A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
The Rocky Mountains known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America. The Rocky Mountains stretch more than 4,800 kilometers from the northernmost part of British Columbia, in western Canada, to New Mexico in the Southwestern United States. Located within the North American Cordillera, the Rockies are somewhat distinct from the Pacific Coast Ranges, Cascade Range, the Sierra Nevada, which all lie farther to the west; the Rocky Mountains formed 80 million to 55 million years ago during the Laramide orogeny, in which a number of plates began sliding underneath the North American plate. The angle of subduction was shallow, resulting in a broad belt of mountains running down western North America. Since further tectonic activity and erosion by glaciers have sculpted the Rockies into dramatic peaks and valleys. At the end of the last ice age, humans began inhabiting the mountain range. After Europeans, such as Sir Alexander Mackenzie, Americans, such as the Lewis and Clark expedition, began exploring the range and furs drove the initial economic exploitation of the mountains, although the range itself never experienced dense population.
Public parks and forest lands protect much of the mountain range, they are popular tourist destinations for hiking, mountaineering, hunting, mountain biking and snowboarding. The name of the mountains is a translation of an Amerindian name, related to Algonquian; the first mention of their present name by a European was in the journal of Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre in 1752, where they were called "Montagnes de Roche". The Rocky Mountains are defined as stretching from the Liard River in British Columbia south to the Rio Grande in New Mexico; the Rockies vary in width from 110 to 480 kilometres. The Rocky Mountains are notable for containing the highest peaks in central North America; the range's highest peak is Mount Elbert located in Colorado at 4,401 metres above sea level. Mount Robson in British Columbia, at 3,954 metres, is the highest peak in the Canadian Rockies; the eastern edge of the Rockies rises above the Interior Plains of central North America, including the Sangre de Cristo Mountains of New Mexico and Colorado, the Front Range of Colorado, the Wind River Range and Big Horn Mountains of Wyoming, the Absaroka-Beartooth ranges and Rocky Mountain Front of Montana and the Clark Range of Alberta.
The western edge of the Rockies includes ranges such as the Wasatch near Salt Lake City and the Bitterroots along the Idaho-Montana border. The Great Basin and Columbia River Plateau separate these subranges from distinct ranges further to the west. In Canada, the western edge of the Rockies is formed by the huge Rocky Mountain Trench, which runs the length of British Columbia from its beginnings in the middle Flathead River valley in western Montana to the south bank of the Liard River. Geographers define three main groups of the Canadian Rockies: the Continental Ranges, Hart Ranges, Muskwa Ranges; the Rockies do not extend into central British Columbia. Other mountain ranges continue beyond the Liard River, including the Selwyn Mountains in Yukon, the Brooks Range in Alaska, but those are not part of the Rockies, though they are part of the American Cordillera; the Continental Divide of the Americas is located in the Rocky Mountains and designates the line at which waters flow either to the Atlantic or Pacific Oceans.
Triple Divide Peak in Glacier National Park is so named because water falling on the mountain reaches not only the Atlantic and Pacific but Hudson Bay as well. Farther north in Alberta, the Athabasca and other rivers feed the basin of the Mackenzie River, which has its outlet on the Beaufort Sea of the Arctic Ocean. Human population is not dense in the Rocky Mountains, with an average of four people per square kilometer and few cities with over 50,000 people. However, the human population grew in the Rocky Mountain states between 1950 and 1990; the forty-year statewide increases in population range from 35% in Montana to about 150% in Utah and Colorado. The populations of several mountain towns and communities have doubled in the last forty years. Jackson, increased 260%, from 1,244 to 4,472 residents, in forty years; the rocks in the Rocky Mountains were formed. The oldest rock is Precambrian metamorphic rock. There is Precambrian sedimentary argillite, dating back to 1.7 billion years ago. During the Paleozoic, western North America lay underneath a shallow sea, which deposited many kilometers of limestone and dolomite.
In the southern Rocky Mountains, near present-day Colorado, these ancestral rocks were disturbed by mountain building 300 Ma, during the Pennsylvanian. This mountain-building produced the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, they consisted of Precambrian metamorphic rock forced upward through layers of the limestone laid down in the shallow sea. The mountains eroded throughout the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic, leaving extensive deposits of sedimentary rock. Terranes began colliding with the western edge of North America in the Mississippian, causing the Antler orogeny. For 270 million years, the focus of the effects of plate collisions were near the edge of the North American plate boundary, far to the west of the Rocky Mountain region, it was. The current Rocky Mountains arose in the Laramide orogeny from between 55 Ma. For the Canadi
Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone National Park is an American national park located in Wyoming and Idaho. It was established by the U. S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone was the first national park in the U. S. and is widely held to be the first national park in the world. The park is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features Old Faithful geyser, one of its most popular features, it has many types of ecosystems. It is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion. Native Americans have lived in the Yellowstone region for at least 11,000 years. Aside from visits by mountain men during the early-to-mid-19th century, organized exploration did not begin until the late 1860s. Management and control of the park fell under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of the Interior, the first being Columbus Delano. However, the U. S. Army was subsequently commissioned to oversee management of Yellowstone for a 30-year period between 1886 and 1916. In 1917, administration of the park was transferred to the National Park Service, created the previous year.
Hundreds of structures have been built and are protected for their architectural and historical significance, researchers have examined more than a thousand archaeological sites. Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,468.4 square miles, comprising lakes, canyons and mountain ranges. Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-elevation lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent; the caldera is considered an active volcano. It has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geysers and hydrothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism. Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone; the park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone. In 1978, Yellowstone was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hundreds of species of mammals, birds and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened.
The vast forests and grasslands include unique species of plants. Yellowstone Park is the largest and most famous megafauna location in the contiguous United States. Grizzly bears and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in this park; the Yellowstone Park bison herd is the largest public bison herd in the United States. Forest fires occur in the park each year. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, boating and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobiles; the park contains the headwaters of the Yellowstone River. Near the end of the 18th century, French trappers named the river Roche Jaune, a translation of the Hidatsa name Mi tsi a-da-zi. American trappers rendered the French name in English as "Yellow Stone". Although it is believed that the river was named for the yellow rocks seen in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Native American name source is unclear.
The human history of the park begins at least 11,000 years ago when Native Americans began to hunt and fish in the region. During the construction of the post office in Gardiner, Montana, in the 1950s, an obsidian projectile point of Clovis origin was found that dated from 11,000 years ago; these Paleo-Indians, of the Clovis culture, used the significant amounts of obsidian found in the park to make cutting tools and weapons. Arrowheads made of Yellowstone obsidian have been found as far away as the Mississippi Valley, indicating that a regular obsidian trade existed between local tribes and tribes farther east. By the time white explorers first entered the region during the Lewis and Clark Expedition in 1805, they encountered the Nez Perce and Shoshone tribes. While passing through present day Montana, the expedition members heard of the Yellowstone region to the south, but they did not investigate it. In 1806, John Colter, a member of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, left to join a group of fur trappers.
After splitting up with the other trappers in 1807, Colter passed through a portion of what became the park, during the winter of 1807–1808. He observed at least one geothermal area near Tower Fall. After surviving wounds he suffered in a battle with members of the Crow and Blackfoot tribes in 1809, Colter described a place of "fire and brimstone" that most people dismissed as delirium. Over the next 40 years, numerous reports from mountain men and trappers told of boiling mud, steaming rivers, petrified trees, yet most of these reports were believed at the time to be myth. After an 1856 exploration, mountain man Jim Bridger reported observing boiling springs, spouting water, a mountain of glass and yellow rock; these reports were ignored because Bridger was a known "spinner of yarns". In 1859, a U. S. Army Surveyor named Captain William F. Raynolds embarked on a two-year survey of the northern Rockies. After wintering in Wyoming, in May 1860, Raynolds and his party – which included naturalist Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden and guide Jim B
Bomber Mountain is the crest of a ridge line within the Bighorn Mountains of the U. S. State of Wyoming, it borders the south side of the tallest peak in the range. It is about 23 miles west of Buffalo. A military aviation accident that occurred upon the mountain in 1943 led to it being named Bomber Mountain in 1946. For more info see, "The Bomber Mountain Crash: A Wyoming Mystery" by Scott Madsen and Copyrighted in Sept. 1990 On 28 June 1943, a B-17F-55-DL Flying Fortress, serial number 42-3399, nicknamed "Scharazad", departed Pendleton Army Air Base in Pendleton, Oregon destined for Grand Island, Nebraska. From there, the bomber would join the other members of the 383d Bomb Group and continue to England to participate in the ongoing World War II bombing campaigns. Around midnight, the captain radioed that their position was near Wyoming, they were not heard from again. After they failed to arrive in Grand Island, the plane was declared missing and the Army mounted a search effort with no results.
A second search was conducted the following year, concentrating on the Wind River Mountains, Absaroka Mountains and Bighorn Mountains, but still no wreckage was spotted. On 12 August 1945, two cowboys spotted something shiny on a ridge line in the Cloud Peak area of the Big Horn Mountains, they discovered the wreckage and the deceased crew, contacted authorities, who conducted an operation to recover the bodies of the crew and return them to their families. It was believed that during earlier search efforts, the paint color of the aircraft blended in with the mountain side, making the wreckage difficult to spot. After a few years, the paint wore off, the shiny aluminum underneath made the plane more visible. No official cause for the crash was determined, but it is presumed that malfunctioning navigational equipment, a moonless night combined with bad weather caused the pilot to not see the ridge until it was too late. After a petition by veterans groups in Wyoming, the unnamed ridge was christened Bomber Mountain on 22 August 1946 by the U.
S. Forest Service. In honor of the crew members, a commemorative plaque was placed on the shores of Florence Lake, 1.5 miles from the crash site. The crew included: William R. Ronaghan Anthony J. Tilotta Leonard H. Phillips Charles H. Suppes James A. Hinds Ferguson T. Bell, Jr. Lee'Vaughn' Miller Charles E. Newburn, Jr Jake F. Penick Lewis M. Shepard Above info taken from "The Bomber Mountain Crash: A Wyoming Mystery" by Scott Madsen, Published in Sept. 1990 "Bomber Mountain". SummitPost.org. Retrieved 2011-05-09. "Bomber Mountain". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. Retrieved 2011-05-09
Mount Norris el. 9,842 feet is a mountain peak in the northeast section of Yellowstone National Park in the Absaroka Range. In 1875, the peak was named by Philetus Norris, the second park superintendent. Norris was on a visit to the park with several mountain guides, including Collins Jack Yellowstone Jack Baronette, they ascended the peak at the head of the Lamar Valley and presumed they were the first white men to do so, thus naming it Mount Norris. Mountains and mountain ranges of Yellowstone National Park
Eagle Peak (Wyoming)
Eagle Peak is a mountain in the Absaroka Range in the U. S. state of Wyoming and at 11,372 feet is the highest point in Yellowstone National Park. It is located about 6 miles east of the southeast arm of Yellowstone Lake. According to Lee Whittlesey, Eagle Peak was named in 1885 by geologist Arnold Hague for its resemblance to a "spread eagle". Another source states that it was named in 1878 by Jack Newell, who killed a golden eagle on the mountain that year. Up until the 1930s, most park officials and geologists believed that Electric Peak near Gardiner, Montana was the park's highest peak, not Eagle Peak, it is ranked as the 2252nd highest peak in the United States. During the historic Yellowstone fires of 1988, the south slopes of Eagle Peak were affected by the Mink Fire. Eagle Peak is formed of Eocene age volcaniclastic rocks. In the last ice age, the area was covered by an ice cap over 1,600 feet thick. Glacial deposits remain in some locations on the mountain. Located in the Absaroka Range, on the park boundary with Shoshone National Forest in northwestern Wyoming, the mountain rises about 6 mi east of the southeast arm of Yellowstone Lake.
The mountain is one of the highest points in the Washakie Wilderness area of Shoshone National Forest. Eagle Peak is of a similar height to several other local mountains. Several creeks flow through the mountain and the surrounding area and they become a vehicle for cold melt water; the Gardner River flows to the east of the summit. Some of the runoff is fed by the melting of the two major snowfields found in the shadows of the north face of the mountain; the range to the east drains into the Yellowstone River via the Bighorn River, but the southern slopes drain into Yellowstone Lake via Mountain Creek. Eagle Peak is one of the most prominent features of the Eagle Peak Quadrangle, a USGS division used for surveying purposes. Other nearby peaks are Mount Humphreys, Table Mountain, Mount Schurz, Pinnacle Mountain, Turret Mountain and Colter Peak; the mountain is inaccessible, being a 15-mile hike from any of the park roads. From outside the park, the peak can be ascended by hiking up the Fish Hawk Creek valley, around 25 kilometres one-way.
It is climbed from inside the park, by sailing to the southeasternmost tip of Yellowstone Lake, hiking down the Yellowstone River valley, turning to the east for the ascent. Eagle Peak wildlife are in the alpine tundra zone and may be threatened by global climate change—the gradual shift of montane fauna and flora upwards could lead to the permanent loss of some species from the park. To the south, on the boundary of the park is Eagle Pass and the Thorofare Plateau, which has a population of elk, deer, bighorn sheep and others and lies along an important north-south migration route for the elk. Flora includes sedges and rushes, tufted hairgrass in alpine meadows. Mountains and mountain ranges of Yellowstone National Park Kelsey, Michael R.. Climber's and Hiker's Guide to the World's Mountains and Volcanos. Provo, Utah: Kelsey Publishing. ISBN 978-0-944510-18-6. Meagher, Margaret Mary. Yellowstone and the Biology of Time: Photographs Across a Century. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 978-0-8061-3006-4.
Richmond, Gerald Martin. Surficial geologic history of the Canyon Village quadrangle, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming: for use with map I-652. Geological Survey. U. S. Dept. of the Interior, Geological Survey: for sale by the Supt. of Docs. U. S. Govt. Print. Off. Spencer, Arthur Coe; the Atlantic Gold District and the North Laramie Mountains, Fremont and Albany Counties, Wyoming. U. S. Government Printing Office. Whittlesey, Lee. Yellowstone Place Names. Helena, MT: Montana Historical Society Press. ISBN 978-0-917298-15-8
The Bighorn Mountains are a mountain range in northern Wyoming and southern Montana in the United States, forming a northwest-trending spur from the Rocky Mountains extending 200 miles northward on the Great Plains. They are separated from the Absaroka Range, which lie on the main branch of the Rockies in western Wyoming, by the Bighorn Basin. Much of the land is contained within the Bighorn National Forest; the Bighorns were uplifted during the Laramide orogeny beginning 70 million years ago. They consist of over 9,000 feet of sedimentary rock strata laid down before mountain-building began: the predominantly marine and near-shore sedimentary layers range from the Cambrian through the Lower Cretaceous, are rich in fossils. There is an unconformity where Silurian strata are missing. Following the uplift, large volumes of sediments, rich in early Tertiary fossils, were deposited in the adjoining basins. Though many cirques, U-shaped valleys and glacial lakes can be found in the mountain range, the only remaining active glacier is the Cloud Peak Glacier, on the east slope of Cloud Peak.
The highest peaks within the Bighorns are located in Wyoming in the 1.12-million-acre Bighorn National Forest. Two peaks rise to over 13,000 feet: Black Tooth Mountain. There are a dozen more. From the east the mountains present a vertical relief of over 8,000 feet, rising abruptly from the plains. Overall, the Bighorns are more rounded than their sister mountain ranges to the west; the Cloud Peak Wilderness is the centerpiece of a roadless block of land around 189,000 acres in size. The Wilderness is surrounded by unprotected acreage of U. S National Forest as well as Bureau of Land Management and some private land. Most of the Cloud Peak Wilderness is above the tree line. Mule deer, moose, black bear, mountain lion are found throughout the area. Two more large roadless areas remained in the Bighorns as of 1992, it is unknown whether these areas have since been reduced in size by road-building and other development. Both areas straddle the Montana-Wyoming state line, in the northern part of the range.
One area, north of U. S. Route 14A and containing the headwaters of the Little Bighorn River, is 155,000 acres of National Forest land; this little-known region features subalpine terrain cut by steep canyons. Pronghorn inhabit the area. What little human use it receives is from hunters and fishermen; the second roadless area is located on the Crow Indian Reservation in Montana. F. in Wyoming. In this part of the range, semidesert prairie is cut by steep canyons leading to Yellowtail Reservoir, high, Douglas-fir cloaked ridges top out at over 9,000'. Colorful rock formations are common. Rocky Mountain juniper and limber pine are scattered on lower elevations, wildlife includes pronghorn, golden eagle, ferruginous hawk, mule deer; the Crow Indians manage a wild bison herd on this portion of the Bighorns. The Crow lands are a sacred area, thus are off-limits to non-tribal members; the three highways traversing the Bighorns are designated Scenic Byways by the US Forest Service and the State of Wyoming.
These include U. S. Routes 14, 14A, 16; the range is the location of the headwaters of the Little Bighorn and Powder rivers. Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area consists of 120,000 acres within the Bighorn Mountains, it includes a reservoir damming the Bighorn River. In 2015, a sudden, huge'gash' was found in Wyoming's Big Horn Mountains; the Wyoming Geological Survey studied the area and determined that "The Crack" may be the result of an "apparent active landslide" in the southern end of the Big Horn Mountains. The Bighorns are a popular destination for hiking, fly fishing, horse back riding and ATV riding and snowmobiling. Trails wind through most of the national forest; the Cloud Peak Wilderness has a network of hiking trails to alpine lakes. Higher trails are covered with snow except from July through August. After Labor Day, there is a good chance of high country snow storms at any time; the Bighorns are home to one of the elite ultramarathons in the nation. The Bighorn Trail Run is held every June.
The Sioux and Cheyenne Indians have long considered the Bighorns sacred mountains. List of mountain ranges in Montana List of mountain ranges in Cynde. In the shadow of the Bighorns: A history of early Sheridan and the Goose Creek valley of northern Wyoming. Sheridan, Wyoming: Sheridan County Historical Society, 2010. ISBN 978-0-9792871-7-6. Paleontological resources at Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area