An Abbasid–Carolingian alliance was attempted and formed during the 8th to 9th century through a series of embassies and combined military operations between the Frankish Carolingian Empire and the Abbasid Caliphate and pro-Abbasid rulers in Al Andalus. These contacts followed the intense conflict between the Carolingians and the Umayyads of Al Andalus, marked by the Battle of Tours in 732, were aimed at establishing a counter-alliance with the'faraway' Abbasid Empire based in the Near East. Another Carolingian-Abbasid alliance was attempted in a conflict against the Eastern Roman Empire; the Umayyad invasion of Gaul from 719 to 759 was a period of intense conflict between the Carolingians and the Umayyads, marked by the Battle of Tours in 732. Umayyad forces were expelled from Gaul with the conquest of Narbonne in 759 by Pepin the Short, but the Umayyad presence in the Iberian peninsula continued to represent a challenge to the Carolingians. Contacts between the Carolingians and the Abbasids started soon after the establishment of the Abbasid Caliphate and the concommital fall of the Umayyad Caliphate in 751.
The Carolingian ruler Pepin the Short had a powerful enough position in Europe to "make his alliance valuable to the Abbasid caliph of Baghdad, al-Mansur". Former supporters of the Umayyad Caliphate were established in southern Spain under Abd ar-Rahman I, constituted a strategic threat both to the Carolingian on their southern border, to the Abbasid at the western end of their dominion. Embassies were exchanged both ways, with the apparent objective of cooperating against the Umayyads of Spain: a Frankish embassy went to Baghdad in 765 which returned to Europe after three years with numerous presents, an Abbasid embassy from Al-Mansur visited France in 768. Commercial exchanges occurred between the Carolingian and Abassid realms, Arabic coins are known to have spread in Carolingian Europe in that period. Arab gold is reported to have circulated in Europe during the 9th century in payment of the export of slaves, timber and weapons from Europe to Eastern lands; as a famous example, the 8th century English king Offa of Mercia is known to have minted copies of Abbasid dinars struck in 774 by Caliph Al-Mansur with "Offa Rex" centered on the reverse amid inscriptions in Pseudo-Kufic script.
In 777, pro-Abbasid rulers of northern Spain contacted the Carolingian to request help against the powerful Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba in southern Spain, led by Abd ar-Rahman I. The "Spanish Abbasids sought support for their cause in Pepin's Francia. Sulayman al-Arabi the pro-Abbasid Wali of Barcelona and Girona sent a delegation to Charlemagne in Paderborn, offering his submission, together with the allegiance of Husayn of Zaragoza and Abu Taur of Huesca in return for military aid; the three pro-Abbasid rulers conveyed that the caliph of Baghdad, Muhammad al-Mahdi, was preparing an invasion force against the Umayyad ruler Abd al-Rhaman I. Following the sealing of this alliance at Paderborn, Charlemagne marched across the Pyrenees in 778 "at the head of all the forces he could muster", his troops were welcomed in Girona by Sulayman al-Arabi. As he moved towards Zaragoza, the troops of Charlemagne were joined by troops led by Sulayman. Husayn of Zaragoza, refused to surrender the city, claiming that he had never promised Charlemagne his allegiance.
Meanwhile, the force sent by the Baghdad caliphate seems to have been stopped near Barcelona. After a month of siege at Zaragoza, Charlemagne decided to return to his kingdom. On his retreat, Charlemagne suffered an attack from the Basques in central Navarra; as a reprisal he attacked Pamplona. However, on his retreat north his baggage train was ambushed by the Basques at the Battle of Roncevaux Pass on August 15, 778. After these campaigns, there were again numerous embassies between Charlemagne and the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid from 797 in view of a Carolingian-Abbasid alliance against Byzantium, or with a view to gaining an alliance against the Umayyads of Spain. Indeed, "Charles's conflict with the Umayyad Emir of Cordova made him an ally of the Abbasid emir of Baghdad, the celebrated Harun al-Rashid", they were "forming a pact against a common enemy - namely the Muslim rulers in Umayyad Spain". For Charlemagne, the alliance may have functioned as a counterweight against the Byzantine Empire, opposed to his role in Italy and his claim to the title of Roman Emperor.
For Harun al-Rashid, there was an advantage in having a partner against his rivals in Umayyad Spain. Three embassies were sent by Charlemagne to Harun al-Rashid's court and the latter sent at least two embassies to Charlemagne. Harun al-Rashid is reported to have sent numerous presents to Charlemagne, such as aromatics, fabrics, a clock, a chessboard, an elephant named Abu'Abbas; the automatic clock was a water-clock made of brass, described in the 807 Royal Frankish Annals. It marked the 12 hours with balls of brass falling on a plate every hour, had twelve horsemen who appeared in turn at each hour; the 797 embassy, the first one from Charlemagne, was composed of three men, the Jew Isaac and Sigimud, Harun al-Rashid was described as "Aaron, king of the Persians". Four years in 801, an Abassid embassy arrived in Pisa, composed of "a Persian from the East" and one envoy "Emir Abraham Harun al-Rashid's governor in North Africa, Ibrahim ibn al-Aghlab, with news about Jew Isaac that he was returning with numerous presents.
They met with Charlemagne, present in Italy a
Kingdom of France
The Kingdom of France was a medieval and early modern monarchy in Western Europe. It was one of the most powerful states in Europe and a great power since the Late Middle Ages and the Hundred Years' War, it was an early colonial power, with possessions around the world. France originated as West Francia, the western half of the Carolingian Empire, with the Treaty of Verdun. A branch of the Carolingian dynasty continued to rule until 987, when Hugh Capet was elected king and founded the Capetian dynasty; the territory remained known as Francia and its ruler as rex Francorum well into the High Middle Ages. The first king calling himself Roi de France was Philip II, in 1190. France continued to be ruled by the Capetians and their cadet lines—the Valois and Bourbon—until the monarchy was overthrown in 1792 during the French Revolution. France in the Middle Ages was a feudal monarchy. In Brittany and Catalonia the authority of the French king was felt. Lorraine and Provence were states of the Holy Roman Empire and not yet a part of France.
West Frankish kings were elected by the secular and ecclesiastic magnates, but the regular coronation of the eldest son of the reigning king during his father's lifetime established the principle of male primogeniture, which became codified in the Salic law. During the Late Middle Ages, the Kings of England laid claim to the French throne, resulting in a series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War. Subsequently, France sought to extend its influence into Italy, but was defeated by Spain in the ensuing Italian Wars. France in the early modern era was centralised. Religiously France became divided between the Catholic majority and a Protestant minority, the Huguenots, which led to a series of civil wars, the Wars of Religion. France laid claim to large stretches of North America, known collectively as New France. Wars with Great Britain led to the loss of much of this territory by 1763. French intervention in the American Revolutionary War helped secure the independence of the new United States of America but was costly and achieved little for France.
The Kingdom of France adopted a written constitution in 1791, but the Kingdom was abolished a year and replaced with the First French Republic. The monarchy was restored by the other great powers in 1814 and lasted until the French Revolution of 1848. During the years of the elderly Charlemagne's rule, the Vikings made advances along the northern and western perimeters of the Kingdom of the Franks. After Charlemagne's death in 814 his heirs were incapable of maintaining political unity and the empire began to crumble; the Treaty of Verdun of 843 divided the Carolingian Empire into three parts, with Charles the Bald ruling over West Francia, the nucleus of what would develop into the kingdom of France. Charles the Bald was crowned King of Lotharingia after the death of Lothair II in 869, but in the Treaty of Meerssen was forced to cede much of Lotharingia to his brothers, retaining the Rhone and Meuse basins but leaving the Rhineland with Aachen and Trier in East Francia. Viking advances were allowed to increase, their dreaded longships were sailing up the Loire and Seine rivers and other inland waterways, wreaking havoc and spreading terror.
During the reign of Charles the Simple, Normans under Rollo from Norway, were settled in an area on either side of the River Seine, downstream from Paris, to become Normandy. The Carolingians were to share the fate of their predecessors: after an intermittent power struggle between the two dynasties, the accession in 987 of Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, established the Capetian dynasty on the throne. With its offshoots, the houses of Valois and Bourbon, it was to rule France for more than 800 years; the old order left the new dynasty in immediate control of little beyond the middle Seine and adjacent territories, while powerful territorial lords such as the 10th- and 11th-century counts of Blois accumulated large domains of their own through marriage and through private arrangements with lesser nobles for protection and support. The area around the lower Seine became a source of particular concern when Duke William took possession of the kingdom of England by the Norman Conquest of 1066, making himself and his heirs the King's equal outside France.
Henry II inherited the Duchy of Normandy and the County of Anjou, married France's newly divorced ex-queen, Eleanor of Aquitaine, who ruled much of southwest France, in 1152. After defeating a revolt led by Eleanor and three of their four sons, Henry had Eleanor imprisoned, made the Duke of Brittany his vassal, in effect ruled the western half of France as a greater power than the French throne. However, disputes among Henry's descendants over the division of his French territories, coupled with John of England's lengthy quarrel with Philip II, allowed Philip II to recover influence over most of this territory. After the French victory at the Battle of Bouvines in 1214, the English monarchs maintained power only in southwestern Duchy of Guyenne; the death of Charles IV of France in 1328 without male heirs ended the main Capetian line. Under Salic law the crown could not pass through a woman (Philip IV's daughter
Western Union (alliance)
The Western Union referred to as the Brussels Treaty Organisation, was the European military alliance established between France, the United Kingdom and the three Benelux countries in September 1948 in order to implement the Treaty of Brussels signed in March the same year. Under this treaty the signatories, referred to as the five powers, agreed to collaborate in the defence ﬁeld as well as in the political and cultural ﬁelds. During the Korean War, the headquarters and plans of the WU's defence arm, the Western Union Defence Organisation, were transferred to the newly established North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, providing the nucleus of NATO's command structure at the Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe; as a consequence of the failure of the European Defence Community in 1954, the London and Paris Conferences led to the Modified Treaty of Brussels through which the Western Union was transformed into the Western European Union and was joined by Italy and West Germany. As the WEU's functions were transferred to the European Union's European Security and Defence Policy at the turn of the 21st century, the Western Union is a precursor of both NATO and the military arm of the EU.
In the aftermath of World War II there were fears of a renewal of German aggression, on 4 March 1947 the Treaty of Dunkirk was signed by France and the United Kingdom as a Treaty of Alliance and Mutual Assistance in the event of a possible attack. In his speech to the House of Commons on 22 January 1948, British Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin called for the extension of the Treaty of Dunkirk to conclude the Benelux countries, creating a Western Union; the object was to consolidate Western Europe to satisfy the United States and to give advance notice of the eventual incorporation of Italy, Germany, into the Treaty. The negotiating conference was held on a few days after the coup in Prague; the Western Union was intended to provide Western Europe with a bulwark against the communist threat and to bring greater collective security. The Treaty of Brussels was signed on 17 March 1948 between Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, was an expansion to the preceding year's defence pledge, the Dunkirk Treaty signed between Britain and France.
Although the Treaty goes no further than providing for'cooperation' between the contracting parties,'which will be effected through the Consultative Council referred to in Article VII as well as through other bodies', in practice the arrangement was referred to as Western Union or the Brussels Treaty Organisation. When the division of Europe into two opposing camps became considered unavoidable, the threat of the USSR became much more important than the threat of German rearmament. Western Europe, sought a new mutual defence pact involving the United States, a powerful military force for such an alliance; the United States, concerned with containing the influence of the USSR, was responsive. Secret meetings began by the end of March 1949 between American and British officials to initiate the negotiations that led to the signing of the North Atlantic Treaty on 4 April 1949 in Washington, DC; the need to back up the commitments of the North Atlantic Treaty with appropriate political and military structures led to the creation of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation.
In December 1950, with the appointment of General Eisenhower as the first Supreme Allied Commander Europe, the members of the Treaty of Brussels decided to transfer the headquarters and plans of the Western Union Military Organisation to NATO. NATO's Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe took over responsibility for the defence of Western Europe, while the physical headquarters in Fontainebleau were transformed into NATO's Headquarters, Allied Forces Central Europe; as WUDO's capacities were transferred to NATO's SHAPE, Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery resigned as Commanders-in-Chief Committee Chairman on 31 March 1951 and took the position of deputy SACEUR Supreme Allied Commander Europe on 1 April 1951. The establishment of NATO, along with the signing of a succession of treaties establishing the Organisation for European Economic Cooperation, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation, the Council of Europe and the European Coal and Steel Community, left the Western Union and its founding Treaty of Brussels was left devoid of much of its authority.
The Western Union's founding Treaty of Brussels was amended at the 1954 Paris Conference as a result of the failure of the Treaty establishing the European Defence Community to gain French ratification: The General Treaty of 1952 formally named the EDC as a prerequisite of the end of Allied occupation of Germany, there was a desire to include Germany in the Western defence architecture. The Modified Brussels Treaty transformed the Western Union into the Western European Union, at which point Italy and Germany were admitted. Although the WEU established by the Modified Brussels Treaty was less powerful and ambitious than the original Western Union, German membership of the WEU was considered sufficient for the occupation of the country to end in accordance with the General Treaty. Social and cultural aspects were handed to the Council of Europe to avoid duplication of responsibilities within Europe; the Treat
The Franco-American alliance was the 1778 alliance between the Kingdom of France and the United States during the American Revolutionary War. Formalized in the 1778 Treaty of Alliance, it was a military pact in which the French provided many supplies for the Americans; the Netherlands and Spain joined as allies of France. The French alliance was possible once the Americans captured a British invasion army at Saratoga in October 1777, demonstrating the viability of the American cause; the alliance became controversial after 1793 when Britain and Revolutionary France again went to war and the U. S. declared itself neutral. Relations between France and the United States worsened as the latter became closer to Britain in the Jay Treaty of 1795, leading to an undeclared Quasi War; the alliance was defunct by 1794 and formally ended in 1800. France had been left alarmed by the British success in the Seven Years War which they feared gave the British naval superiority. From 1763 both France, their allies Spain, began to rebuild their navies and prepare for a future war in which they would construct an alliance to overwhelm and invade Britain.
As Britain's troubles with its American colonies intensified during the 1760s and led to open rebellion in 1775, France began to anticipate the American rebels joining such an alliance. In September 1775 the Continental Congress described foreign assistance as "undoubtedly attainable" and began to seek supplies and assistance from European powers hostile to Britain; the French leadership sought the "humiliation of England" and began giving covert aid to the rebels. The American Declaration of Independence was advocated by some as necessary in order to secure European support against Britain. Silas Deane, an American envoy in Paris, proposed a major anti-British alliance and French invasions of Hanover and Portugal which were both British allies; the alliance was promoted in the United States by a Francophile. Based on the Model Treaty of 1776, Jefferson encouraged the role of France as an economic and military partner to the United States, in order to weaken British influence. In 1776, Latouche Tréville transferred ammunition from France to the United States of America.
Numerous French supplies as well as guns of the de Valliere type were used in the American War of Independence the smaller 4-pounder field guns. The guns were shipped from France, the field carriages provided for in the US; these guns played an important role in such battles as the Battle of Saratoga, the Siege of Yorktown. George Washington wrote about the supplies and guns in a letter to General Heath on 2 May 1777: I was this morning favored with yours containing the pleasing accounts of the late arrivals at Portsmouth and Boston; that of the French ships of war, with artillery and other military stores, is most valuable. It is my intent to have all the arms that were not wanted by the Eastern States, to be removed to Springfield, as a much safer place than Portsmouth …. I shall write Congress and press the immediate removal of the artillery, other military stores from Portsmouth. I would have you forward the twenty-five chests of arms arrived from Martinico to Springfield. On 13 June 1777, the Marquis de Lafayette reached America and joined George Washington in the Continental Army as Major General.
He participated to the Battle of Brandywine where he was wounded, served at the Battle of Rhode Island. Lafayette would return to France during the war in order to advocate more support for the American cause; the alliance was formally negotiated by Benjamin Franklin, but it progressed until after news of the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga arrived in France. On February 6, 1778 two treaties were signed; the first, the Franco-American Treaty of Amity and Commerce, recognized the independence of the United States and established commercial relations between them. The alliance gave open support from the French Army and Treasury, spelled that the United States was obligated to guarantee "from the present time and forever, against all other powers the present Possessions of the Crown of France in America", in exchange for a promise not to increase French possessions anymore in America; the combined strength of the Americans and the French guaranteed victory against Great Britain. France supported the American War of Independence, managing to expel the British and obtain recognition of American independence through the intervention of Rochambeau, Lafayette, de Grasse, Suffren.
Naval conflict started in European waters with the First Battle of Ushant in July 1778, continued with the attempted invasion of Britain by the Armada of 1779. In the summer of 1778, French Admiral d'Estaing arrived with a fleet and infantry reinforcements for the war with a fleet of twelve ships of the line and fourteen frigates. After declining to attack Richard Howe's inferior British force outside New York, the French fleet sailed to Rhode Island where they were to take part in an attack on Newport. On 6 July 1779, he fought the Battle of Grenada against Admiral Byron, but failed at the September 1779 Siege of Savannah before returning to France. Actions continued in April 1780 with Guichen against Admiral Rodney in the Battle of Martinique. In 1780, Rochambeau arrived with a fleet and 6,000 French troops to join the Continental army, under George Washington, in the "Expédition Particulière", landing in Newport, Rhode Island, on 10 July. In the Ohio valley, French Americans would combine with
Convention of 1800
The Convention of 1800 or the Treaty of Mortefontaine between the United States of America and France ended the 1798–1800 Quasi-War, an undeclared naval war waged in the Caribbean, terminated the 1778 Treaty of Alliance. The 1778 Treaty of Alliance between France and the United States agreed that in return for French support in the American Revolutionary War, the US would defend French possessions in the Caribbean against foreign aggression; this meant the US was obliged to support France against their opponents in the 1792–1797 War of the First Coalition, which included Britain and the Netherlands, maritime Powers with bases in the Caribbean. There was little support in Congress for this since neutrality allowed Northern shipowners to earn huge profits evading the British blockade, while Southern plantation-owners feared the example set by France's abolition of slavery in 1794. Arguing that the 1793 execution of Louis XVI made existing agreements void, the 1794 Neutrality Act cancelled the military obligations of the 1778 Treaty.
France accepted this but on the basis they received'benevolent neutrality' i.e. French privateers would be given access to US ports, captured British ships could be sold in American prize courts but not vice versa, it soon became apparent this was not how the US interpreted'neutrality,' while the commercial provisions of the 1795 Jay's Treaty with Britain directly contradicted the 1778 Treaty of Amity and Commerce with France. When the US delayed repayment of debts owed to France for loans made during the Revolutionary War, France began seizing American ships trading with the British West Indies in retaliation; this action and anger over the 1797 diplomatic dispute known as the XYZ Affair, resulted in Congress canceling the 1778 Treaties and authorising attacks on French warships in American waters on July 7, 1798. This led to the Quasi-War of 1798–1800. Despite this, President John Adams continued to seek a diplomatic solution. France ceded Louisiana-New Spain to Spain by the 1763 Treaty of Paris.
Efforts to manage this through diplomacy, including Pinckney's Treaty of 1795 did little to stop American settlers pushing into Spanish Louisiana. The economic development of this region required access to the Mississippi and the US much preferred a weak Spain to an aggressive and powerful France on their southern border; the discovery that French agents based in the US had conducted military surveys to determine how best to defend Louisiana led to the 1798 Alien and Sedition Acts. A Commission was authorised in early 1799 to negotiate with France and formally terminate the 1778 Alliance, confirm American neutrality, agree compensation for shipping losses and end the Quasi-War. French motives were more complex. However, Saint-Domingue and Martinique all had to be recaptured first, which made peace with the US essential, at least temporarily; the Commission of William Vans Murray, Oliver Ellsworth, William Richardson Davie was approved in early 1799 but disputes between Federalists and Jeffersonians delayed their arrival in Paris until March 1800.
Formal discussions did not begin until April and proceeded slowly. The main problem was the US demand of $20 million in compensation for shipping losses which the French argued only applied if the 1778 Treaties remained in force. Since the US had abrogated both, their position was either the US confirmed the existing treaties and received compensation or insisted on new ones and did not. By July 1800, France's strategic position was much stronger than when the Commission was first authorised in mid-1799. Napoleon was in firm control of government while Russia, with informal French support, had established the League of Armed Neutrality to resist British policy of searching neutral ships for contraband. Napoleon's victory over Austria at Marengo in June turned the War of the Second Coalition decisively in favour of France. With the Commission aware of the increasing urgency of making a deal, Clause II of the Convention compromised by'postponing discussions' on compensation but suspending the Treaties of 1778 and 1788 until this was resolved, while the US agreed to compensate its own citizens for the claimed damages of $20 million, although it was not until 1915 that the heirs received $3.9 million in settlement.
In return, Talleyrand reversed previous policy by confirming the principle of'free trade, free goods, freedom of convoy. The Convention was dated September 30, 1800 but arguments in Congress over the inclusion of Clause II meant it was not ratified until December 21, 1801. At the time, the Convention was viewed unfavourably in the US the issue of compensation, not finally
The Spanish Empire known as the Hispanic Monarchy and as the Catholic Monarchy, was one of the largest empires in history. From the late 15th century to the early 19th, Spain controlled a huge overseas territory in the New World and the Asian archipelago of the Philippines, what they called "The Indies", it included territories in Europe and Oceania. The Spanish Empire has been described as the first global empire in history, a description given to the Portuguese Empire, it was the world's most powerful empire during the 16th and first half of the 17th centuries, reaching its maximum extension in the 18th century. The Spanish Empire was the first empire to be called "the empire on which the sun never sets". Castile became the dominant kingdom in Iberia because of its jurisdiction over the overseas empire in the Americas and the Philippines; the structure of empire was established under the Spanish Hapsburgs and under the Spanish Bourbon monarchs, the empire was brought under greater crown control and increased its revenues from the Indies.
The crown's authority in The Indies was enlarged by the papal grant of powers of patronage, giving it power in the religious sphere. An important element in the formation of Spain's empire was the dynastic union between Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon, known as the Catholic Monarchs, which initiated political and social cohesion but not political unification. Iberian kingdoms retained their political identities, with particular administration and juridical configurations. Although the power of the Spanish sovereign as monarch varied from one territory to another, the monarch acted as such in a unitary manner over all the ruler's territories through a system of councils: the unity did not mean uniformity. In 1580, when Philip II of Spain succeeded to the throne of Portugal, he established the Council of Portugal, which oversaw Portugal and its empire and "preserv its own laws and monetary system, united only in sharing a common sovereign." The Iberian Union remained in place until in 1640, when Portugal overthrew Hapsburg rule and reestablished independence under the House of Braganza.
Under Philip II, rather than the Hapsburg empire, was identified as the most powerful nation in the world eclipsing France and England. Furthermore, despite attacks from other European states, Spain retained its position of dominance with apparent ease; the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis confirmed the inheritance of Philip II in Italy. Spain's claims to Naples and Sicily in southern Italy dated back to the Aragonese presence in the 15th century. Following the peace reached in 1559, there would be no Neapolitan revolts against Spanish rule until 1647; the Duchy of Milan formally remained part of the Holy Roman Empire but the title of Duke of Milan was given to the King of Spain. The death of the Ottoman emperor Suleiman the Magnificent in 1566 and the naval victory over the Ottoman Empire at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 gave Spain a claim to be the greatest power not just in Europe but in the world; the Spanish Empire in the Americas was formed after conquering large stretches of land, beginning with Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean Islands.
In the early 16th century, it conquered and incorporated the Aztec and Inca Empires, retaining indigenous elites loyal to the Spanish crown and converts to Christianity as intermediaries between their communities and royal government. After a short period of delegation of authority by the crown in the Americas, the crown asserted control over those territories and established the Council of the Indies to oversee rule there; some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest as marking the most egregious case of genocide in the history of mankind. The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people in this period. However, other scholars believe the vast majority of indigenous deaths were due to the low immunological capacity of native populations to resist exogenous diseases. Many native tribes and their cultures were wiped out by the Spanish conquest and disease epidemics; the structure of governance of its overseas empire was reformed in the late 18th century by the Bourbon monarchs.
Although the crown attempted to keep its empire a closed economic system under Hapsburg rule, Spain was unable to supply the Indies with sufficient consumer goods to meet demand, so that foreign merchants from Genoa, England and The Netherlands dominated the trade, with silver from the mines of Peru and Mexico flowing to other parts of Europe. The merchant guild of Seville served as middlemen in the trade; the crown's trade monopoly was broken early in the seventeenth century, with the crown colluding with the merchant guild for fiscal reasons in circumventing the closed system. Spain was unable to defend the territories it claimed in the Americas, with the Dutch, the English, the French taking Caribbean islands, using them to engage in contraband trade with the Spanish populace in the Indies. In the seventeenth century, the diversion of silver revenue to pay for European consumer goods and the rising costs of defense of its empire meant that "tangible benefits of America to Spain were dwindling...at a moment when the costs of empire were climbing sharply."The Bourbon monarchy attempted to expand the possibilities for trade within the empire, by allowing commerce between all ports in the empire, took other measures to revive economic activity to the benefit of Spain.
The Bourbons had inherited "an empire invaded by
The Franco-Indian alliance was an alliance between American Indians and the French, centered on the Great Lakes and the Illinois country during the French and Indian War. The alliance involved French settlers on the one side, the Abenaki, Menominee, Mississauga, Sioux, Huron-Petun, Potawatomi etc. on the other. It allowed the French and the Indians to form a haven in the middle-Ohio valley before the open conflict between the European powers erupted. France had a long presence in Northern America, starting with the establishment of New France in 1534. Acculturation and conversion were promoted through the activities of the Jesuit missions in North America, but unlike the other colonial powers, under the guidance of Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu, encouraged a peaceful coexistence in New France between Natives and Colonists. Indians, converted to Catholicism, were considered as "natural Frenchmen" by the Ordonnance of 1627: The descendants of the French who are accustomed to this country, together with all the Indians who will be brought to the knowledge of the faith and will profess it, shall be deemed and renowned natural Frenchmen, as such may come to live in France when they want, acquire and succeed and accept donations and legacies, just as true French subjects, without being required to take no letters of declaration of naturalization.
According to the 19th-century historian Francis Parkman: Spanish civilization crushed the Indian. The Baron de Saint-Castin was married a native girl. Governor Frontenac sang war songs at an Indian council. While Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu fought bare-chested and covered with war paints at the battle against Braddock. Natives adopted French habits, like chief Kondiaronk who wanted to be buried in his uniform of captain or Kateri Tekakwitha who became a Catholic Saint. French settlers and natives were allied in every conflict preceding the Seven Years' War: Father Rale's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre's War. Intermarriages were frequent in New France, giving rise to the Métis people. In North America in the 18th century, the British outnumbered the French 20 to 1, a situation that urged France to ally with the majority of the First Nations. According to one observer: All the Indian nations were called together and invited to join and assist the French to repulse the British who came to drive them out of the land they were in possession of.
At the beginning of the conflict, despite the disproportion of the forces involved, the French and their allies managed to inflict embarrassing defeats to the British, such as the Battle of Fort Necessity or the Battle of the Monongahela. Following the capture of Fort William Henry, the Marquis de Montcalm agreed to let the British withdraw with full honours of war - a civility, not understood by some Indians who massacred the British and their camp followers on their way to Fort Edward. Facing major defeats in the hands of Britain's allies on the European theater of the war and with its navy unable to match the Royal Navy, France was unable to properly supply and support the Canadiens and their Indian allies. Britain had a string of successes with the Battle of Fort Niagara, the Franco-Indian alliance started to unravel. At the same time, the British were making promises of protection to the Indians. Quebec fell in September following the Battle of the Plains of Abraham. At the conclusion of the Seven Years' War in 1763, New France was divided with Canada going to the British and Louisiana to the Spaniards.
Long after the extinction of New France in 1763, Franco-Indian communities would persist, practicing the catholic faith, speaking French and using French names. From the Saint Lawrence to the Mississippi, cosmopolitan French communities accommodated Indians and Blacks. During the American War of Independence and the onset of the Franco-American alliance, the French would again combine with Indian troops, as in the Battle of Kiekonga in 1780 under Augustin de La Balme. In 1869 and 1885, Louis Riel led two Métis revolts against the Canadian government, known as the Red River Rebellion and the North-West Rebellion; the revolts were suppressed and Riel executed. Foreign alliances of France French and Indian War Kahnawake surnames Alfred A. Cave The French and Indian War 2004 Greenwood Press ISBN 0-313-32168-X