Lorenzo Natali Pierucci Bondicchi was an Italian politician for Christian Democracy, a European Commissioner from 1977 to 1989. He served as Vice-President of the European Commission and Commissioner for Enlargement and Nuclear Safety in the Jenkins Commission from 1977 to 1981, he served as Vice-President and Commissioner for Mediterranean Policy and Information in the Thorn Commission from 1981 to 1985. He was Vice-President and held the portfolio of Cooperation, Development Affairs and Enlargement in the Delors Commission from 1985 to 1989, he was a government minister in Italy from 1966 to 1972 and served as Minister of Agriculture from 1970. The Lorenzo Natali Prize is named in his honour
This article is about the Italian legislator. For the similar name used as an alias by terrorist Ramzi Yousef for Philippine Airlines Flight 434, see Ramzi Yousef. Arnaldo Forlani, is an Italian politician who served as the 43rd Prime Minister of Italy from 18 October 1980 to 28 June 1981, he held the office of Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Defence. Forlani, a member of the right-wing of the Christian Democracy, was one of the most prominent Italian politicians from the 1970s to early 1990s. At age 93, Forlani is the oldest living former Italian Prime Minister. Arnaldo Forlani was born in Pesaro, from a middle-class family. In 1948, after the degree in law at the University of Urbino, Forlani began his political career, holding the position of provincial secretary of Christian Democracy for Pesaro. In 1954 he became a member of the central committee of Christian Democracy. In the 1958 general election Forlani was elected in the Chamber of Deputies for the first time, representing the constituency of Ancona.
In 1959 he became one of the most prominent member of the DC faction led by Amintore Fanfani. In 1962 he was appointed vice-secretary of the party. In December 1968 he was appointed Minister of Public Shares in the government led by Mariano Rumor. In November 1969 Forlani was elected Secretary of the Christian Democracy with 157 votes in favor and 13 blank votes. During his secretariat, Forlani tried to avoid the disintegration of the center-left political alliance, undermined by the inability to react to the economic and social difficulties of the period, he tried to strength the Organic Centre-left coalition with the Socialist Party, the Democratic Socialist Party and the Republican Party. In November 1969, the Parliament approved the divorce law with a different majority from the one which supported the government. Prime Minister Rumor resigned in February 1970, but tried to rebuild a centre-left government in March 1970. Despite the political success for the first regional elections of June 1970, the third Rumor government did not survive the political and social tensions that shocked the country after the general strike of July 1970.
After Rumor's resignation, Emilio Colombo was appointed new Prime Minister at the head of a centre-left coalition. In the 1971 presidential election, Forlani proposed Amintore Fanfani as DC candidate as President of the Republic, but his allies opposed this decision and Fanfani was not elected. Forlani's second candidate was Aldo Moro, but this nomination was rejected by the Parliament. At the end, the DC proposed Giovanni Leone, former Prime Minister and long-time President of the Chamber of Deputies, elected with the support of the neo-fascist Social Movement. After few months the republicans withdrew their support to Colombo's government and the new appointed Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti did not reach to gain the confidence vote from the Parliament. In the general election, which took place on 7 May 1972, the DC, led by Forlani, remained stable with around 38% of the votes, as it happened to the Communist Party which obtained the same 27% of 1968; the Socialist Party continued in its decline, reducing to less than 10%.
The most important growth was that of the post-fascist Italian Social Movement, which nearly doubled its votes from 4.5 to c. 9%, after that its leader Giorgio Almirante launched the formula of the "National Right", proposing his party as the sole group of the Italian right side. Incumbent Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti, supported by secretary Forlani, tried to continue his centrist strategy, but his attempt only lasted a year. Former Premier Mariano Rumor so returned at the head of the government with his traditional centre-left alliance between Christian Democrats, Democratic Socialist and Republicans. At the same time, during the 1973 National Congress, who now opposed an alliance with the PSI, was not confirmed Secretary of the party, his former mentor, Amintore Fanfani, became DC secretary once again. In March 1973 Prime Minister Rumor was abandoned by the Republicans, he continued with a new squad, but he couldn't withstand the shocks deriving by the divorce referendum of 1974, when Christian Democrats, along with the neo-fascist MSI, intensely campaigned for a yes vote to abolish the law and make divorce illegal again, but their proposal was rejected by 60% of votes.
After the referendum, former Premier Aldo Moro persuaded the Socialists to accept a minority government composed only by the Christian Democrats and the Republicans. Forlani was appointed Minister of Defence by Moro. However, new problem arose from the regional elections of 1975, which marked a great success of the left, which called for new national elections. In March 1976 Forlani run to the secretariat of the party, opposing Benigno Zaccagnini, incumbent secretary and member of the DC left-wing, who supported Moro's policy of accommodation with the Communists of Enrico Berlinguer, known as Historic Compromise. Forlani was supported by Andreotti, Flaminio Piccoli and Antonio Bisaglia, but he lost the congressional election and Zaccagnini remained Christian Democratic secretary; when the Republicans left Moro's cabinet in 1976, no p
Salvatore Lauricella was an Italian attorney and chairman of the Italian Socialist Party. He was Minister of Public Works from 1970 to 1972, he was born in the town of Ravanusa and died in Catania
Carlo Donat-Cattin was an Italian politician and trade unionist. A member of Christian Democracy, he was several times minister of the Italian Republic. Donat-Cattin was born at Finale Ligure, his father was from Turin. During World War II he fought in the "White" faction of Italian resistance movement. In 1950 he took part in the foundation of the Italian Confederation of Workers' Trade Unions. In the meantime he entered Christian Democracy, for which he was communal counsellor in Turin and, from 1953, provincial counsellor at the province of Turin. Donat-Cattin was elected for the first time to the Italian Chamber of Deputies in 1958, a position he held until 1979, when he was elected to the Italian Senate, he was minister several times, first as Minister of Welfare and Health (Rumor II, III, Colombo and Andreotti I Cabinets as Minister of Mezzogiorno and, from 1974 to 1978, Minister of Industry and Trade in four consecutive governments. Belonging to the left wing of the party, in 1978 he became vice-secretary of DC.
Donat-Cattin was in favour of dialogue towards DC's historical rival, the Italian Communist Party, but after 1979 he became a supporter of the preambolo theory, which aimed to exclude PCI from any state charge. In 1980, after his son Marco was discovered to be a member of the far-left terrorist formation Prima Linea, he abandoned any public position and left politics for a while. In 1986 he was chosen as Minister of Health in the second Bettino Craxi-led government. At the time, he became a firm advocate of collaboration between DC and Craxi's party, the Italian Socialist Party. In 1989 he was Minister of Welfare in the Andreotti VI government, he died at Montecarlo in 1991
Luigi Gui was an Italian politician and philosopher. Gui was born in Padua, he graduated in philosophy at The Catholic University in Milan. He was an officer of the Alpini corps of the Italian Army, fought in USSR during World War II, he was a member of the Italian Assemblea Costituente which became the modern Italian Parliament. He was deputy and senator from 1948 to 1983, he has been Minister of Education, Minister of health, Minister of the Interior and Minister of Defense. Luigi Gui at Italian Chamber of Deputies, VI Legislature
Mario Tanassi was an Italian politician, several times Minister of the Italian Republic. In 1979 he was condemned by the Constitutional Court of Italy for his involvement in the Lockheed bribery scandal. Tanassi was born in the province of Campobasso, he entered the Italian Democratic Socialist Party and was alter national co-secretary, together with Francesco De Martino, of the unified PSI-PSDI, a short-lived reunion of PSDI and the Italian Socialist Party. He was minister of defence for the first time in the Rumor II Cabinet, formed by an alliance between Christian Democracy, PSI and PSDI. In 1972 he was again appointed as minister of defencee, as well as vice-prime minister. Tanassi was minister of defence for the third time in the fourth Rumor Government. After a short tenure in 1972, in June 1975 he became again national secretary of PSDI, replacing Flavio Orlandi. A few time he was involved in the Lockheed bribery scandal together with Mariano Rumor and Luigi Gui, therefore he lost the position of the party's secretary.
In 1979 the Constitutional Courty of Italy found him guilty of bribery and he spent fourth months in jail. He was the first Italian former minister to undergo a prison condemn
Italy the Italian Republic, is a country in Southern Europe. Located in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria and the enclaved microstates San Marino and Vatican City. Italy covers an area of 301,340 km2 and has a temperate seasonal and Mediterranean climate. With around 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth-most populous EU member state and the most populous country in Southern Europe. Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has been home to a myriad of peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout modern-day Italy, the most famous of which being the Indo-European Italics who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era and Carthaginians founded colonies in insular Italy and Genoa, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively; the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People.
The Roman Republic conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the peninsula, in some cases through the establishment of federations, the Republic expanded and conquered parts of Europe, North Africa and the Middle East. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became the leading cultural and religious centre of Western civilisation, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's technology, economy and literature flourished. Italy remained the metropole of the Roman Empire; the legacy of the Roman Empire endured its fall and can be observed in the global distribution of culture, governments and the Latin script. During the Early Middle Ages, Italy endured sociopolitical collapse and barbarian invasions, but by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics in the northern and central regions of Italy, rose to great prosperity through shipping and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism.
These independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East enjoying a greater degree of democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science and art. Italian culture flourished, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael and Machiavelli. During the Middle Ages, Italian explorers such as Marco Polo, Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vespucci, John Cabot and Giovanni da Verrazzano discovered new routes to the Far East and the New World, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Italy's commercial and political power waned with the opening of trade routes that bypassed the Mediterranean. Centuries of infighting between the Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th centuries, left the region fragmented, it was subsequently conquered and further divided by European powers such as France and Austria.
By the mid-19th century, rising Italian nationalism and calls for independence from foreign control led to a period of revolutionary political upheaval. After centuries of foreign domination and political division, Italy was entirely unified in 1871, establishing the Kingdom of Italy as a great power. From the late 19th century to the early 20th century, Italy industrialised, namely in the north, acquired a colonial empire, while the south remained impoverished and excluded from industrialisation, fuelling a large and influential diaspora. Despite being one of the main victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil, leading to the rise of a fascist dictatorship in 1922. Participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in military defeat, economic destruction and the Italian Civil War. Following the liberation of Italy and the rise of the resistance, the country abolished the monarchy, reinstated democracy, enjoyed a prolonged economic boom and, despite periods of sociopolitical turmoil became a developed country.
Today, Italy is considered to be one of the world's most culturally and economically advanced countries, with the sixth-largest worldwide national wealth. Its advanced economy ranks eighth-largest in the world and third in the Eurozone by nominal GDP. Italy owns the third-largest central bank gold reserve, it has a high level of human development, it stands among the top countries for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union and a member of numerous international institutions, including the UN, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the WTO, the G7, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area and many more; as a reflection