International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Geraldton is a coastal city in the Mid West region of Western Australia, 424 kilometres north of Perth. At the 2016 Census, Geraldton had an urban population of 37,432. Geraldton is the seat of government for the City of Greater Geraldton, which incorporates the town of Mullewa and large rural areas forming the shires of Greenough and Mullewa; the Port of Geraldton is a major west coast seaport. Geraldton is an important service and logistics centre for regional mining, wheat and tourism industries. Clear evidence has established indigenous people living on the west coast of Australia for at least 40,000 years, though at present it is unclear when the first indigenous people may have explored and lived in and around Geraldton; the original local Aboriginal people of Geraldton are the Naaguja people with the Nanda to the north and Badimia to the east. Today the Aboriginal people of the region identify as "Yamatji" or "Wajarri" people. Wajarri country is inland from Geraldton and extends as far south and west as Mullewa, north to Gascoyne Junction and east to Meekatharra.
The Aboriginal people of the Murchison-Gascoyne region were instrumental in assisting early settlers in the area in identifying permanent water sources, worked in the pearling and fishing industries. Yamatji art is a distinctive style of painting, using thousands of dots of ochre and other earth-based pigments to create patterns and images relevant to Yamatji/Wajarri culture; the Western Australia Museum at the marina in Geraldton hosts a permanent exhibit on Yamatji/Wajarri culture and history of the region. Many European mariners encountered, or were wrecked on, the Houtman Abrolhos islands 60 kilometres west of Geraldton during the 17th and 18th centuries. Although two mutineers from the Batavia were marooned on the mainland in 1629 there is no surviving evidence that they made landfall at or near the site of the current town; the wreck of the Batavia, flagship of the Dutch East India Company fleet on her maiden voyage, on Morning Reef of the Houtman Abrolhos on 4 June 1629, the events surrounding the subsequent mutiny and punishment of her crew are of great historical significance to the region.
A detailed account of the events is recorded in a 24 December 1897 Western Mail article "The Abrolhos Tragedy", translated from the notes of Francois Pelsaert, the commander of the Batavia when she ran aground. The Western Australian Museum in Geraldton houses an exhibition of clay pipes, silver coins, the original Batavia stone portico and numerous other relics recovered from the wreck of the Batavia and other notable local historical shipwrecks such as the Zuytdorp and Vergulde Draeck; the explorer George Grey, while on his second disastrous expedition along the Western Australian coast, passed over the future site of Geraldton on 7 April 1839. George Fletcher Moore, on the colonial schooner Champion, explored the region in January 1840 and discovered Champion Bay, he was followed by Lieutenant John Lort Stokes of HMS Beagle, who led an expedition to the area in April 1840, named and surveyed Champion Bay. A decade explorer Augustus Gregory travelled through the area. A member of his party, James Perry Walcott, discovered lead ore in 1848 in the bed of the Murchison River.
The Geraldine mine was subsequently established, named after the County Clare family home of Charles FitzGerald, the 4th Governor of Western Australia. The town of Geraldton, named after Governor FitzGerald, was surveyed in 1850 and land sales began in 1851. According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 37,432 people in the Geraldton Significant Urban Areas. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people made up 9.6% of the population. 76.4% of people were born in Australia. The most common other countries of birth were England 4.1%, New Zealand 1.9%, South Africa 1.4%, Philippines 1.3% and India 0.6%. 83.8% of people only spoke English at home. Other languages spoken at home included Malay 0.8%, Afrikaans 0.8%, Tagalog 0.6%, Italian 0.6% and Filipino 0.4%. The most common responses for religion were Christian 62.2% and No Religion 30.0%. The economic output generated within Greater Geraldton, the 12,626-square-kilometre local government area incorporating Geraldton, is estimated at $2.944 billion.
Greater Geraldton represents 56.26% of the $5.233 billion in output generated in Mid West Region and 1.19% of the $247.705 billion in output generated in Western Australia. The Port of Geraldton is a major west coast port with seven bulk handling berths and an average loading rate of seven tonnes per hour, ranking nationally 12th in exports; the major exports from the Geraldton port in 2012/2013 were: iron ore. Major imports were petroleum products. In 2012/2013 the Geraldton port serviced 328 bulk haulage vessels; the Geraldton Visitor Centre is located at 246 Marine Terrace the original Railway Station. The historic building is an icon in Geraldton's West End and was built in 1878, it was the first railway station constructed on a Government line in Western Australia. Now more than 140 years on, the building’s heritage has been preserved through careful restoration and many elements from the original building feature in the Visitor Centre; the Point Moore Lighthouse, located south of the Geraldton Port is a cultural and historical attraction.
It is the oldest surviving Commonwealth lighthouse in Western Australia and was the first steel t
François Auguste Péron was a French naturalist and explorer. Péron was born in Allier, in 1775, the son of a tailor. Although intended for the priesthood, due to the Revolution, Péron reluctantly joined the 2nd Allier Volunteer Battalion in 1792 and helped defend besieged Landau. In the following year he was wounded and taken prisoner by Prussian forces near Hochspeyer in the Pfalzwald. Imprisoned in the fortress of Magdeburg he was not repatriated to France until 1794. Having lost the sight of an eye, Péron was invalided out of the army. For two years he was Town Clerk in Cérilly before gaining a scholarship to study medicine in Paris. In 1800, after an unhappy love affair, he sought to join Nicolas Baudin's expedition to Australian waters as an anthropological observer. Instead he was appointed as a trainee zoologist. During the voyage, which charted significant stretches of the Australian coast between 1801 and 1803, Péron clashed with Baudin; when Stanislas Levillain and René Maugé died, Péron rose to prominence as the sole remaining zoologist.
With the aid of the artist Charles Alexandre Lesueur, Péron was responsible for gathering some 100,000 zoological specimens—the most comprehensive Australian natural history collection to date. Although he died before he could study his specimens, Péron made a major contribution to the foundations of the natural sciences in Australia and was a prescient ecological thinker, he was a pioneer oceanographer who conducted important experiments on sea water temperatures at depth. As a Corresponding Member of the Société des observateurs de l'homme, Péron wrote a great deal about the Tasmanian Aborigines of the D'Entrecasteaux Channel, on south-eastern Tasmania. Within 30 years all were dead through disease and war; the Australian historian Edward Duyker has shown that he has been unfairly accused of polygenism and racism because of a mistranslation of extracts from one of his scientific papers. Baudin died before he could return to France and it was Péron who began writing the official account of the expedition: Voyage de découvertes aux Terres Australes.
In doing so, he committed a great injustice to his former commander's memory by magnifying his faults and distorting the historical record. In the wake of the resumed fighting between France and Britain, Péron drafted a secret Mémoire sur les établissements anglais à la Nouvelle Hollande, which advocated a French conquest of Port Jackson with the aid of rebellious Irish convicts. Péron died of tuberculosis in his hometown of Cérilly in 1810, he was just thirty-five years old. The task of completing the official account of the expedition fell to Louis de Freycinet. Several species of reptiles and mammals were named in honour of Péron: Litoria peronii – Péron’s treefrog Limnodynastes peronii – striped marsh frog Carlia peronii – Timor rainbow skink Hemiergis peronii - lowland earless skink Acalyptophis peronii – spiny seasnake Lissodelphis peronii – southern right whale dolphin In the 1807 first volume of Voyage de découvertes aux Terres Australes, Péron described a number of frog species collected on his travels, but most are considered incertae sedis today i.e. Rana pollicifera and Rana pustulosa in Anura, Hyla ianopoda, Hyla nebulosa, Hyla ocellata and Hyla rubeola in Hylidae: Pelodryadinae, Bufo leucogaster and Bufo proteus in Myobatrachidae.
Hyla cyanea was synonymised with Litoria caerulea - White's treefrog, but Hyla citripoda does survive as a valid species, Litoria citropa - Blue Mountains treefrog. —— Observations sur l’anthropologie, ou l’Histoire naturelle de l’homme, la nécessité de s’occuper de l’avancement de cette science, et l’importance de l’admission sur la Flotte du capitaine Baudin d’un ou de plusieurs Naturalistes, spécialement chargés des Recherches à faire sur cet objet, Paris, an VIII. —— Voyage de découvertes aux Terres Australes, exécuté par ordre de sa Majesté, l’Empereur et Roi, sur les corvettes le Géographe, le Naturaliste et la goëlette le Casuarina, pendant les années 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804, L’Imprimerie Impériale, 3 vols and atlas, Paris, 1807–17. —— A Voyage of Discovery to the Southern Hemisphere Performed by Order of the Emperor Napoleon, During the Years 1801, 1802, 1803, 1804, printed for Richard Phillips, Bridge Street, Blackfriars, by B. McMillan, Bow Street, Covent Garden, London, 1809.
Péron, F. Voyage de découvertes aux Terres Australes, fait par ordre du gouvernement, sur les corvettes le Géographe, le Naturaliste et la goëlette le Casuarina, pendant les années 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 et 1804, 4 vols and atlas, Paris, 1824. —— Voyage of Discovery to the Southern Lands, by François Péron, continued by Louis de Freycinet, 2nd edn 1824: Book IV, Comprising Chapters XXII to XXXIV, Friends of the State Library of South Australia, Adelaide, 2003. —— Entdeckungs-Reise nach den Süd-Ländern ausgefürt auf Befehl Sr. Majestät des Kaisers und Königs, auf den Corvetten dem Geographen, dem Naturalisten und der Golette dem Casuarina, während der Jahre 1800, 1801, 1802, 1803 und 1804, J. G. Cotta’schen Buchha
Boorabbin National Park
Boorabbin National Park is a national park in Western Australia, between Coolgardie and Southern Cross. It is located along the Great Eastern Highway for a distance of 25 km with a width of 5 km on each side in Western Australia's eastern goldfields; the park gets its name from the Aboriginal named rock on the edge of the park and the Boorabbin settlement, established in 1898. The Boorabin National Park is situated on top of a plateau; the landscape is sand and the vegetation there is quite distinctive growing in deep sands deposited over 50 million years ago. Today the erosion of this significant landscape is lessening, but as a result of past degradation, the sands are left weathered and lacking in nutrients. Despite this, the vegetation is diverse with countless species thriving in this environment. Vegetation ranges from the rich kwongan heaths and mallee shrublands; the area is recognised for its unique variety of vegetation. With its own designated plateau vegetation system. Other attributes that the park is known for and the wildflowers and Salt Lakes.
Other vegetation that can be found include species of banksia, hakea, sandalwood and grasstree. Two restricted species found in the heathland are Philotheca coccinea. Fauna surveys in the park indicate that 17 native mammal species including the wongai ningaui and bush rats are found within the park boundaries. Other animals including 4 frog species, 52 species of reptile and 51 bird species are resident in the park; the park is home to a rich array of dragon lizards. A bushfire in the park killed three men after a roadblock was lifted on Great Eastern Highway in Coolgardie in December 2007 after a long queue of vehicles were waiting for the highway to open after being closed for most of the day; the three truck drivers tried to turn around and flee the fire but could not escape and died from smoke burns. The bushfire continued to burn for two weeks before being extinguished by fire fighters, authorities had the highway reopened. An inquiry into the fire was commenced in 2008 and when completed, the coroner found that extreme incompetence by the Department of Environment and Conservation had contributed toward the deaths.
The fire burnt out an area of more than 7,500 hectares of the National Park and unallocated crown land. The fire jumped containment lines onto the southern side of Great Eastern Highway. A memorial garden and shelter was opened near the old town site in 2010 for those who died in the 2007 bushfire. Protected areas of Western Australia
Government of Western Australia
The Government of Western Australia, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government of Western Australia, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of Western Australia. It is commonly referred to as the WA Government or the Western Australian Government; the Government of Western Australia, a parliamentary constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1890 as prescribed in its Constitution, as amended from time to time. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, Western Australia has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Constitution of Australia regulates its relationship with the Commonwealth. Under the Australian Constitution, Western Australia ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Western Australia is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, a form of parliamentary government based on the model of the United Kingdom. Legislative power rests with the Parliament of Western Australia, which consists of The Queen, represented by the Governor of Western Australia, the two Houses, the Western Australian Legislative Council and the Western Australian Legislative Assembly.
Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers. The Governor, as representative of the Crown, is the formal repository of power, exercised by him or her on the advice of the Premier of Western Australia and the Cabinet; the Premier and Ministers are appointed by the Governor, hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly. Judicial power is exercised by the Supreme Court of Western Australia and a system of subordinate courts, but the High Court of Australia and other federal courts have overriding jurisdiction on matters which fall under the ambit of the Australian Constitution. Ministries as at 17 March 2017: The following individuals serve as government ministers, at the pleasure of the Queen, represented by the Governor of Western Australia; the government cabinet and ministers are listed, while the shadow minister are listed against their opposing portfolio, to the best possible match.
All ministers and shadow ministers are members of the Parliament of Western Australia. List of Western Australian government agencies Government of Western Australia website Constitution ACT 1889 The Parliament of Western Australia website The Premier of Western Australia website
Greenmount National Park
Greenmount National Park is a national park in the locality of Greenmount, Western Australia, 22 km east of Perth. It is one of the smaller National Parks along the Darling Scarp and is a component of the Darling Range Regional Park. Due to its proximity to John Forrest National Park, which used to be known as Greenmount National Park until 1928, relationship to subsequent reserves to the south it is a vital scarp wildlife corridor. Bus tours were available from Perth in 1933 with Hill's Bus Tours offering passengers a tour around the park on Sundays in September. Beam Transport Ltd. offered a similar service through the Park to Mundaring Weir in 1937. As a feature adjacent to the Helena River Valley it has significance in aboriginal folklore, featured early on in early European settler's diaries. Mountain Quarry, Western Australia is one of several blue stone quarries located within the park, popular with rock climbers and walkers. Vehicle access to the quarry site is restricted however a car-park and picnic facilities including toilets are within walking distance of the main site, accessible on foot.
There are several panels containing historical information about the site spread around as part of the popular Railway Reserves Heritage Trail which runs close to the quarry. The Boya/Koongamia leg of the Railway Reserves Heritage Trail known as the "Bridle Trail", curves around the south-western edge of the park, crossing through the Mountain Quarry car-park and picnic area. In the early 2000s significant bushfire damage occurred on the southern slopes of this park. Large fire-breaks dissect the park serving as popular walking routes among locals; the western and northern slopes, visible from Great Eastern Highway have extensive Watsonia infestations. In late 2005, the Government Authority in charge of the national park was taking steps to prevent vehicular access along the top of the ridge to the lookout due to non stop vandalism and issues with residents adjacent to the park; the park is situated along the side of Greenmount Hill and has majestic views over the Swan Coastal Plain below and Perth City below.
The dominant vegetation in the park is eucalypts such as Marri and Wandoo along with an array of wild flowers and heathland along the northern slopes. The hill contain several breakaways and rocky outcrops. Protected areas of Western Australia Western Australia. Dept. of Conservation and Land Management. A recreational development plan for-- Kalamunda National Park, Lesmurdie Falls National Park, Gooseberry Hill National Park, Greenmount National Park Como, W. A.: Conservation and Land Management, 1989
Brockman National Park
Brockman National Park is a national park in the South West region of Western Australia, 288 kilometres south of Perth and 10 km south of Pemberton. The park, situated on both sides if the Pemberton-Northcliffe road, is a eucalypt forest composed of karri Eucalyptus diversicolor interspersed with marri Corymbia calophylla; the forest understorey is made up of a mix of plants including the swamp peppermint Taxandria linearifolia, karri hazel, karri wattle and the karri sheoak Allocasuarina decussata, all of which thrive in the damp conditions. The northern border of the park is the Warren River and the Warren National Park borders it to the west. No entry fee applies for the park and no facilities are available to visitors; the name is taken from the nearby Yeagarup Homestead. Protected areas of Western Australia