illustrated each other. In the 1830s the British inventor William Talbot creates the process of calotype and in 1844 he publishes the first book with photo illustrations: "The Pencil of Nature"Talbot, W. H. F.. The Pencil of Nature: in 6 parts. However, in the West, history painting came to require an extensive landscape background where appropriate, so the theory did not work against the development of landscape painting – for several centuries landscapes were promoted to the status of history painting by the addition of small figures to make a narrative scene religious or mythological. In early Western medieval art interest in landscape disappears entirely, kept alive only in copies of Late Antique works such as the Utrecht Psalter. A revival in interest in nature mainly manifested itself in depictions of small gardens such as the Hortus Conclusus or those in millefleur tapestries; the frescos of figures at work or pl