São Paulo is a municipality in the Southeast Region of Brazil. The metropolis is an alpha global city and the most populous city in Brazil, the Western Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere, besides being the largest Portuguese-speaking city in the world; the municipality is the Earth's 11th largest city proper by population. The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil, it exerts strong international influences in commerce, finance and entertainment. The name of the city honors Saint Paul of Tarsus; the city's metropolitan area, the Greater São Paulo, ranks as the most populous in Brazil and the 12th most populous on Earth. The process of conurbation between the metropolitan areas located around the Greater São Paulo created the São Paulo Macrometropolis, a megalopolis with more than 30 million inhabitants, one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. Having the largest economy by GDP in Latin America and the Southern Hemisphere, the city is home to the São Paulo Stock Exchange.
Paulista Avenue is the economic core of São Paulo. The city has the 11th largest GDP in the world, representing alone 10.7% of all Brazilian GDP and 36% of the production of goods and services in the state of São Paulo, being home to 63% of established multinationals in Brazil, has been responsible for 28% of the national scientific production in 2005. With a GDP of US$477 billion, the São Paulo city alone would have ranked 26th globally compared with countries by 2017 estimates; the metropolis is home to several of the tallest skyscrapers in Brazil, including the Mirante do Vale, Edifício Itália, North Tower and many others. The city has cultural and political influence both nationally and internationally, it is home to monuments and museums such as the Latin American Memorial, the Ibirapuera Park, Museum of Ipiranga, São Paulo Museum of Art, the Museum of the Portuguese Language. The city holds events like the São Paulo Jazz Festival, São Paulo Art Biennial, the Brazilian Grand Prix, São Paulo Fashion Week, the ATP Brasil Open, the Brasil Game Show and the Comic Con Experience.
The São Paulo Gay Pride Parade rivals the New York City Pride March as the largest gay pride parade in the world. São Paulo is a cosmopolitan, melting pot city, home to the largest Arab and Japanese diasporas, with examples including ethnic neighborhoods of Mercado and Liberdade respectively. São Paulo is home to the largest Jewish population in Brazil, with about 75,000 Jews. In 2016, inhabitants of the city were native to over 200 different countries. People from the city are known as paulistanos, while paulistas designates anyone from the state, including the paulistanos; the city's Latin motto, which it has shared with the battleship and the aircraft carrier named after it, is Non ducor, which translates as "I am not led, I lead." The city, colloquially known as Sampa or Terra da Garoa, is known for its unreliable weather, the size of its helicopter fleet, its architecture, severe traffic congestion and skyscrapers. São Paulo was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup. Additionally, the city hosted the IV Pan American Games and the São Paulo Indy 300.
The region of modern-day São Paulo known as Piratininga plains around the Tietê River, was inhabited by the Tupi people, such as the Tupiniquim and Guarani. Other tribes lived in areas that today form the metropolitan region; the region was divided in Caciquedoms at the time of encounter with the Europeans. The most notable Cacique was Tibiriça, known for his support for the Portuguese and other European colonists. Among the many indigenous names that survive today are Tietê, Tamanduateí, Anhangabaú, Diadema, Itapevi, Embu-Guaçu etc... The Portuguese village of São Paulo dos Campos de Piratininga was marked by the founding of the Colégio de São Paulo de Piratininga on January 25, 1554; the Jesuit college of twelve priests included Spanish priest José de Anchieta. They built a mission on top of a steep hill between the Tamanduateí rivers, they first had a small structure built of rammed earth, made by American Indian workers in their traditional style. The priests wanted to evangelize – teach the Indians who lived in the Plateau region of Piratininga and convert them to Christianity.
The site was separated from the coast by the Serra do Mar, called by the Indians Serra Paranapiacaba. The college was named for a Christian saint and its founding on the feast day of the celebration of the conversion of the Apostle Paul of Tarsus. Father José de Anchieta wrote this account in a letter to the Society of Jesus: The settlement of the region's Courtyard of the College began in 1560. During the visit of Mem de Sá, Governor-General of Brazil, the Captaincy of São Vicente, he ordered the transfer of the population of the Village of Santo André da Borda do Campo to the vicinity of the college, it was named "College of St. Paul Piratininga"; the new location was on a steep hill adjacent to a large wetland, the lowland do Carmo. It offered better protection from attacks by local Indian groups, it was renamed belonging to the Captaincy of São Vicente. For the next two centuries, São Paulo developed as a poor and isolated village that survived through the cultivation of subsistence crops by the labor of natives.
For a long time, São Paulo was the only village in Brazil's interior, as travel was too difficult for many to reach the area. Mem de Sá forbade colonists to use the "Path Pir
Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britain's national gallery of international modern art and forms part of the Tate group, it is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1900 to the present day and international modern and contemporary art. Tate Modern is one of the largest museums of contemporary art in the world; as with the UK's other national galleries and museums, there is no admission charge for access to the collection displays, which take up the majority of the gallery space, while tickets must be purchased for the major temporary exhibitions. The gallery is London’s most-visited attraction pulling in 5.8 million visitors in 2018. Tate Modern is housed in the former Bankside Power Station, designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect of Battersea Power Station, built in two stages between 1947 and 1963, it is directly across the river from St Paul's Cathedral.
The power station closed in 1981. Prior to redevelopment, the power station was a 200 m long, steel framed, brick clad building with a substantial central chimney standing 99 m; the structure was divided into three main areas each running east-west – the huge main Turbine Hall in the centre, with the boiler house to the north and the switch house to the south. For many years after closure Bankside Power station was at risk of being demolished by developers. Many people campaigned for the building to be saved and put forward suggestions for possible new uses. An application to list the building was refused. In April 1994 the Tate Gallery announced. In July of the same year, an international competition was launched to select an architect for the new gallery. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Herzog & de Meuron were announced as the winning architects in January 1995; the £134 million conversion to the Tate Modern started in June 1995 and completed in January 2000. The most obvious external change was the two-story glass extension on one half of the roof.
Much of the original internal structure remained, including the cavernous main turbine hall, which retained the overhead travelling crane. An electrical substation, taking up the Switch House in the southern third of the building, remained on-site and owned by the French power company EDF Energy while Tate took over the northern Boiler House for Tate Modern's main exhibition spaces; the history of the site as well as information about the conversion was the basis for a 2008 documentary Architects Herzog and de Meuron: Alchemy of Building & Tate Modern. This challenging conversion work was carried by Carillion. Tate Modern was opened by the Queen on 11 May 2000. Tate Modern received 5.25 million visitors in its first year. The previous year the three existing Tate galleries had received 2.5 million visitors combined. Tate Modern had attracted more visitors than expected and plans to expand it had been in preparation since 2004; these plans focused on the south west of the building with the intention of providing 5,000m2 of new display space doubling the amount of display space.
The southern third of the building was retained by the French power company EDF Energy as an electrical substation. In 2006, the company released the western half of this holding and plans were made to replace the structure with a tower extension to the museum planned to be completed in 2015; the tower was to be built over the old oil storage tanks, which would be converted to a performance art space. Structural, civil, façade engineering and environmental consultancy was undertaken by Ramboll between 2008 and 2016; this project was costed at £215 million. Of the money raised, £50 million came from the UK government. In June 2013, international shipping and property magnate Eyal Ofer pledged £10m to the extension project, making it to 85% of the required funds. Eyal Ofer, chairman of London-based Zodiac Maritime Agencies, said the donation made through his family foundation would enable "an iconic institution to enhance the experience and accessibility of contemporary art"; the Tate director, Nicholas Serota, praised the donation saying it would help to make Tate Modern a "truly twenty-first-century museum".
The first phase of the expansion involved the conversion of three large, underground oil tanks used by the power station into accessible display spaces and facilities areas. These opened on 18 July 2012 and closed on 28 October 2012 as work on the tower building continued directly above, they reopened following the completion of the Switch House extension on 17 June 2016. Two of the Tanks are used to show live performance art and installations while the third provides utility space. Tate describes them as "the world's first museum galleries permanently dedicated to live art". A ten-storey tower, 65 metres high from ground level, was built above the oil tanks; the original western half of the Switch House was demolished to make room for the tower and rebuilt around it with large gallery spaces and access routes between the main building and the new tower on level 1 and level 4. The new galleries on level 4 have natural top lighting. A bridge built across the turbine hall on level 4 to provides an upper access route.
The new building opened to the public on 17 June 2016. The design, again by Herzog & de Meuron, has been controversial, it was designed with a glass stepped pyra
OSGEMEOS, born 1974 in São Paulo, are graffiti and street artists who are identical twin brothers Otavio Pandolfo and Gustavo Pandolfo. OSGEMEOS started painting graffiti in 1987 and became a main influence in the local scene, helping to define Brazil's style, their work features yellow-skinned characters - taken from the yellow tinge both of the twins have in their dreams - but is otherwise diverse and ranges from tags to complicated murals. Subjects range from family portraits to commentary on São Paulo's social and political circumstances, as well as Brazilian folklore, their graffiti style was influenced by the Brazilian culture. From their beginnings in Brazil to today, OSGEMEOS has reached international acclaim and commercial success, their work appears in galleries across the world. The duo are considered two of the most influential street artists within the genre. Hip hop culture reached Brazil in the late 1980s and appealed to the country's teenagers at the time; the twins started out as breakdancers and got involved with the graffiti aspect on.
Their first graffiti emulated early New York City hip hop pieces. It was some years before they began to put Brazilian cultural elements and influences into their graffiti, their first significant artistic influence outside their immediate environment, their limited access to American hip hop, stemmed from a chance encounter with Barry McGee, in Brazil for several months on a study abroad program through the San Francisco Art Institute in 1993. Technique and experience were shared, McGee provided photographs of American graffiti. Through McGee, OSGEMEOS met Allen Benedikt, who together with Caleb Neelon was the first to interview them after a trip to Brazil in 1997, which became OSGEMEOS' introduction to audiences outside of South America. There have been many works by OSGEMEOS made in Brazil; because subway systems and trains are an object of pride in Brazilian cities, therefore well guarded, they were not painted as as other places. But as of the early 2000s a couple of graffiti artists, OSGEMEOS included, were invited to paint trains legally.
This raised OSGEMEOS' profile, helping them transition to large-scale public commissioned work, such as murals. In 2009, they painted a mural in Vale de Anhangabau, São Paulo, commissioned by the SESC Brazil. Titled "The Foreigner," the piece was scheduled to be shown for thirty days, but public approval allowed it to remain until the demolition of the building in 2012. For the 2014 FIFA World Cup in Brazil, the duo were commissioned to decorate the national soccer team's official Boeing 737 aeroplane; the project used over 1,200 cans of spray paint to depict the diversity of Brazilian culture. Compared to Europe, North America, Southern America, Asia has the least number of works by OSGEMEOS to date. In 2008, OSGEMEOS painted several works in Mumbai, many of were still visible in 2016. More OSGEMEOS exhibitied at Art Basel in Hong Kong through the Lehmann Maupin gallery, based in Hong Kong and New York City. OSGEMEOS painted a 16 meter by 10 meter mural in the centre of Heerlen, the Netherlands.
This painting determines part of cultural festival Cultura Nova. It was the inspiration source of the large opening act where the head character came to life in association with the French group La Plasticiens Volant; the show "L'Etranger" was one-off seen on Cultura Nova. The wall painting continues to be preserved and is shown on the Schelmenhofje in Heerlen, the Netherlands. In 2008 OSGEMEOS painted six large-scale murals on the Tate Modern in London. Only a temporary piece, the murals were removed after the exhibition period of three months. Lisbon, Portugal features many works by OSGEMEOS. In 2010 and 2011, OSGEMEOS painted two large-scale murals on the sides of buildings; the project was planned by a public private commission and is considered representative of the Portuguese-Brazilian cultural relationship. Other cities in Europe which feature the work of OSGEMEOS include Lithuania, their first solo exhibition in the United States was at The Luggage Store in San Francisco, California in 2003.
As part of the Dreamland Artist Club 2005 project, they painted a 130-foot mural in Coney Island on Stillwell Ave. In 2009, OSGEMEOS painted their first mural in Manhattan on the northwest corner of Houston Street and the Bowery; the piece is notable for its colorful and imaginative composition, being compared to a work of magical realism. One of their works is a wall in Florida painted for Art Basel Miami Beach. Other cities include Los Angeles. In 2012, OSGEMEOS painted a 70-foot by 70-foot public mural in Dewey Square in Boston, which received public backlash; the piece, created in collaboration with the ICA and Rose F. Kennedy Greenway Conservancy, depicted a young, yellow figure with its face wrapped in a red shirt. On a segment for Fox 25 News, commentators linked the image to racially charged, post-9/11 fears of terrorism. Meanwhile, critical source considered it to be an successful public artwork; as the original commission was only temporary, the work was removed on schedule in 2013. Outside of the United States, in 2014, OSGEMEOS created their largest piece to date, titled "Giants," for the Vancouver Biennale in Vancouver, Canada on six industrial silos.
Large and expensive
Gilberto Kassab is a Brazilian politician, former mayor of São Paulo. His term ended in 2013. A civil engineer and economist, one of the most famous Brazilians of Syrian descent, Kassab took over from José Serra, after Serra decided to run for governor of São Paulo, he belongs to the Syrian community of São Paulo, is a member of the Partido Social Democrático. He is mentioned in 2017 among the beneficiaries of bribes from the multinational JBS. 1993–1994: Alderman of São Paulo 1995–1999: State Deputy of São Paulo 1999–2004: Federal Deputy 2005–2006: Vice Mayor of São Paulo 2006–2013: Mayor of São Paulo The advertising industry criticized the city of São Paulo administration for the Cidade Limpa law, which prohibits all forms of external media and visual pollution such as billboards. Ad companies tried to keep the billboards in the streets with injunctions, but the supreme court determined the law to be constitutional. At any rate, support for the initiative from the public continues to be widespread.
Mayor Kassab appeared at length in the Morgan Spurlock 2011 documentary The Greatest Movie Ever Sold talking about the decision of the City Council to ban advertising in the city. Official page BBC News article about Cidade Limpa Folha de S. Paulo first page with a before-after picture CityMayors profile
Graffiti is writing or drawings made on a wall or other surface without permission and within public view. Graffiti ranges from simple written words to elaborate wall paintings, it has existed since ancient times, with examples dating back to ancient Egypt, ancient Greece, the Roman Empire. In modern times and marker pens have become the most used graffiti materials. In most countries, marking or painting property without the property owner's permission is considered defacement and vandalism, a punishable crime. Unrelated to hip-hop graffiti, gangs use their own form of graffiti to mark territory or to serve as an indicator of gang-related activities. Controversies that surround graffiti continue to create disagreement amongst city officials, law enforcement, writers who wish to display and appreciate work in public locations. There are many different styles of graffiti. Both "graffiti" and its occasional singular form "graffito" are from the Italian word graffiato. "Graffiti" is applied in art history to works of art produced by scratching a design into a surface.
A related term is "sgraffito", which involves scratching through one layer of pigment to reveal another beneath it. This technique was used by potters who would glaze their wares and scratch a design into it. In ancient times graffiti were carved on walls with a sharp object, although sometimes chalk or coal were used; the word originates from Greek γράφειν—graphein—meaning "to write". The term graffiti referred to the inscriptions, figure drawings, such, found on the walls of ancient sepulchres or ruins, as in the Catacombs of Rome or at Pompeii. Use of the word has evolved to include any graphics applied to surfaces in a manner that constitutes vandalism; the only known source of the Safaitic language, a form of proto-Arabic, is from graffiti: inscriptions scratched on to the surface of rocks and boulders in the predominantly basalt desert of southern Syria, eastern Jordan and northern Saudi Arabia. Safaitic dates from the first century BC to the fourth century AD; the first known example of "modern style" graffiti survives in the ancient Greek city of Ephesus.
Local guides say. Located near a mosaic and stone walkway, the graffiti shows a handprint that vaguely resembles a heart, along with a footprint, a number, a carved image of a woman's head; the ancient Romans carved graffiti on walls and monuments, examples of which survive in Egypt. Graffiti in the classical world had different connotations than they carry in today's society concerning content. Ancient graffiti displayed phrases of love declarations, political rhetoric, simple words of thought, compared to today's popular messages of social and political ideals The eruption of Vesuvius preserved graffiti in Pompeii, which includes Latin curses, magic spells, declarations of love, political slogans, famous literary quotes, providing insight into ancient Roman street life. One inscription gives the address of a woman named Novellia Primigenia of Nuceria, a prostitute of great beauty, whose services were much in demand. Another shows a phallus accompanied by mansueta tene. Disappointed love found its way onto walls in antiquity: Ancient tourists visiting the 5th-century citadel at Sigiriya in Sri Lanka scribbled over 1800 individual graffiti there between the 6th and 18th centuries.
Etched on the surface of the Mirror Wall, they contain pieces of prose and commentary. The majority of these visitors appear to have been from the elite of society: royalty, officials and clergy. There were soldiers and some metalworkers; the topics range from love to satire, curses and lament. Many demonstrate a high level of literacy and a deep appreciation of art and poetry. Most of the graffiti refer to the frescoes of semi-nude females found there. One reads: Among the ancient political graffiti examples were Arab satirist poems. Yazid al-Himyari, an Umayyad Arab and Persian poet, was most known for writing his political poetry on the walls between Sajistan and Basra, manifesting a strong hatred towards the Umayyad regime and its walis, people used to read and circulate them widely. Historic forms of graffiti have helped gain understanding into the lifestyles and languages of past cultures. Errors in spelling and grammar in these graffiti offer insight into the degree of literacy in Roman times and provide clues on the pronunciation of spoken Latin.
Examples are 7838: Vettium Firmum / aed quactiliar rog. Here, "qu" is pronounced "co"; the 83 pieces of graffiti found at CIL IV, 4706-85 are evidence of the ability to read and write at levels of society where literacy might not be expected. The graffiti appear on a peristyle, being remodeled at the time of the eruption of Vesuvius by the architect Crescens; the graffiti were left by his workers. The brothel at CIL VII, 12, 18–20 contains more than 120 pieces of graffiti, some of which were the work of the prostitutes and their clients; the gladiatorial academy at CIL IV, 4397 was scrawled with graffiti left by the gladiator Celadus Crescens Another piece from Pompeii, written on a tavern wall about the owner of the establishment and his questionable wine: It was not only the Greeks and Romans who produced graffiti: the Maya s
Nina Pandolfo is a Brazilian street artist. Nina Pandolfo was born in 1977 in Sao Paulo, she started drawing and painting at the age of 3. At the age of 12, Nina Pandolfo started tagging public walls, she became part of the group whose graffiti art featured in galleries and museums. Using plastic and resin, Pandolfo makes use of a wide variety of materials, her work includes themes that draw from nature. She paints female subjects with childish features in mysterious environments, her characters evolve into more sophisticated forms with deeper more contemplative gazes. One of Pandolfo's projects includes her partner work with Brazilian artists Os Gêmeos twins and Francisco Rodrigues da Silva. In 2007, the four painted the facade and curtain of an 800 year old Kelburn Castle in Fairlie, North Ayrshire, in Scotland; the work is now a permanent feature of this historic building. Pandolfo's most recent work, "Little Things for Life" is an exhibition and a gigantic mural featured on the Rivington Street Wall located in the lower east side in New York City.
Her debut solo exhibition was held across the street at Rivington Street Gallery, Coburn Projects lower east side space. This new body of work is inspired by her perception of small details in everyday life. 2007: Beyond Street Art, Düsseldorf, Germany 2007: Wholetrain Project, Nordeste Tour: Recife, Natal and João Pessoa, Brazil 2008: Aos Nossos Olhos, Galeria Leme, São Paulo, Brazil 2008: Between Us, Gallery Maskara, India 2009: Queenz Arrive, McCaig-Welles Gallery, Brooklyn, NY 2009: Graffiti Gone Global, SushiSamba, Miami, FL 2009: The Wynwood Walls, Deitch Projects x Goldman Properties, Miami, FL 2010: Life’s Flavor, Carmichael Gallery, Los Angeles, CA 2012: Spice Angels, London 2015: Little things for life, Coburn Projects, New York City 2016: Beyond Meninas, London