Shepherd's Bush is a district of west London, within the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham 4.9 miles west of Charing Cross, identified as a major metropolitan centre in the London Plan. Although residential in character, its focus is the shopping area of Shepherd's Bush Green, with the Westfield London shopping centre a short distance to the north; the main thoroughfares are Uxbridge Road, Goldhawk Road and Askew Road, all with small and independent shops and restaurants. The Loftus Road football stadium in Shepherd's Bush is home to Queens Park Rangers. In 2011, the population of the area was 39,724; the district is bounded by Hammersmith to the south, Holland Park and Notting Hill to the east, Harlesden to the north and by Acton and Chiswick to the west. White City forms the northern part of Shepherd's Bush. Shepherd's Bush comprises the Shepherd's Bush Green, College Park & Old Oak, Wormholt and White City wards of the borough; the area's focal point is Shepherd's Bush Green, a triangular area of about 8 acres of open grass surrounded by trees and roads with shops, with Westfield shopping centre to its north.
The Green is a hub on the local road network, with four main roads radiating from the western side of the green and three roads approaching its eastern apex, meeting at the large Holland Park Roundabout. This position makes it an important node of the bus network, with eighteen bus routes arriving there, it is served by five London Underground stations: Shepherd's Bush and White City both on the Central line, Shepherd's Bush Market, Goldhawk Road and Wood Lane all on the Hammersmith & City line. To the east, Shepherd's Bush is bounded by the physical barrier of the West London railway line and the grade-separated West Cross Route. Most of the areas to the east of the barrier differ in character, being associated with the more affluent Holland Park and Notting Hill. Commercial activity in Shepherd's Bush is now focused on the Westfield shopping centre next to Shepherd's Bush Central line station and on the many small shops which run along the northern side of the Green. Built in the 1970s with a rooftop car park and connecting bridge to the station, the older West 12 Shepherds Bush shopping centre was redeveloped in the 1990s.
The bridge was removed, the centre now houses several chain stores, a 12-screen cinema, pub, restaurants, a medical practice and a supermarket. The small shops continue along Uxbridge Road to the west for some distance, another set of shops and restaurants line Goldhawk Road from the Green to the southwest. Many of these establishments cater for the local ethnic minority communities. Running parallel to, under, an elevated section of the Hammersmith & City line there is a large permanent market, the Shepherd's Bush Market, selling all types of foodstuffs, cooked food, household goods and bric-à-brac; the Westfield Group opened a shopping centre in October 2008. As well as the offices within the BBC TV Centre on Wood Lane, opposite this is Network House, 1 Ariel Way, a 20,000 sq ft building, let by Frost Meadowcroft on behalf of Westfield to Zodiak Entertainment in September 2009 and in Rockley Road is the 160,000 sq ft Shepherds Building where Endemol another TV company are based and where Jellycat, a soft toy company, relocated their head office to in February 2010.
The same building houses Escape Studios, a digital art school providing computer graphics training for the visual effects industry in London. The residential areas of Shepherd's Bush are located to the west of the Green, either side of Uxbridge Road and Goldhawk Road to the southwest, about as far as Askew Road in the west. Much of the housing in this area consists of three- or four-storey terraces dating from the late 19th century, subsequently divided up into small flats. Shepherd's Bush is home to the White City Estate, a housing estate, constructed in the 1930s and further extended after the war in the early 1950s, it was built on the site of the grounds of the 1908 Franco-British Exhibition and close to the White City Stadium and has given its name to the northern part of Shepherd's Bush, now better known as White City. The name Shepherd's Bush is thought to have originated from the use of the common land here as a resting point for shepherds on their way to Smithfield Market in the City of London.
An alternative theory is that it could have been named after someone in the area, because in 1635 the area was recorded as "Sheppard's Bush Green". Evidence of human habitation can be traced back to the Iron Age. Shepherd's Bush enters the written record in the year 704 when it was bought by Waldhere, Bishop of London as a part of the "Fulanham" estate. A map of London dated 1841 shows Shepherd's Bush to be undeveloped and chiefly rural in character, with much open farmland compared to fast-developing Hammersmith. Residential development began in earnest in the late 19th century, as London's population expanded relentlessly. In 1904 the Catholic Church of Holy Ghost and St Stephen, built in the Gothic style with a triple-gabled facade of red brick and Portland stone, was completed and opened to the public. Like other parts of London, Shepherd's Bush suffered from bomb damage during World War II from V-1 flying bomb a
Francis Gymnasium is a building at Washington University in St. Louis used by the university's athletics department, it is located in St. Louis County, Missouri, on the far western edge of the university's Danforth Campus. Constructed in 1903, it was built in time for the 1904 World's Fair and was used as the main indoor venue for the 1904 Summer Olympics. During the Olympics, it hosted fencing events; the building was turned over to the Washington University Athletics Department following the Olympics. In the early 1920s, a field house and a swimming pool were constructed adjacent to Francis Gym, it is included in the Washington University Hilltop Campus Historic District
All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club
The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club known as the All England Club, based at Church Road, London, England, is a private members' club. It is best known as the venue for the Wimbledon Championships, the only Grand Slam tennis event still held on grass. An amateur event that occupied club members and their friends for a few days each summer, the championships have become far more prominent than the club itself. However, it still operates as a members' tennis club; the club has 375 full members, about 100 temporary playing members, a number of honorary members, including past Wimbledon singles champions and people who have rendered distinguished service to the game. To become a full or temporary member, an applicant must obtain letters of support from four existing full members, two of whom must have known the applicant for at least three years; the name is added to the Candidates' List. Honorary Members are elected from time to time by the club's Committee. Membership carries with it the right to purchase two tickets for each day of the Wimbledon Championships.
In addition to this all champions are invited to become members. The patron of the club is Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, the President is The Duke of Kent; the Club was founded by six gentlemen at the offices of The Field on 23 July 1868 at the height of a croquet craze as the All England Croquet Club, held its first croquet competition in 1870. Its original ground was situated off Wimbledon. Croquet was popular there until the then-infant sport of lawn tennis was introduced in 1875, when one lawn was set aside for this purpose; the first tennis Gentlemen's Championship in Singles was held in July 1877, when the Club changed its name to The All England Croquet and Lawn Tennis Club. That year at Wimbledon service was underarm; the champion, Spencer Gore, opined that "Lawn tennis will never rank among our great games." In 1878 the height of the net was altered to 4 feet 9 inches at the posts and 3 feet at the centre. In 1882, croquet was dropped from the name, but in 1899 it was restored to the Club's name for sentimental reasons, the Club's name became The All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club.
In 1884, the Club added Ladies' Singles and Gentlemen's Doubles, in 1913 Ladies' Doubles and Mixed Doubles. For the 1908 Summer Olympics, the venue hosted the Grass Courts tennis events; the early Club colours were found to be identical to those of the Royal Marines, so they were changed in 1909 to the present Club colours of dark green and purple. The popularity of Frenchwoman Suzanne Lenglen was responsible for forcing the Club to move to larger grounds at its present site in Church Road, Wimbledon, in 1922, where its first Championship was "plagued by rain each day"; the current Centre Court dates from that year. It has been extended on several occasions. Most a sliding roof was added in time for the 2009 Championships. In 1924 the old No.1 Court opened on the west side of Centre Court. During World War II The Championships were suspended but the Club remained open with a much smaller staff, was used for fire and ambulance services, British Home Guard, a decontamination unit, troops stationed nearby drilled on the main concourse.
At 5:20 p.m. on 11 October 1940, five 500 pound German bombs struck the grounds, demolishing 1,200 seats in Centre Court. The old No.1 Court was replaced with the current No.1 Court in 1997, the Broadcast Centre was built at the same time. Shortly afterwards, the Millennium Building, which houses facilities for players, press and members, was built on the site of the old No.1 Court. The Church Road site extended only as far north as Centre Court. In 1967 the All England Club purchased 11 acres to the north; this became known as Aorangi Park. It is most known as'Henman Hill' because of the popularity of former British tennis player Tim Henman; the only use that the All England Club itself made of this new land was for car parking during The Championships, but in 1981 the New Zealanders' lease was terminated, the Club has developed most of the area for its own purposes. The All England Club, through its subsidiary The All England Lawn Tennis Ground plc, issues debentures to tennis fans every five years to raise funds for capital expenditure.
The original debentures were issued in 1920. Each debenture provides a pair of tickets for each day of the tournament for five years. Only debenture holders are permitted to sell on their tickets to third parties. In 2011, the Club established another subsidiary, The All England Lawn Tennis Club Limited, trading as AELTC, transferred all of its assets relating to The Championships to that entity on 1 August of that year. Since that time, the Club's activities have been conducted separately from those of The Championships; the Club was the venue for the tennis event at the 2012 Summer Olympics. The Club has 18 tournament grass courts, eight American clay courts, two acrylic courts and five indoor courts. There are 22 Aorangi Park grass courts, which serve as competitors' practice courts before and during The Championships; the grass courts can be used from May until September. The grass has been cut to 8 mm since 1995, 100% perennial ryegrass has been used for its strength since 2001 (prior to that, it was 70% perennial rye a
The Egmont Palace is a large mansion at the Rue aux Laines and the Petit Sablon Square in Brussels, Belgium. Today it houses the Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Egmont Palace is situated at an elevation of 69 meters, it was built between 1548 and 1560 by Françoise of Luxembourg and her son, Count of Egmont, first in Flemish Gothic style Renaissance. The fabric was transformed in the 18th century, when the building was clothed in Neoclassical style, while the property passed onto the Arenberg family; the plans for this stage are attributed to the early advocate of neoclassicism, Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni. After a fire demolished the oldest part of the building in 1891, it was reconstructed in a uniform neoclassical style; the venue hosted the fencing events for the 1920 Summer Olympics in the garden. After World War I, the owner, the German Arenberg family, was forced to sell the building to the city of Brussels. In 1964 it was sold to the Belgian state. In 1977, the Egmont pact on the Belgian state reform was signed in the Egmont Palace during the second administration of Leo Tindemans.
The palace is used for receptions and meetings by the Belgian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and hosts many events organized by the Royal Institute for International Relations. Media related to Egmont Palace at Wikimedia Commons Egmont Conference Centre
Haus des Deutschen Sports
The Haus des Deutschen Sports, part of the larger Deutsches Sportforum, is a sporting venue constructed for the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, Germany. Located northeast of the Olympic Stadium, it hosted the fencing events and the fencing part of the modern pentathlon event. 1936 Summer Olympics official report Volume 1. Pp. 163–4. 1936 Summer Olympics official report Volume 2. Pp. 752–815, 830-6
White City Stadium
White City Stadium in White City, England, was built for the 1908 Summer Olympics, hosted the finish of the first modern marathon. It hosted swimming, boxing, show jumping, stock car racing, concerts and a match at the 1966 World Cup. From 1927 to 1984, it was a venue for greyhound racing, hosting the English Greyhound Derby. Designed by the engineer J. J. Webster and completed in 10 months by George Wimpey, on part of the site of the Franco-British Exhibition, this stadium with a seating capacity of 68,000 was opened by King Edward VII on 27 April 1908 after the first stanchion had been placed in position by Lady Desborough on 2 August 1907; the cost of construction was £60,000. Upon completion, the stadium had three laps to the mile; the infield included a diving pool. Many events of the 1908 Olympics were at the stadium itself; the Olympic rugby union final between Australia and Great Britain was held in the stadium on 26 October 1908 and events such as archery and gymnastics took place at White City, while some others took place at Queens Club.
Swimming was held in a 100-yard pool dug in the infield. The position of the finish line for the marathon in the 1908 Summer Olympics is commemorated by a marker in the plaza that now stands there; the distance of the modern marathon was fixed at these Games and calculated from the start of the race at Windsor Castle to a point in front of the royal box. The medal table for the 1908 Summer Olympics is listed on a nearby wall; the original running track continued in use until 1914. There were attempts to sell the stadium in 1922, but several athletes in the team for the 1924 Summer Olympics used it for training. In 1926 the GRA took over the stadium and in 1927, the track was grassed over for greyhound racing and speedway, they built a restaurant. From 1927 until its closure it hosted weekly greyhound meetings and was considered the top greyhound track in Britain, it hosted the sport's premier event, the English Greyhound Derby, until 1984. Just before and after the Second World War attendances were huge, a record 92,000 spectators attended the 1939 Derby final.
In 1931, a 440yd running track was installed for the Amateur Athletic Association Championships, held there from 1932 to 1970. Besides the AAA championships, major athletics events, including international matches, were held at the stadium. In 1954 in a match against Russia Christopher Chataway broke the world 5000m record running against Vladimir Kuts; the one mile world record was broken there by Derek Ibbotson in 1957. In 1934 the second British Empire Games and the fourth Women's World Games were held at the venue. In 1931, Queens Park Rangers F. C. began the first of two spells playing at the stadium, until 1933. QPR decided against a permanent move to White City and stayed at Loftus Road. Between 1932 and 1958 the stadium hosted major British boxing events, with attendances peaking as high as 90,000 for the second meeting between Len Harvey and Jack Petersen in 1934; the first major fight at the stadium was Len Harvey’s unsuccessful challenge for the NBA Middleweight Championship versus Marcel Thil of France.
Future heavyweight champion Primo Carnera suffered his only defeat on British soil here when he lost to Canadian Larry Gains in May 1932. Other important fighters to appear at White City include Jock McAvoy, Don Cockell, Nino Valdez, Henry Cooper and Terry Downes. In 1933, Wigan Highfield, a rugby league side, nearly became bankrupt. White City Company, owners of the stadium, decided to move the club to White City. Only rugby union had been popular in southern England, professional rugby league being the preserve of northern towns and cities. Wigan Highfield became, their first try was scored by George "Porky" Davies, who went on to play for Liverpool Stanley and St. Helens from 1938 to 1947; the White City Company decided not to continue with rugby league. London Highfield was the precursor to London Broncos, the current leading rugby league club in London. In 1966, Wembley's owner's refusal to cancel regular greyhound racing meant the match between Uruguay and France in the 1966 FIFA World Cup was played at White City.
The game attracted 45,662 fans. The stadium was demolished in 1985 and the site is now occupied by BBC White City. White City Stadium was principally used for greyhound racing for the majority of its existence; the first greyhound meeting took place on 20 June 1927. The stadium became the Mecca of greyhound racing with tens of thousands of spectators attending meetings on a regular basis in the 1940s, 1950s. A crowd of 92,000 attended the 1939 English Greyhound Derby final; the track was renowned for holding some of the sports top events in addition to the English Greyhound Derby. They included the Grand National, the Oaks, the Wood Lane Stakes, the Longcross Cup and the Cambridgeshire; the final Greyhound Derby was held on 23 June 1984. The speedway track at White City was 380 metres in length; the White City stadium first held open speedway meetings in 1928 before the start of the Southern League, in 1929. A team from the stadium known as White City entered the 1929 Southern League where they finished in 7th place out of 11 teams.
The White City team were due to race in the 1930 Southern League, but they withdrew from the league before it started. The stadium ran once again using an Open Licence and held occasio
The Queen's Club is a private sporting club in West Kensington, England. The club hosts the prestigious annual Queen's Club Championships grass court men's lawn tennis tournament, it has eight indoor. With two courts, it is the national headquarters of real tennis, hosting the British Open every year; the Queen's Club has rackets and squash courts. Founded as The Queen's Club Limited on 19 August 1886 by Evan Charteris, George Francis and Algernon Grosvener, the Queen's Club was the world's second multipurpose sports complex, after the Prince's Club, became the only one after the Prince's Club relocated to Knightsbridge and lost its outdoor sports facilities; the club is named after its first patron. On 19 May 1887 the first lawn tennis courts were opened and on 1–2 July 1887 the first sporting event was held when Oxford played Cambridge; the construction of the club buildings took about eighteen months and they were opened in January 1888. William Marshall, finalist of the inaugural 1877 Wimbledon Championships was the architect.
Among the initial sports offered at the club were real tennis, Eton Fives, lawn tennis, football and athletics. Cricket was played but not as an organized sport; the University Sports meeting between Cambridge and Oxford was held at the Queen's Club from 1888 to 1928. Queens Club was the venue of the covered courts tennis, jeu de paume and rackets events of the 1908 Summer Olympics; until 1922, the club was the main ground for the football games of Corinthian F. C. One international was held, England drawing 1–1 with Wales on 18 March 1895. On 13 September 2005, the Lawn Tennis Association, the governing body of British lawn tennis, which had owned Queen's since 1953, put the club up for sale; the terms required that the Queen's Club Championships remain unaffected. On 8 March 2006, the LTA announced that it would sell to club members for £45 million, ending seven months of uncertainty about the club's future; however some members disputed the LTA's right to sell the club, which they contested it held in trust on their behalf, began to raise funds to dispute the sale in court.
In December 2006 the two sides reached an out of court settlement in which the sale price was reduced to £35 million. In February 2007, the LTA relocated its headquarters from Queen's Club to the new National Tennis Centre in Roehampton; the Aegon Championships still remains one of the six most prestigious grass competitions on the men's ATP tour along with the Gerry Weber Open in Halle, the Aegon International, the Hall of Fame Tennis Championships in Newport, Rhode Island, the Rosmalen Championships in the Netherlands and Wimbledon. The ball girls are selected from year 8, 9 and 10 pupils at St Philomena's Catholic High School for Girls and Nonsuch High School. All England Lawn Tennis and Croquet Club — London's other famous tennis club British Covered Court Championships Queens Club The "Pioneer Exhibition Game" in London List of tennis stadiums by capacity Media related to Queen's Club at Wikimedia Commons The Queen's Club St. Philomena's Catholic High School for Girls website The Tennis & Rackets Association