The lion is one of the big cats in the genus Panthera and a member of the family Felidae. The commonly used term African lion collectively denotes the several subspecies in Africa, with some males exceeding 250 kg in weight, it is the second-largest living cat after the tiger. Wild lions currently exist in sub-Saharan Africa and in India, in ancient historic times, their range was in most of Africa, including North Africa, and across Eurasia from Greece and southeastern Europe to India. Lion populations are untenable outside designated reserves and national parks, although the cause of the decline is not fully understood, habitat loss and conflicts with humans are the greatest causes of concern. Within Africa, the West African lion population is particularly endangered, in the wild, males seldom live longer than 10 to 14 years, as injuries sustained from continual fighting with rival males greatly reduce their longevity. In captivity they can more than 20 years. They typically inhabit savanna and grassland, although they may take to bush, Lions are unusually social compared to other cats. A pride of lions consists of related females and offspring and a number of adult males.
Groups of female lions typically hunt together, preying mostly on large ungulates, Lions are apex and keystone predators, although they are expert scavengers obtaining over 50 percent of their food by scavenging as opportunity allows. While lions do not typically hunt humans, some have, sleeping mainly during the day, lions are active primarily at night, although sometimes at twilight. Highly distinctive, the lion is easily recognised by its mane. It has been depicted in sculptures, in paintings, on national flags. Lions have been kept in menageries since the time of the Roman Empire, Zoos are cooperating worldwide in breeding programs for the endangered Asiatic subspecies. The lions name, similar in many Romance languages, is derived from the Latin leo, the Hebrew word לָבִיא may be related. It was one of the originally described by Linnaeus, who gave it the name Felis leo, in his eighteenth-century work. The lions closest relatives are the species of the genus Panthera, the tiger, the snow leopard, the jaguar. P.
leo evolved in Africa between 1 million and 800,000 years ago, before spreading throughout the Holarctic region and it appeared in the fossil record in Europe for the first time 700,000 years ago with the subspecies Panthera leo fossilis at Isernia in Italy. From this lion derived the cave lion, which appeared about 300,000 years ago, Lions died out in northern Eurasia at the end of the last glaciation, about 10,000 years ago, this may have been secondary to the extinction of Pleistocene megafauna
The Martin Model 167 was an American-designed medium bomber that first flew in 1939. It saw action in World War II with France and the United Kingdom, in response to a United States Army Air Corps light bomber requirement issued in 1938, the Glenn L. Martin Company produced their Model 167, which was given the official designation XA-22. Martins design was a twin-engine all-metal monoplane, capable of around 310 mph with a crew of three, the prototype Model 167W was powered by twin-row Pratt & Whitney R-1830-37 Twin Wasp engines, which were replaced in French production aircraft by single-row 9-cylinder Wright R-1820 Cyclone engines. All versions of the Model 167 were armed with six guns, four fixed guns in the wings, one dorsal gun. In the prototype these guns were all 0.30 in Browning machine guns, the dorsal gun was mounted in a fully retractable turret. The French aircraft used license built Belgian Fabrique Nationale FN-Brownings, the weight saved helped to increase the top speed to 288 mph.
The Model 167 was a fairly typical twin engined bomber of the period, the most unusual feature of the Model 167 was the very narrow fuselage although it was shared with a number of late pre-war contemporaries. Glenn L. Martin doubled the size of the Baltimore factory, and built all 115 aircraft in six months, despite this the French placed an order for an additional 100 aircraft. The embargo was lifted in October 1939, and the 115 aircraft from the first order were delivered by late November 1939, deliveries slowed down, and only 25 of the second batch reached France before the Armistice of 22 June 1940. Facing a massive German arms buildup and desperate for modern aircraft, Martin received an order for more than 200167 Fs which incorporated French-specific equipment such as metric instruments. French officials expected deliveries to begin in January 1939 but the type, because of the U. S. embargo on arms exports after the beginning of World War II, many aircraft were impounded for two months before being shipped to Europe.
When the Germans invaded France there were only four Groupes de bombardement equipped, the Glenns were quickly sent to the front lines where they performed well with their adequate speed and excellent maneuverability for an aircraft in this class. In about 400 sorties, they suffered a 4% loss rate, immediately before the June 1940 Armistice, units flying the Glenn Martin 167 were evacuated to French North Africa to avoid capture by the Germans. One of them landed in Spain and was interned, being tested by the Spanish Air Force, some examples were transferred to the Aéronautique Navale. During Vichy rule of the French empire, French Martins bombed British Commonwealth forces, as French North Africa got back in the Allied camp in 1943, M. 167s were replaced with more modern Allied types, including the Martin B-26 Marauder. Approximately 215 Martin 167s were delivered to France, just before the Franco-German Armistice, the remaining 75 planes on the French order were signed over to the United Kingdom.
Thirty-two aircraft had completed to French specifications and were converted to British requirements in the UK. Engines were changed from the Cyclone 9 to the Pratt and Whitney Twin Wasp and various weapons, the last 43 of the order were completed as required by Glenn Martin
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
The Fiat G.50 Freccia was a World War II Italian fighter aircraft. First flown in February 1937, the G.50 was Italy’s first single-seat, all-metal monoplane with an enclosed cockpit and retractable undercarriage to go into production. The Fiat G.50 was used in small numbers by the Croatian Air Force and 35 were shipped to Finland, the Fiat G.50 was designed by Giuseppe Gabrielli, who started planning a single-engined monoplane fighter in April 1935. Work began on two prototypes in mid-summer 1936, construction was entrusted to the workshops of the CMASA, a subsidiary of Fiat at Marina di Pisa, comandante Giovanni de Briganti, the chief test pilot of the G. The G. Flaps were fitted to the wings to improve its take-off. The pilot sat in a cockpit under a sliding transparent canopy. The aircraft was fitted with a landing gear, with the mainwheels retracting inwards. In 1937, along with the first pre-series machines, a gruppo sperimentale was formed, the first versions could have different weaponry, one or two 12.
7-mm Breda-SAFAT machine guns in the nose and two more 7. 7-mm Breda-SAFAT in the wings. Later versions were distinguished by a larger rudder, in September 1937, Fiat received a first order for 45 aircraft. Before placing an order, the Air Ministry held a comparative test with the new Macchi MC.200. On 8 November 1937, de Briganti was killed on the evaluation flight of the second prototype. Flight tests at Guidonia showed that the aircraft went too readily into an uncontrolled spin, during a visit by the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III and Prime Minister Benito Mussolini, another tragedy occurred at Guidonia. While performing a low, fast pass, three G. 50s flown by experienced pilots, Maggiore Mario Bonzano and Lieutenants Beretta and Marasco, berettas aircraft spun uncontrollably and crashed into the ammunition laboratory, killing the pilot. On account of its maneuverability, the Regia Aeronautica Commission decided to order the G.50 as well, rejecting the third contender, the first aircraft were delivered to the Regia Aeronautica in early 1938.
In addition, exhaust fumes tended to accumulate in the cockpit, consequently, an open cockpit was installed in the second batch of 200 machines. After 1939, the production was shifted to the CMASA factory in Marina di Pisa. In 1938, the Regia Aeronautica requested a two-seater trainer which was designated the G. 50/B, the first were built in the second half of 1939. The student pilot sat in the front in a cockpit with two roll bars
The Macchi C.200 Saetta, or MC.200, was a World War II fighter aircraft built by Aeronautica Macchi in Italy, and used in various forms throughout the Regia Aeronautica. The MC.200 had excellent maneuverability and general flying characteristics left little to be desired, stability in a high-speed dive was exceptional, but it was underpowered and underarmed in comparison to its contemporaries. From the time Italy entered war on 10 June 1940, until the armistice of 8 September 1943, the Saetta ranged over Greece, North Africa, France, across the Mediterranean and the Soviet Union. Its very strong construction and air-cooled engine made the aircraft ideal for ground attack. Over 1,000 were built by the time the war ended, following the end of Italys campaigns in East Africa, a program was started to completely re-equip the Regia Aeronautica with a new interceptor aircraft of modern design.7 mm machine gun. Macchis lead designer was Mario Castoldi, the creator of several racing aircraft which competed for the Schneider Trophy, including the M.39, in designing a modern fighter, Castoldi proposed a modern all-metal cantilever low-wing monoplane, with retractable landing gear, and an enclosed cockpit.
The fuselage was of construction, with self-sealing fuel tanks under the pilots seat. The distinctive hump elevated the cockpit to provide the pilot with a view over the engine. The wing had a system whereby the hydraulically actuated flaps were interconnected with the ailerons. Power was provided by the 650 kW Fiat A.74 radial engine, although Castoldi preferred inline engines, with direttiva of 1932, Italian industrial leaders had been instructed to concentrate solely on radial engines for fighters, due to their better reliability. The licence-built A.74 engine could be problematic, in late spring 1941, 4° Stormos Macchi C. 200s based in Sicily, had all the A. 74s produced by the Reggiane factory replaced because they were defective units. The elite unit had to many missions against Malta due to engine problems. Although the Macchi C.200 was considered underpowered, the radial engine provided some pilot protection during strafing missions. Consequently, the C.200 was often used as a cacciabombardiere, moreover, it was maneuverable and had a sturdy all-metal construction.
Its armament of two 12.7 mm machine guns was not sufficient, but the Saetta could compete with contemporary Allied fighters. The first prototype C.200 flew on 24 December 1937, in Lonate Pozzolo, Varese and it was followed by the second prototype early the next year. During testing, the aircraft attained 805 km/h in a dive, this was better than the performance of the competing Fiat G.50, Reggiane Re.2000, A. U. T. 18, IMAM Ro.51, and Caproni-Vizzola F.5, nevertheless, an initial order for 99 was placed to Macchi factory
The Bristol Blenheim is a British light bomber aircraft designed and built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company that was used extensively in the first two years of the Second World War. It was originally developed as the civil-orientated Type 142 in response to Lord Rothermeres challenge to produce the fastest commercial aircraft in Europe. First flying in April 1935, the Air Ministry was quickly impressed by its performance, on 10 March 1937, deliveries of the newly named Blenheim commenced to RAF squadrons. The Blenheim was one of the first British aircraft to feature an all-metal stressed-skin construction, retractable landing gear, flaps, a more capable bomber derivative, the Beaufort, was developed, being both larger and heavier than the Blenheim. A Canadian-built variant named the Bolingbroke was used as a patrol aircraft. The Mark IV variant was equally unsuccessful in its daylight bombing role, the Blenheim was used by a wide range of overseas operators, as well being produced under licence in Finland and Yugoslavia.
By this point, proposed use of the Aquila engine had been shelved in favour of the supercharger-equipped, deeming it suitable for the issued challenge, the design of Type 135 was further adapted to produce the Type 142 in order to meet the requirements outlined by Rothermere. On 12 April 1935, the Type 142, which had given the name Britain First, conducted its maiden flight from Filton Aerodrome. Flight tests soon proved that the aircraft was in fact faster than any fighter in service with the Royal Air Force at the time, Rothermere presented the aircraft to the nation for a formal evaluation at a potential bomber. By June 1935, the Air Ministry had become interested in the due to its high performance. On 9 July 1935, a conference was held by Bristol at the ministrys request into the question of converting the Type 142 into a suitable medium bomber. Based upon talks from the conference, the Air Ministry quickly formalised Specification B. 28/35 for prototypes of a bomber version, the Type 142M.
Other modifications included the addition of a position and a Browning machine gun gun in the nose along with provisions for a semi-retractable gun turret in the dorsal position. In September 1935, a contract for 150 aircraft was placed. The Air Ministry had chosen to order the type directly from the board, having been urgently sought as one piece of a wider. The first aircraft built of this model, K7033, served as the only prototype, on 25 June 1936. The service name for the aircraft became Blenheim Mk I after the battle during the War of the Spanish Succession. On 10 March 1937, production deliveries to the RAF formally started,114 Squadron became the first squadron to receive the Blenheim
With the fall of France, the production series was diverted to Great Britain. Baltimore development was hindered by a series of problems, although the type became a highly versatile combat aircraft. Initially designated the A-23, the Model 187 had a deeper fuselage, the Model 187 met the needs for a light to medium bomber, originally ordered by the Anglo-French Purchasing Commission as a joint project in May 1940. The French Air Force sought to replace the earlier Maryland,400 aircraft being ordered, with the fall of France, the Royal Air Force took over the order and gave it the service name Baltimore. To enable the aircraft to be supplied to the British under the Lend-Lease Act the United States Army Air Forces designation A-30 was allocated, the first British aircraft were delivered in late 1941 to equip Operational Training Units. The RAF only used the Baltimores operationally in the Mediterranean theater, many users were impressed by the step up that the Baltimore represented from older aircraft like the Bristol Blenheim.
The users of the Baltimore, and Martin pilot Benjamin R, due to the narrow fuselage it was nearly impossible for crew members to change positions during flight if wounded. This was common for most light bombers of the era like the Handley Page Hampden, Douglas Boston, crews complained about the difficulties in handling the aircraft on the ground. On takeoff, the pilot had to co-ordinate the throttles perfectly to avoid a nose-over, operating at medium altitude with fighter escorts, the Baltimore had a very low loss rate, with the majority of losses coming from operational accidents. The Baltimore saw limited Fleet Air Arm service with aircraft transferred from the RAF in the Mediterranean to equip a squadron in 1944, used in the anti-submarine role during the war, the Baltimore achieved moderate success, sinking up to eight U-boats. The RAF transferred aircraft to other Allies in the Mediterranean area, after the capitulation of Italy in 1943, the type was used intensively in the Italian campaign to clear the road to Rome for advancing Allied forces.
After the armistice, an Italian-manned squadron, the 28th Bomber Wing, was equipped with ex-RAF Baltimores, the Italians suffered considerable attrition during their training phase on the Baltimore. The majority of accidents were during takeoffs and landings due to the fairly high wing loading, high approach speed. The Italians only operated the Baltimore for roughly six months, many of those operations were in Yugoslavia and Greece, providing air support for partisan forces or dropping supplies. Most Baltimores were scrapped soon after the war, although one RAF squadron continued to use the type in Kenya where the aircraft were used in aerial mapping and locust control until 1948. In post-war service, the Baltimore took part in United States Navy instrument, with its powerful engines and light, yet robust construction, the aircraft was able to be dived at high speed, reaching Mach.74 in tests. All Baltimores were withdrawn from service by the end of 1949, Baltimore B. II As with the Mk I, defensive armament was increased to 120.303 in machine guns including twin 0.303 in Vickers K machine guns in both the dorsal and ventral positions.
III Modified Mk II design defensive armament was increased to 140.303 in guns, iIIa Ordered by USAAF and supplied under Lend-lease to the RAF, two 0.50 in machine guns in a Martin-built electrically powered dorsal turret
Bracciano is a small town in the Italian region of Lazio,30 kilometres northwest of Rome. The town is famous for its lake and for a particularly well-preserved medieval castle Castello Orsini-Odescalchi. The lake is used for sailing and is popular with tourists. The town is served by a railway which connects it with Rome in about 55 minutes. Close to it lie the two towns of Anguillara Sabazia and Trevignano Romano. There is no information about the origins of Bracciano, on the Via Cassia overlooking the lake. It probably rose from one of the towers built in the tenth century as a defence against the Saracen attacks. In the eleventh century the territory was acquired by the Prefetti di Vico family. Ferdinand Gregorovius dated the possession of Bracciano by the Orsini to 1234, the area was acquired by the Roman hospital of Santo Spirito in Sassia and, from 1375, was a Papal possession. In 1419 the Colonna Pope Martin V confirmed the fief of Bracciano in the Orsini family branch of Tagliacozzo. Under this powerful family the city developed into a town, famous in the whole of Italy for its castle.
In 1481 it housed Pope Sixtus IV, who had fled from the plague in Rome, four years later, the city and the castle were ravaged by Papal troops under Prospero Colonna, and subsequently a new line of walls was built. In 1494 Charles VIII of France and his troops marching against Rome stopped at Bracciano. This act led to the excommunication of the Orsini, and in 1496 the city was besieged by an army headed by Giovanni di Candia, son of Pope Alexander VI Borgia. Cesare Borgia, another of Alexanders natural sons, was unsuccessful in his attempt to take the Orsini stronghold a few years later, the sixteenth century was a period of splendour for Bracciano. The castello received some modernization for the visit of the Medici that year. Isabella spent the remainder of her life avoiding a return to the castle, the economy was boosted by the exploitation of sulphur and iron, the production of tapestries and paper. The latter was favoured by the construction of an aqueduct whose ruins can still be seen in the city, Bracciano in this period had some 4,500 inhabitants
The Italian Royal Air Force was the name of the air force of the Kingdom of Italy. It was established as an independent of the Royal Italian Army from 1923 until 1946. In 1946, the monarchy was abolished and the Kingdom of Italy became the Italian Republic, during World War I, the Italian Corpo Aeronautico Militare, still part of the Regio Esercito, operated a mix of French fighters and locally-built bombers, notably the gigantic Caproni aircraft. The Regia Marina had its own air arm, operating locally-built flying boats, the Italian air force became an independent service—the Regia Aeronautica—on March 28,1923. This pioneering achievement was organized and led by General of Aviation Italo Balbo, during the latter half of the 1930s, the Regia Aeronautica participated in the Spanish Civil War, as well as the invasions of Ethiopia and Albania. The first test for the new Italian Royal Air force came in October 1935, during the final stages of the war, Regia Aeronautica deployed up to 386 aircraft, operating from Eritrea and Somalia.
The Italian aviators did not have any opposition in the air, as the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force had just 15 transport and liaison aircraft, only nine of which were serviceable. However the Regia Aeronautica lost 72 planes and 122 aircrew members while supporting the operations of the Regio Esercito, and after the end of hostilities, on 5 May 1936, for the following 13 months the Regia Aeronautica had to assist Italian forces in fighting Ethiopian guerrillas. During the Spanish Civil War Italian pilots fought alongside Spanish Nationalist and this deployment took place from July 1936 to March 1939 and complimented an expeditionary force of Italian ground troops titled Corps of Volunteer Troops. In Spain, the Italian pilots were under command of the Spanish Nationalists and took part in training. The Aviazione legionaria achieved approximately 500 air victories, losing 86 aircraft in air combat, the Regia Aeronautica played a limited role during the Italian invasion of Albania. When World War II began in 1939, Italy had the smallest air force among the three major Axis powers, with a paper strength of 3,296 machines, only 2,000 were fit for operations, of which just 166 were modern fighters.
The Macchi MC.200 and Fiat G.50 were the best available but were slower than potential Allied fighters. While numerically still a force to be reckoned with, it was hampered by the aircraft industry which was using obsolete production methods. Technical assistance provided by its German ally did little to improve the situation, on 10 June 1940, during the closing days of the Battle of France, Italy declared war on France and the United Kingdom. On 13 June, Fiat CR. 42s attacked French air bases, two days later, CR. 42s from 3° Stormo and 53° Stormo attacked again French Air Force bases and clashed with Dewoitine D. 520s and Bloch MB. 152s, claiming eight kills for five losses. The Regia Aeronautica carried out 716 bombing missions in support of the Italian invasion of France by the Regio Esercito, Italian aircraft dropped a total of 276 tons of bombs. Only about 80 long tons of bombs were dropped on the targets, during this short war, Regia Aeronautica lost 10 aircraft in aerial combat and 24 aircrew personnel, while claiming 10 kills and 40 French planes destroyed on the ground
The Fiat CR.42 Falco was a single-seat sesquiplane fighter that served primarily in Italys Regia Aeronautica before and during World War II. The aircraft was produced by Fiat Aviazione, and entered service, in numbers, with the air forces of Belgium, Sweden. With more than 1,800 built, it was the most numerous Italian aircraft in World War II, the CR.42 was the last of the Fiat biplane fighters to enter front line service, and represented the epitome of the type, along with the Gloster Gladiator. RAF Intelligence praised its exceptional manoeuvrability, further noting that the plane was immensely strong, though it little chance against faster. It performed at its best with the Hungarian Air Force on the Eastern Front, the CR.42 was an evolutionary design based on the earlier Fiat CR.32, which was in turn derived from the Fiat CR.30 series created in 1932. The rigidly braced wings covered with fabric were constructed from light duralumin alloy and it reached a top speed of 438 km/h at 5,300 m and 342 km/h at ground level.
Climb rate was 1 minute and 25 seconds to 1,000 m, the CR. 42s upper wing was larger than its lower wing, a configuration known as a sesquiplane. The aircraft proved exceptionally agile thanks to its low wing loading, although at the same time. Although the age of the biplane was coming to an end a number of air forces expressed interest in the new fighter. Soon after its introduction, Fiat developed a number of variants. The CR. 42bis and CR. 42ter had increased firepower, the CR. 42N was a fighter, the CR. 42AS was optimised for ground attack. The Biposto was the most extensively modified, with a longer fuselage allowing a second seat to be placed in tandem, about 40 aircraft were produced by Agusta and Caproni Trento. Its length was increased by 68 centimeters over the fighter, to a total of to 8.94 m. Empty weight was only 40 kilograms more, as the wheel fairings had been removed, top speed was 430 km/h at 5,300 meters, only 8 km/h less. Up to 1945, two guns were fitted. Experimental configurations included the I. CR.42 and the CR.
42DB, beginning in 1938, Fiat had worked on the I. CR.42, gave the task to complete the project to CMASA factory in Marina di Pisa on the Tirreno sea coast. The only prototype was built in 1940, tests started at the beginning of 1941, at the Vigna di Valle base, on Lake Bracciano, north of Rome. Top speed was 423 km/h, range was 950 km while ceiling was reduced to 9,000 m, empty weight went from 1,720 to 1,850 kilograms, full weight from 2,295 to 2,425 kilograms
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress
The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is a four-engine heavy bomber developed in the 1930s for the United States Army Air Corps. Competing against Douglas and Martin for a contract to build 200 bombers, although Boeing lost the contract because the prototype crashed, the air corps ordered 13 more B-17s for further evaluation. From its introduction in 1938, the B-17 Flying Fortress evolved through numerous design advances, the B-17 was primarily employed by the United States Army Air Forces in the daylight strategic bombing campaign of World War II against German industrial and military targets. The B-17 participated to an extent in the War in the Pacific, early in World War II. From its prewar inception, the USAAC promoted the aircraft as a weapon, it was a relatively fast, high-flying. It developed a reputation for toughness based upon stories and photos of badly damaged B-17s safely returning to base, the B-17 developed a reputation as an effective bomber, dropping more bombs than any other U. S.
aircraft in World War II. Of the 1.5 million tonnes of bombs dropped on Germany, in addition to its role as a bomber, the B-17 was employed as a transport, antisubmarine aircraft, drone controller, and search-and-rescue aircraft. As of May 2015, ten aircraft remain airworthy, none of them are combat veterans. Dozens more are in storage or on static display, the oldest of these is a D-series veteran of combat in the Pacific and the Caribbean. On 8 August 1934, the U. S. Army Air Corps tendered a proposal for a bomber to replace the Martin B-10. The air corps was looking for a capable of reinforcing the air forces in Hawaii, Panama. Requirements were that it would carry a useful bombload at an altitude of 10,000 ft for ten hours with a top speed of at least 200 mph. They desired, but did not require, a range of 2,000 mi, the competition for the air corps contract would be decided by a fly-off between Boeings design, the Douglas DB-1, and the Martin Model 146 at Wright Field in Dayton, Ohio. The prototype B-17, with the Boeing factory designation of Model 299, was designed by a team of engineers led by E.
Gifford Emery and Edward Curtis Wells and it combined features of the experimental Boeing XB-15 bomber with the Boeing 247 transport aircraft. The B-17s armament consisted of up to 4,800 lb of bombs on two racks in the bay behind the cockpit, and initially possessed five.30 caliber machine guns. It was powered by four Pratt & Whitney R-1690 Hornet radial engines each producing 750 hp at 7,000 ft, the first flight of the Model 299 was on 28 July 1935 with Boeing chief test-pilot Leslie Tower at the controls. Richard Williams, a reporter for the Seattle Times, coined the name Flying Fortress with his comment, when the Model 299 was rolled out bristling with multiple machine gun installations. The most unusual gun emplacement was the installation which allowed the single machine gun to be fired toward almost any frontal angle
The three traditional parts of the country are Tripolitania and Cyrenaica. With an area of almost 1.8 million square kilometres, Libya is the fourth largest country in Africa, Libya has the 10th-largest proven oil reserves of any country in the world. The largest city and capital, Tripoli, is located in western Libya, the other large city is Benghazi, which is located in eastern Libya. Libya has been inhabited by Berbers since the late Bronze Age, the Phoenicians established trading posts in western Libya, and ancient Greek colonists established city-states in eastern Libya. Libya was variously ruled by Carthaginians, Persians and Greeks before becoming a part of the Roman Empire, Libya was an early center of Christianity. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area of Libya was mostly occupied by the Vandals until the 7th century, in the 16th century, the Spanish Empire and the Knights of St John occupied Tripoli, until Ottoman rule began in 1551. Libya was involved in the Barbary Wars of the 18th and 19th centuries, Ottoman rule continued until the Italian occupation of Libya resulted in the temporary Italian Libya colony from 1911 to 1943.
During the Second World War Libya was an important area of warfare in the North African Campaign, the Italian population went into decline. Libya became an independent kingdom in 1951, a military coup in 1969 overthrew King Idris I, beginning a period of sweeping social reform. Since then, Libya has experienced a period of instability, the European Union is involved in an operation to disrupt human trafficking networks exploiting refugees fleeing from wars in Africa for Europe. At least two political bodies claim to be the government of Libya, the Council of Deputies is internationally recognized as the legitimate government, but it does not hold territory in the capital, instead meeting in the Cyrenaica city of Tobruk. Parts of Libya are outside of either governments control, with various Islamist, the United Nations is sponsoring peace talks between the Tobruk and Tripoli-based factions. An agreement to form an interim government was signed on 17 December 2015. Under the terms of the agreement, a nine-member Presidency Council, the leaders of the new government, called the Government of National Accord, arrived in Tripoli on 5 April 2016.
Since the GNC, one of the two governments, has disbanded to support the new GNA. The name Libya was introduced in 1934 for Italian Libya, reviving the name for Northwest Africa. The name was based on use in 1903 by Italian geographer Federico Minutilli. It was intended to supplant terms applied to Ottoman Tripolitania, the region of what is today Libya having been ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1551 to 1911