Franco-Provençal is a dialect group within Gallo-Romance spoken in east-central France, western Switzerland, northwestern Italy, in enclaves in the Province of Foggia in Apulia, Italy. Franco-Provençal has several distinct dialects and is separate from but related to neighboring Romance dialects; the designation Franco-Provençal dates to the 19th century. Traditionally, the dialect group is referred to as patois, since the late 20th century as Arpitan, its areal as Arpitania; the number of speakers of Franco-Provençal has been declining significantly. According to UNESCO, Franco-Provençal is a "potentially endangered language" in Italy and an "endangered language" in Switzerland and France. Spoken throughout the territory of Savoy, Franco-Provençal speakers are now found in the Aosta Valley, an autonomous administrative division of Italy; the language is spoken in alpine valleys in the Metropolitan City of Turin, two isolated towns in the Province of Foggia, rural areas of the Swiss Romandie.
It is one of the three Gallo-Romance language families of France and is recognized as a regional language of France, but its use is marginal. Organizations are attempting to preserve it through cultural events, scholarly research, publishing. Aside from regional French dialects, it is the most related language to French. Franco-Provençal's name would suggest it is a bridge dialect between French and the Provençal dialect of Occitan, but this is misleading. More Franco-Provençal is a separate Gallo-Romance language that transitions into the Oïl languages Morvandiau and Franc-Comtois to the northwest, into Romansh to the east, into the Gallo-Italic language Piemontese to the southeast, into the Vivaro-Alpine dialect of Occitan to the southwest; the philological classification for Franco-Provençal published by the Linguasphere Observatory follows: Indo-European phylosector → Romanic phylozone → Italiano+Româneasca set → Italiano+Româneasca chain → Romance-West net → Lyonnais+Valdôtain reference name.
The Linguasphere Observatory language code for Franco-Provençal is 51-AAA-jA philological classification for Franco-Provençal published by Ruhlen is as follows: Indo-Hittite → Indo-European → Italic → Latino-Faliscan → Romance → Continental → Western → Gallo-Iberian-Romance → Gallo-Romance → North → Franco-Provençal. Franco-Provençal emerged as a Gallo-Romance variety of Latin; the linguistic region comprises east-central France, western portions of Switzerland, the Aosta Valley of Italy with the adjacent alpine valleys of the Piedmont. This area covers territories once occupied by pre-Roman Celts, including the Allobroges, Helvetii and Salassi. By the 5th century, the region was controlled by the Burgundians. Federico Krutwig has detected a Basque substrate in the toponyms of the easternmost Valdôtain dialect. Franco-Provençal is first attested in manuscripts from the 12th century diverging from the langues d'oïl as early as the 8th–9th centuries. However, Franco-Provençal is typified by a strict, myopic comparison to French, so is characterized as "conservative".
Thus, like Désormaux, consider "medieval" the terms for many nouns and verbs, including pâta "rag", bayâ "to give", moussâ "to lie down", all of which are conservative only relative to French. As an example, Désormaux, writing on this point in the foreword of his Savoyard dialect dictionary, states: The antiquated character of the Savoyard patois is striking. One can note it not only in phonetics and morphology, but in the vocabulary, where one finds numerous words and directions that disappeared from French. Franco-Provençal failed to garner the cultural prestige of its three more spoken neighbors: French and Italian. Communities where speakers lived were mountainous and isolated from one another; the internal boundaries of the entire speech area were divided by religious conflicts. France, the Franche-Comté, the duchy kingdom, ruled by the House of Savoy politically divided the region; the strongest possibility for any dialect of Franco-Provençal to establish itself as a major language died when an edict, dated 6 January 1539, was confirmed in the parliament of the Duchy of Savoy on 4 March 1540.
The edict explicitly replaced Latin with French as the language of the courts. The name Franco-Provençal is due to Graziadio Isaia Ascoli, chosen because the dialect group was seen as intermediate between French and Provençal. Franco-Provençal dialects were spoken in their speech areas until the 20th century; as French political power expanded and the "single-national-language" doctrine was spread through French-only education, Franco-Provençal speakers abandoned their language, which had numerous spoken variations and no standard orthography, in favor of culturally prestigious French. Franco-Provençal is an fragmented language, with scores of peculiar local variations that never merged over time; the range of dialect diversity is far greater than that found in the Langue d'Oïl and Occitan regions. Comprehension of one dialect by speakers of another is difficult. Nowhere is it spoken in a "pure form" and
Huriah Adam was a famous dance artist from West Sumatra. Huriah was the daughter of a modern Minangkabau Islamic cleric from Padang Panjang, Sheikh Adam Balai-Balai and his wife Fatimah. Sheikh Adam established a public school for girls, supported the development of his children's artistic talents, including Huriah. Huriah received tutelage from Minangkabau martial arts experts since she was a child. In her life, Huriah became famous for choreographing experimental dances in an intercultural dance workshop at the Jakarta Arts Center, Taman Ismail Marzuki, in which she incorporated many traditional Minangkabau dance and drama movements, such as from silat and randai; the new innovative forms of dance movements spread to many Minangkabau dance studios and are taught in schools, both in the capital city of Jakarta or in West Sumatra. Aside from being a dancer, she was a pretty good painter and sculptor, in which some of her works were collected by art lovers and some become monuments in several places in West Sumatra.
Huriah was only 35 years old when she died in an airplane accident on November 10, 1971, when the plane crashed into the sea off the coast of West Sumatra. List of Minangkabau people Randai Huriah Adam: Legendary Dance Choreographer in TokohIndonesia.com
Kidwelly Town Council is the town council serving the town of Kidwelly and the village of Mynydd-y-Garreg in the county of Carmarthenshire, Wales. Kidwelly Town Council consists of 16 Councillors; the council appoints a Mayor, known as the Mayor of Kidwelly and Mynydd Y Garreg, takes care of local issues, such as Kidwelly Quay, the Town Cemetery, Christmas Lighting, the Church Clock, Glan yr Afon Nature reserve, the War Memorial and Remembrance Garden. It manages a large estate and promotes local tourism; the town council is taking over responsibility of the playgrounds from Carmarthenshire County Council, under an asset transfer scheme. Alongside taking over the running of the public conveniences in the town. 2015 was the 900th celebration of the establishment of the town of Kidwelly. The council offices are to be found to the rear of the Princess Gwenllian Centre on Hillfield Villas, Kidwelly. New purpose-built council offices and Council Chamber were opened May 2018; the May 2017 election was uncontested, because fewer nominations being made than the number of places available.
It left the town council with the option of co-opting additional members. Kidwelly Town Council made the UK news in 2015 when charges were dropped against a former deputy mayor, accused of groping a woman during the 2014 mayoral ceremony, he had resigned from the council after his arrest. Kidwelly Town Council