Republic of Genoa
The Republic of Genoa was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean. The republic began when Genoa became a self-governing commune within the imperial Kingdom of Italy, ended when it was conquered by the French First Republic under Napoleon and replaced with the Ligurian Republic. Corsica was ceded to France in the Treaty of Versailles of 1768; the Ligurian Republic was annexed by the First French Empire in 1805. Before 1100, Genoa emerged as an independent city-state, one of a number of Italian city-states during this period. Nominally, the Holy Roman Emperor was overlord and the Bishop of Genoa was president of the city. Genoa was one of the so-called "Maritime Republics", along with Venice and Amalfi and trade and banking helped support one of the largest and most powerful navies in the Mediterranean; the Adorno and other smaller merchant families all fought for power in this Republic, as the power of the consuls allowed each family faction to gain wealth and power in the city.
The Republic of Genoa extended over modern Liguria and Piedmont, Corsica and had complete control of the Tyrrhenian Sea. Through Genoese participation on the Crusades, Genoese colonies were established in the Middle East, in the Aegean, in Sicily and Northern Africa; the collapse of the Crusader States was offset by Genoa's alliance with the Byzantine Empire. As Venice's relations with the Byzantine Empire were temporarily disrupted by the Fourth Crusade and its aftermath, Genoa was able to improve its position. Genoa took advantage of this opportunity to expand into Crimea. Internal feuds between the powerful families, the Grimaldi and Fieschi, the Doria and others caused much disruption, but in general the republic was run much as a business affair. Between 1218–1220 Genoa was served by the Guelph podestà Rambertino Buvalelli, who introduced Occitan literature to the city, soon to boast such troubadours as Jacme Grils, Lanfranc Cigala, Bonifaci Calvo. Genoa's political zenith came with its victory over the Republic of Pisa at the naval Battle of Meloria in 1284, with a temporary victory over its rival, Venice, at the naval Battle of Curzola in 1298.
This prosperity did not last. The Black Death was imported into Europe in 1347 from the Genoese trading post at Caffa in Crimea, on the Black Sea. Following the economic and population collapse, Genoa adopted the Venetian model of government, was presided over by a doge; the wars with Venice continued, the War of Chioggia —where Genoa managed to decisively subdue Venice—ended with Venice's recovery of dominance in the Adriatic. In 1390 Genoa initiated a crusade against the Barbary pirates with help from the French and laid siege to Mahdia. Though it has not been well-studied, the fifteenth century seems to have been a tumultuous time for Genoa. After a period of French domination from 1394–1409, Genoa came under rule by the Visconti of Milan. Genoa lost Sardinia to Aragon, Corsica to internal revolt and its Middle Eastern, Eastern European and Asia Minor colonies to the Turkish Ottoman Empire. Genoa was able to stabilize its position as it moved into the sixteenth century thanks to the efforts of Andrea Doria, who established a new constitution in 1528, making Genoa a satellite of the Spanish Empire.
Under the ensuing economic recovery, many aristocratic Genoese families, such as the Balbi, Grimaldi and Serra, amassed tremendous fortunes. According to Felipe Fernandez-Armesto and others, the practices Genoa developed in the Mediterranean were crucial in the exploration and exploitation of the New World. Christopher Columbus, for example, was a native of Genoa and donated one-tenth of his income from the discovery of the Americas for Spain to the Bank of Saint George in Genoa for the relief of taxation on foods. At the time of Genoa's peak in the 16th century, the city attracted many artists, including Rubens and Van Dyck; the architect Galeazzo Alessi designed many of the city's splendid palazzi, as did in the decades that followed by fifty years Bartolomeo Bianco, designer of centrepieces of University of Genoa. A number of Genoese Baroque and Rococo artists settled elsewhere and a number of local artists became prominent. At the time of its founding in the early 11th century the Republic of Genoa consisted of the city of Genoa and the surrounding areas.
As the commerce of the city increased, so did the territory of the Republic. By 1015 all of Liguria fell under the Republic of Genoa. After the First Crusade in 1098 Genoa gained settlements in Syria. In 1261 the city of Smyrna in Asia Minor became Genoese territory. In 1255 Genoa established the colony of Caffa in Crimea. In the following years the Genoese established further colonies in Crimea: Soldaia and Cembalo. In 1275 the Byzantine Empire granted the islands of Samos to Genoa. Between 1316 and 1332 Genoa established the Black Sea colonies of La Samsun in Anatolia. In 1355 the Byzantine Emperor John V Palaiologos granted Lesbos to a Genoese lord. At the end of the 14th century the c
Outline of Monaco
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Monaco: Monaco – small sovereign city-state located in Western Europe. Monaco is surrounded by France. Monaco is regarded as a tax haven, many of its inhabitants are wealthy and from foreign countries, although they are not a majority. Pronunciation: Common English country name: Monaco Official English country name: The Principality of Monaco Adjectives: Monégasque, Monacan Demonym: Etymology: Name of Monaco ISO country codes: MC, MCO, 492 ISO region codes: ISO 3166-2:MC Internet country code top-level domain:.mc Geography of Monaco Monaco is: a country and a European microstate Land boundaries: France 4.4 km Coastline: Mediterranean Sea 4.1 km Population of Monaco: 33,000 - 205th most populous country Area of Monaco: 2.02 km2 Atlas of Monaco Monaco is situated within the following regions: Northern Hemisphere and Eastern Hemisphere Eurasia Europe Western Europe Southern Europe Time zone: Central European Time, Central European Summer Time Extreme points of Monaco High: Chemin des Rivoires, a pathway located on the slopes of Mont Agel 161 m Low: Mediterranean Sea 0 m Climate of Monaco Wildlife of Monaco Fauna of Monaco Mammals of Monaco Birds of Monaco Land reclamation in Monaco Rivers of Monaco Rock of Monaco Demographics of Monaco Form of government: constitutional monarchy Capital of Monaco: being a city-state, Monaco is its own capital Administrative divisions: the principality is divided into ten wards Monaco-Ville Monte Carlo/Spélugues Fontvieille Moneghetti/Bd de Belgique Les Révoires La Colle La Condamine Saint Michel Larvotto/Bas Moulins La Rousse/Saint Roman Elections in Monaco Political parties in Monaco Union for Monaco Promotion of the Monegasque Family Union for the Principality Government of Monaco National and Democratic Union National Council of Monaco Minister of State Crown Council of Monaco Council of Government Communal Council of Monaco Head of state Prince of Monaco Head of government: Minister of State Serge Telle National Council of Monaco It's a Monaco unicameral parliament It may act independently of the Prince The prince may dissolve it at any time, provided that new elections be held within three months.
Supreme Court of Monaco Foreign relations of Monaco Diplomatic missions in Monaco Diplomatic missions of Monaco France-Monaco relations Monaco–European Union relations Monaco–Russia relations Monaco–United States relations The Principality of Monaco is a member of: Constitution of Monaco Human rights in Monaco Abortion in Monaco LGBT rights in Monaco Law enforcement in Monaco Compagnie des Carabiniers du Prince Capital punishment in Monaco Military of Monaco History of Monaco Monarchy of Monaco Rulers List of rulers of Monaco Elections in Monaco Monaco Succession Crisis of 1918 House of Grimaldi Prince of Monaco Line of succession to the Monegasque Throne Caroline, Princess of Hanover Princess Charlotte, Duchess of Valentinois Princess Stéphanie of Monaco Culture of Monaco Public art in Monaco Architecture of Monaco Hôtel de Paris Monte-Carlo Monte Carlo Casino Opéra de Monte-Carlo Palaces in Monaco Prince's Palace of Monaco Monaco villas Sports venues in Monaco Stade Louis II Cuisine of Monaco Barbajuan Languages of Monaco French language Monégasque dialect Ligurian language Genoese dialect Mentonasque Media in Monaco Radio stations in Monaco Television in Monaco Newspapers in Monaco Monegasque awards Orders and medals of Monaco Order of the Crown Order of Grimaldi Orders and decorations of Monaco Order of St. Charles National symbols of Monaco Coat of arms of Monaco Flag of Monaco National anthem of Monaco People of Monaco Scouts in Monaco Titles in Monaco Counts and dukes of Rethel Duke of Valentinois Hereditary Prince of Monaco Marquis of Baux Prince of Monaco World Heritage Sites in Monaco: None Music of Monaco Opéra de Monte-Carlo Monte-Carlo Philharmonic Orchestra Les Ballets de Monte Carlo Religion in Monaco Christianity in Monaco Roman Catholicism in Monaco Islam in Monaco Judaism in Monaco Sport in Monaco Monaco at the Olympics 1929 Monaco Grand Prix Monte-Carlo Masters Monegasque Rugby Federation Herculis Monaco national rugby union team Monte Carlo Open Monte Carlo Rally Football in Monaco AS Monaco FC Monaco national football team 2004 UEFA Champions League Final AS Monaco FC Stade Louis II Economy of Monaco Economic rank, by nominal GDP: 161st Banks of Monaco Communications in Monaco Monaco Telecom La Poste Monaco Currency of Monaco: Euro ISO 4217: EUR Monegasque euro coins Previous currency:Monegasque franc Energy in Monaco Monaco Stock Exchange Tourism in Monaco Hotels in Monaco Columbus Hotel Monaco Fairmont Monte Carlo Hôtel Hermitage Monte-Carlo Hotel Metropole, Monte Carlo Monte-Carlo Bay Hotel & Resort Hôtel de Paris Monte-Carlo Museums in Monaco Monaco Top Cars Collection Museum of Prehistoric Anthropology New National Museum of Monaco Oceanographic Museum Parks and botanical garden Casino Gardens and Terraces Fontvieille Park and Princess Grace Rose Garden Jardin Exotique de Monaco Japanese Garden, Monaco St Martin Gardens Restaurants and cafés in Monaco Le Louis XV Trade unions of Monaco Union of Monaco Trade Unions Transport in Monaco Airports in Monaco Chemin des Révoires EVER Monaco Monaco Heliport Port Hercules Rail transport in Monaco International School of Monaco Lycée Albert Premier International University of Monaco American College of Monaco Health in Monaco Cardiothoracic Center of Monaco Princess Grace Hospital Centre Lili M Thierry Manni Gildo Pallanca Pastor Isabelle Berro-Lefèvre Jean-François Bosio Pierre Roland Renoir Princess Stéphanie of Monaco Laurent Vaguener
Minister of State (Monaco)
The Minister of State is the head of government of Monaco, being appointed by and subordinate to the Prince or Princess of Monaco. During their term of office, the holder is responsible for directing the work of the Monegasque government and is in charge of foreign relations; as the monarch's representative, the Minister of State directs the executive services, commands the Police and the Military, presides over the Council of Government. The office was created in 1911 with the adoption of Monaco's constitution; until the revision of the constitution of 2002, the Minister had to be a French citizen, selected from several senior civil servants proposed by the French government. Since 2002, the Minister of State can be either French or Monegasque and is chosen and appointed by the monarch, after consultation with the French government. Politics of Monaco Monarchy of Monaco List of rulers of Monaco World Statesmen - Monaco
National Council (Monaco)
The National Council is the parliament of the Principality of Monaco. The body is composed of twenty-four members. Councilors serve for five-year terms, though it may act independently of the Prince, he may dissolve it at any time, provided that new elections be held within three months; the Council meets at least twice per year to vote on the country's budget and bills proposed by the prince's government. Ordinances are debated in the Council of Government, once approved, must be submitted to the prince within eighty days for his signature, which makes them enforceable. If he does not express opposition within ten days of submission, they become valid; the current president of the national council is Stéphane Valeri. Official website Bulletin of Conseil National
Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy. The region coincides with the Italian Riviera and is popular with tourists for its beaches and cuisine; the name Liguria predates Latin and is of obscure origin, however the Latin adjectives Ligusticum and Liguscus reveal the original -sc- in the root ligusc-, which shortened to -s- and turned into -r- in the Latin name Liguria according to rhotacism. The formant -sc- is present in the names Etruscan, Gascony and is believed by some researchers to relate to maritime people or sailors. Compare Greek Lígus λίγυς, a Ligurian, a person from Liguria, whence Ligustikḗ λιγυστική, the name of the place Liguria. Liguria is bordered by France to the west, Piedmont to the north, Emilia-Romagna and Tuscany to the east, it lies on the Ligurian Sea. The narrow strip of land is bordered by the Alps and the Apennines mountains; some mountains rise above 2,000 m. The highest point of the region is the summit of Monte Saccarello; the winding arched extension goes from Ventimiglia to La Spezia.
Of this, 3,524.08 km2 are mountainous and 891.95 km2 are hills. Liguria's natural reserves cover 600 km2 of land, they are made up of one national reserve, six large parks, two smaller parks and three nature reserves. The continental shelf is narrow, so steep it descends immediately to considerable depths along its 350-kilometre coastline. Except for the Portovenere and Portofino promontories, the coast is not jagged, is high. At the mouths of the biggest watercourses are small beaches, but there are no deep bays and natural harbours except at Genoa and La Spezia; the hills lying beyond the coast together with the sea account for a mild climate year-round. Average winter temperatures are 7 to 10 °C and summer temperatures are 23 to 24 °C, which make for a pleasant stay in the dead of winter. Rainfall can be abundant at times, as mountains close to the coast create an orographic effect. Genoa and La Spezia can see up to 2,000 mm of rain in a year. According to classical sources, the Ligurians once lived in a far broader territory than present-day Liguria.
For example, the Greek colony of Massalia, modern Marseille, was recorded to lie in Ligurian territory. During the first Punic War, the ancient Ligurians were divided, some of them siding with Carthage and a minority with Rome, whose allies included the future Genoese. Under Augustus, Liguria was designated a region of Italy stretching from the coast to the banks of the Po River; the great Roman roads helped increase communication and trade. Important towns developed on the coast, of which evidence is left in the ruins of Albenga and Luni. Between the 4th and the 10th centuries Liguria was dominated by the Byzantines, the Lombards of King Rothari and the Franks, it was invaded by Saracen and Norman raiders. In the 10th century, once the danger of pirates decreased, the Ligurian territory was divided into three marches: Obertenga and Aleramica. In the 11th and 12th centuries the marches were split into fees, with the strengthening of the bishops’ power, the feudal structure began to weaken; the main Ligurian towns on the coast, became city-states, over which Genoa soon extended its rule.
Inland, fiefs belonging to noble families survived for a long time. Between the 11th century and the 15th century, the Republic of Genoa experienced an extraordinary political and commercial success, it was one of the most powerful maritime republics in the Mediterranean from the 12th to the 14th century: after the decisive victory in the battle of Meloria, it acquired control over the Tyrrhenian Sea and was present in the nerve centres of power during the last phase of the Byzantine empire, having colonies up to Black Sea and Crimean. After the introduction of the title of doge for life and the election of Simone Boccanegra, Genoa resumed its struggles against the Marquis of Finale and the Counts of Laigueglia and it conquered again the territories of Finale and Porto Maurizio. In spite of its military and commercial successes, Genoa fell prey to the internal factions which put pressure on its political structure. Due to the vulnerable situation, the rule of the republic went to the hands of the Visconti family of Milan.
After their expulsion by the popular forces under Boccanegra’s lead, the republic remained in Genoese hands until 1396, when the internal instability led the doge Antoniotto Adorno to surrender the title of Seignior of Genoa to the king of France. The French were driven away in 1409 and Liguria went back under Milanese control in 1421, thus remaining until 1435; the alternation of French and Milanese dominions over Liguria went on until the first half of the 16th century. The French influence ceased in 1528, when Andrea Doria allied with the powerful king of Spain and imposed an aristocratic government, which gave the republic a relative stability fo
Land reclamation in Monaco
Land reclamation is done in Monaco because land is scarce, as the country is comparatively tiny, at 0.78 mi². To solve this problem and continue economic development, for years the country has been adding to its total land area by reclaiming land from the sea; the entire district of Fontvieille was constructed on land reclaimed from the sea in the 1970s. It is the newest of the four traditional quartiers in the principality of Monaco, one of ten Wards for modern administrative purposes, it is located in the western part of Monaco. Land has been added to areas of La Condamine and Larvotto/Bas Moulins. Prince Albert's father, Rainier III, was known as the "Builder Prince". In an attempt to further develop the economy of Monaco, he first supported the idea of land reclamation. Since it was impossible to extend into France, the only solution was to reclaim land from the sea. First, the Larvotto beach district was created in the early 1960s the Fontvieille industrial area, increasing the principality's surface area by 20 percent.
More Port Hercules has been extended to welcome larger cruise ships on one side, to provide land for a new Yacht Club on the other. Prince Albert II is planning to reclaim more land, he intends to build into the Mediterranean to create a new area about 5 hectares in size. The new district will extend from the Fontvieille district at the western foot of the Rock of Monaco, where Monaco's palace and historic centre are situated; the project will cost an estimated €11 billion. It was suspended in 2009 due to the global financial crisis and the prince's concerns regarding the marine environment. However, the project was resumed in 2010 and is expected to be completed by 2014. Monaco's coastline on the Mediterranean is a fragile and vulnerable environment. Any further land reclamation projects threaten to damage the coastal ecosystem. Monaco's leaders have approached the prospect of further land reclamation with caution and have stated that new projects would have to meet strict environmental standards to limit damage to flora and wildlife.
Due to the concerns that land reclamation could damage local marine ecosystems, Prince Albert II has insisted the entire expansion be placed on stilts, like an oil rig, in order to disturb the sea floor as little as possible. Land reclamation in Hong Kong Land reclamation in the UAE
Kingdom of Sardinia
The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state in Southern Europe from the early 14th until the mid-19th century. When it was acquired by the Duke of Savoy in 1720, it was a former Iberian state as well as a member of the Council of Aragon. However, the Savoyards united it with their possessions on the Italian mainland and, by the time of the Crimean War in 1853, had built the resulting kingdom into a strong power; the composite state under the rule of Savoy in this period may be called Savoy-Sardinia or Piedmont-Sardinia, or the Kingdom of Piedmont to emphasise that the island of Sardinia had always been of secondary importance to the monarchy. The formal name of the entire Savoyard state was the "States of His Majesty the King of Sardinia", its final capital was the capital of Savoy since the mid 16th century. The kingdom consisted of the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, sovereignty over both of, claimed by the Papacy, which granted them as a fief, the regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae, to King James II of Aragon in 1297.
Beginning in 1324, James and his successors conquered the island of Sardinia and established de facto their de jure authority. In 1420, after the Sardinian-Catalan War, the last competing claim to the island was bought out. After the union of the crowns of Aragon and Castile, Sardinia became a part of the burgeoning Spanish Empire. In 1720, the island was ceded by the Habsburg and Bourbon claimants to the Spanish throne to Duke Victor Amadeus II of Savoy. While in theory the traditional capital of the island of Sardinia and seat of its viceroys was Cagliari, the Piedmontese city of Turin was the de facto capital of Savoy; when the mainland domains of the House of Savoy were occupied and annexed by Napoleonic France, the king of Sardinia made his permanent residence on the island for the first time in its history. The Congress of Vienna, which restructured Europe after Napoleon's defeat, returned to Savoy its mainland possessions and augmented them with Liguria, taken from the Republic of Genoa.
In 1847–48, through the "Perfect Fusion", the various Savoyard states were unified under one legal system with their capital in Turin, granted a constitution, the Statuto Albertino. There followed the annexation of Lombardy, the central Italian states and the Two Sicilies and the Papal States. On 17 March 1861, to more reflect its new geographic extent, the Kingdom of Sardinia changed its name to the Kingdom of Italy, its capital was moved first to Florence and to Rome; the Savoy-led Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia was thus the legal predecessor of the Kingdom of Italy, which in turn is the predecessor of the present-day Italian Republic. In 238 BC Sardinia became, along with a province of the Roman Empire; the Romans ruled the island until the middle of the 5th century, when it was occupied by the Vandals, who had settled in north Africa. In 534 AD it was reconquered by the Romans, but now from Byzantium, it remained a Byzantine province until the Arab conquest of Sicily in the 9th century. After that, communications with Constantinople became difficult, powerful families of the island assumed control of the land.
Facing Arab attempts to sack and conquer, while having no outside help, Sardinia utilized the principle of translatio imperii and continued to organize itself along the ancient Roman and Byzantine model. The island was not the personal property of the ruler and of his family, as was the dominant practice in western Europe, but rather a separate entity and during the Byzantine Empire, a monarchical republic, as it had been since Roman times. Starting from 705–706, Saracens from north Africa harassed the population of the coastal cities. Information about the Sardinian political situation in the following centuries is scarce. Due to Saracen attacks, in the 9th century Tharros was abandoned in favor of Oristano, after more than 1800 years of occupation. There is a record of another massive Saracen sea attack in 1015–16 from the Balearics, commanded by Mujāhid al-ʿĀmirī; the Saracen attempt to invade the island was stopped by the Judicates with the support of the fleets of the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa, free cities of the Holy Roman Empire.
Pope Benedict VIII requested aid from the maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa in the struggle against the Arabs. After the Great Schism, Rome made many efforts to restore Latinity to the Sardinian church and society, to reunify the island under one Catholic ruler, as it had been for all of southern Italy, when the Byzantines had been driven away by Catholic Normans; the title of "Judge" was a Byzantine reminder of the Greek church and state, in times of harsh relations between eastern and western churches. Before the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica, the Archons or, in Latin, who reigned in the island from the 9th or 10th century until the beginning of the 11th century, can be considered real kings of all Sardinia though nominal vassals of the Byzantine emperors. Of these sovereigns only two names are known: Turcoturiu and