The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The most known Crusades are the campaigns in the Eastern Mediterranean aimed at recovering the Holy Land from Muslim rule, but the term "Crusades" is applied to other church-sanctioned campaigns; these were fought for a variety of reasons including the suppression of paganism and heresy, the resolution of conflict among rival Roman Catholic groups, or for political and territorial advantage. At the time of the early Crusades the word did not exist, only becoming the leading descriptive term around 1760. In 1095, Pope Urban II called for the First Crusade in a sermon at the Council of Clermont, he encouraged military support for the Byzantine Empire and its Emperor, Alexios I, who needed reinforcements for his conflict with westward migrating Turks colonizing Anatolia. One of Urban's aims was to guarantee pilgrims access to the Eastern Mediterranean holy sites that were under Muslim control but scholars disagree as to whether this was the primary motive for Urban or those who heeded his call.
Urban's strategy may have been to unite the Eastern and Western branches of Christendom, divided since the East–West Schism of 1054 and to establish himself as head of the unified Church. The initial success of the Crusade established the first four Crusader states in the Eastern Mediterranean: the County of Edessa, the Principality of Antioch, the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the County of Tripoli; the enthusiastic response to Urban's preaching from all classes in Western Europe established a precedent for other Crusades. Volunteers became Crusaders by taking a public vow and receiving plenary indulgences from the Church; some were hoping for a mass ascension into heaven at Jerusalem or God's forgiveness for all their sins. Others participated to satisfy feudal obligations, obtain glory and honour or to seek economic and political gain; the two-century attempt to recover the Holy Land ended in failure. Following the First Crusade there were numerous less significant ones. After the last Catholic outposts fell in 1291, there were no more Crusades.
The Wendish Crusade and those of the Archbishop of Bremen brought all the North-East Baltic and the tribes of Mecklenburg and Lusatia under Catholic control in the late 12th century. In the early 13th century the Teutonic Order created a Crusader state in Prussia and the French monarchy used the Albigensian Crusade to extend the kingdom to the Mediterranean Sea; the rise of the Ottoman Empire in the late 14th century prompted a Catholic response which led to further defeats at Nicopolis in 1396 and Varna in 1444. Catholic Europe was in chaos and the final pivot of Christian–Islamic relations was marked by two seismic events: the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 and a final conclusive victory for the Spanish over the Moors with the conquest of Granada in 1492; the idea of Crusading continued, not least in the form of the Knights Hospitaller, until the end of the 18th-century but the focus of Western European interest moved to the New World. Modern historians hold varying opinions of the Crusaders.
To some, their conduct was incongruous with the stated aims and implied moral authority of the papacy, as evidenced by the fact that on occasion the Pope excommunicated Crusaders. Crusaders pillaged as they travelled, their leaders retained control of captured territory instead of returning it to the Byzantines. During the People's Crusade, thousands of Jews were murdered in what is now called the Rhineland massacres. Constantinople was sacked during the Fourth Crusade. However, the Crusades had a profound impact on Western civilisation: Italian city-states gained considerable concessions in return for assisting the Crusaders and established colonies which allowed trade with the eastern markets in the Ottoman period, allowing Genoa and Venice to flourish; the Crusades reinforced a connection between Western Christendom and militarism. The term crusade used in modern historiography at first referred to the wars in the Holy Land beginning in 1095, but the range of events to which the term has been applied has been extended, so that its use can create a misleading impression of coherence regarding the early Crusades.
The term used for the campaign of the First Crusade was iter "journey" or peregrinatio "pilgrimage". The terminology of crusading remained indistinguishable from that of pilgrimage during the 12th century, reflecting the reality of the first century of crusading where not all armed pilgrims fought, not all who fought had taken the cross, it was not until the late 12th to early 13th centuries that a more specific "language of crusading" emerged. Pope Innocent III used the term negotium crucis "affair of the cross" for the Eastern Mediterranean crusade, but was reluctant to apply crusading terminology to the Albigensian crusade; the Song of the Albigensian Crusade from about 1213 contains the first recorded vernacular use of the Occitan crozada. This term was adopted into French as croisade and in English as crusade; the modern spelling crusade dates to c. 1760. Sinibaldo Fieschi used the terms crux transmarina for crusades in Outremer against Muslims and crux cismarina for crusades in Europe against other enemies of the church.
The Crusades in the Holy Land are traditionally counted as nine distinct campaigns, numbered from the First Crusade of 1095–99 to the Ninth Crusade of 1271–72. This conv
The Frank Slide was a rockslide that buried part of the mining town of Frank, Northwest Territories, Canada at 4:10 am on April 29, 1903. Over 82 million tonnes of limestone rock slid down Turtle Mountain within 100 seconds, obliterating the eastern edge of Frank, the Canadian Pacific Railway line and the coal mine, it was one of the largest landslides in Canadian history and remains the deadliest, as between 70 and 90 of the town's residents were killed, most of whom remain buried in the rubble. Multiple factors led to the slide: Turtle Mountain's formation left it in a constant state of instability. Coal mining operations may have weakened the mountain's internal structure, as did a wet winter and cold snap on the night of the disaster; the railway was repaired within three weeks and the mine was reopened. The section of town closest to the mountain was relocated in 1911 amid fears that another slide was possible; the town's population nearly doubled its pre-slide population by 1906, but dwindled after the mine closed permanently in 1917.
The community is now part of the Municipality of Crowsnest Pass in the Province of Alberta and has a population around 200. The site of the disaster, which remains nearly unchanged since the slide, is now a popular tourist destination, it has been designated a Provincial Historic Site of Alberta and is home to an interpretive centre that receives over 100,000 visitors annually. The town of Frank was founded in the southwestern corner of the District of Alberta, a subdivision of the Northwest Territories in 1901. A location was chosen near the base of Turtle Mountain in the Crowsnest Pass, where coal had been discovered one year earlier, it was named after Henry Frank who, along with Samuel Gebo, owned the Canadian-American Coal and Coke Company, which operated the mine that the town was created to support. The pair celebrated the founding of the town on September 10, 1901, with a gala opening that featured speeches from territorial leaders, sporting events, a dinner and tours of the mine and planned layout for the community.
The Canadian Pacific Railway ran special trains that brought over 1,400 people from neighbouring communities to celebrate the event. By April 1903, the permanent population had reached 600, the town featured a two-storey school and four hotels. Turtle Mountain stands south of Frank, it consists of an older limestone layer folded over on top of softer materials such as shale and sandstone. Erosion had left the mountain with a steep overhang of its limestone layer, it has long been unstable. In the weeks leading up to the disaster, miners felt rumblings from within the mountain, while the pressure created by the shifting rock sometimes caused the timbers supporting the mine shafts to crack and splinter. In the early morning hours of April 29, 1903, a freight train pulled out of the mine and was making its way towards the townsite when the crew heard a deafening rumble behind them; the engineer instinctively set the throttle to full speed ahead and sped his train to safety across the bridge over the Crowsnest River.
At 4:10 am, 30 million cubic metres of limestone rock broke off the peak of Turtle Mountain. The section that broke was 425 metres high and 150 metres deep. Witnesses to the disaster claimed it took about 100 seconds for the slide to reach up the opposing hills, indicating the mass of rock traveled at a speed of about 112 kilometres per hour; the sound was heard as far away as Cochrane, over 200 kilometres north of Frank. Initial reports on the disaster indicated that Frank had been "nearly wiped out" by the mountain's collapse, it was thought the rockslide was triggered by an earthquake, volcanic eruption or explosion within the mine. The majority of the town survived. Seven cottages were destroyed, as were several businesses, the cemetery, a 2-kilometre stretch of road and railroad tracks, all of the mine's buildings. 100 people lived in the path of destruction, located between the CPR tracks and the river. The death toll is uncertain, it is the deadliest landslide in Canadian history and was the largest until the Hope Slide in 1965.
It is possible that the toll may have been higher, since as many as 50 transients had been camped at the base of the mountain while looking for work. Some residents believed that they had left Frank shortly before the slide, though there is no way to be certain. Most of the victims remain entombed beneath the rocks; the skeletons of six additional victims were unearthed in 1924 by crews building a new road through the slide. Initial news reports stated that between 50 and 60 men were within the mountain and had been buried with no hope of survival. In reality, there were 20 miners working the night shift at the time of the disaster. Three were killed by the slide; the remaining 17 were underground. They discovered that the entrance was blocked and water from the river, dammed by the slide, was coming in via a secondary tunnel, they unsuccessfully tried to dig their way through the blocked entrance before one miner suggested he knew of a seam of coal that reached the surface. Working a narrow tunnel in pairs and threes, they dug through the coal for hours as the air around them became toxic.
Only three men still had enough energy to continue digging when they broke through to the surface late in the afternoon. The opening was too dangerous to escape from due to falling rocks from above. E
The Nakajima Ki-84 Hayate is a single-seat fighter flown by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service in the last two years of World War II. The Allied reporting name was "Frank"; the Ki-84 is considered the best Japanese fighter to operate in large numbers during the conflict. The aircraft boasted high speeds and excellent maneuverability with an armament that gave it formidable firepower; the Ki-84's performance matched that of any single-engine Allied fighter it faced, its operational ceiling enabled it to intercept high-flying B-29 Superfortress bombers. Pilots and crews in the field learned to take care with the plane's high-maintenance Nakajima Homare engine and a landing gear prone to buckling; the difficulties of Japan's situation late in the war took a toll on the aircraft's field performance as manufacturing defects multiplied, quality fuel proved difficult to procure and experienced pilots grew scarce. A well-maintained Ki-84 was Japan's fastest fighter. A total of 3,514 aircraft were built.
Design of the Ki-84 commenced in early 1942 to meet an Imperial Japanese Army Air Service requirement for a replacement to Nakajima's own, earlier Ki-43 fighter just entering service. The specification recognized the need to combine the maneuverability of the Ki-43 with performance to match the best western fighters, heavy firepower; the Ki-84 first flew in March 1943 and deliveries from Nakajima's Ota factory commenced in April 1943. Although the design was itself solid, growing difficulties in securing skilled pilots, proper fuel and construction materials, adequate manufacture prevented the aircraft from reaching its full potential in the field; the design of the Ki-84 addressed the most common complaints about the popular and maneuverable Ki-43: insufficient firepower, poor defensive armor, lack of climbing speed. The Ki-84 was a cantilever low-wing monoplane of all-metal construction, except for the fabric-covered control surfaces, it had retractable tailwheel landing gear. Armament comprised two fuselage-mounted, synchronized 12.7 mm machine guns — these proved challenging to synchronize properly with the Hayate's four-blade propeller — and two wing-mounted 20 mm cannon, a considerable improvement over the two 12.7 mm machine guns used in the Ki-43Hayabusa.
Defensive armor offered Hayate pilots better protection than the unsealed wing tanks and light-alloy airframe of the Ki-43. In addition, the Ki-84 used a 65 mm armor-glass canopy, 13 mm of head and back armor, multiple bulkheads in the fuselage, which protected both the methanol-water tank and the centrally located fuel tank, it was the Nakajima firm's own-designed 35.8 litre displacement, Ha-45 Homare air-cooled eighteen-cylinder radial engine, first accepted for military use in 1941, that gave the Hayate its high speed and prowess in combat. Derived from the Nakajima Homare engines common to many Japanese aircraft, the Hayate used the Homare 21 direct-injection version of the engine, using water injection to aid the supercharger in giving the Ki-84 a rated 1,491 kW at takeoff; this combination theoretically gave it a climb rate and top speed competitive with the top Allied fighters. Initial Hayate testing at Tachikawa in early summer 1943 saw test pilot Lieutenant Funabashi reach a maximum level airspeed of 624 km/h in the second prototype.
After the war a captured late-production example was tested in the US and achieved a speed of 680 km/h using 92 octane AvGas, plus methanol injection. The complicated direct-injection engine was a compact design that required a great deal of care in construction and maintenance and it became difficult to maintain the type's designed performance as the Allies advanced toward the Japanese homeland. To compound reliability problems, the Allied submarine blockade which prevented delivery of crucial components, such as the landing gear. Many landing gear units were compromised by the poor-quality heat treatment of late-war Japanese steel; as a result, many Hayates suffered strut collapses on landing. Further damage was caused by inadequately trained late war pilots, who sometimes found it difficult to transition to the "hot" Ki-84 from the comparatively docile Ki-43, which had a lower landing speed; the first major operational involvement was during the battle of Leyte at the end of 1944, from that moment until the end of the Pacific war the Ki-84 was deployed wherever the action was intense.
The 22nd Sentai re-equipped with production Hayates. Though it lacked sufficient high-altitude performance, it performed well at medium and low levels. Seeing action against the USAAF 14th Air Force, it gained a reputation as a combat aircraft to be reckoned with. Fighter-bomber models entered service. On April 15, 1945, 11 Hayates attacked US airfields on Okinawa, destroying many aircraft on the ground. In the final year of the war the Ki-84, the Ki-100 and Kawanishi’s N1K2-J were the three Japanese fighters best suited to combat the newer Allied fighters; the Ki-84 is known to have appeared in three Japanese Ministry of Munitions sanctioned camouflage schemes. Because of the different grades of alloy used for various panels, the overall finish soon weathered or oxidized to a pale metallic grey, with variations in shade and texture, depending on the grade of duralumin use
Donnie Darko is a 2001 American science fiction film written and directed by Richard Kelly. It stars Jake Gyllenhaal, Jena Malone, Drew Barrymore, Mary McDonnell, Katharine Ross, Patrick Swayze, Noah Wyle, Stu Stone, Daveigh Chase and Maggie Gyllenhaal; the film follows the adventures of the troubled title character, Donald, as he seeks to find the meaning behind his doomsday-related visions. Filmed over the course of 28 days, Donnie Darko was released straight-to-video, it was screened at the Sundance Film Festival on January 19, 2001, before receiving a limited theatrical release on October 26, 2001, by Flower Films. Due to the film's advertising featuring a crashing plane and the September 11 attacks that transpired a month before, the film was scarcely advertised. In the end, the film grossed just over $7.5 million worldwide on a budget of $4.5 million. Despite its lackluster box office performance, Donnie Darko received critical acclaim. Critics lauded the film's story and tone; the film was listed #2 in Empire's "50 Greatest Independent Films of All Time", as well as #63 in Empire's "500 Greatest Movies of All Time".
It was released on VHS and DVD in March 2002. The film became a surprising success on the home video market grossing over $10 million in sales and developing a cult following. A director's cut was released in 2004, on a two-disc special edition DVD. A stage adaptation appeared in 2007, a sequel, S. Darko, in 2009; the film's soundtrack is famous for its cover of Tears for Fears's "Mad World" by Gary Jules and Michael Andrews. The cover stayed there for three consecutive weeks. On October 2, 1988, troubled teenager Donald "Donnie" Darko is woken up and beckoned outside by a mysterious voice. Once outside, he meets a figure in a monstrous rabbit costume who introduces himself as Frank and tells Donnie that the world will end in 28 days, 6 hours, 42 minutes and 12 seconds. Donnie wakes up the next morning on the green of a local golf course and returns home to discover a jet engine has crashed into his bedroom, his older sister Elizabeth tells him the FAA investigators do not know its origin. Over the next several days, Donnie continues to have visions of Frank, his parents Eddie and Rose send him to psychotherapist Dr. Thurman.
Thurman believes Donnie is detached from reality, that his visions of Frank are "daylight hallucinations", symptomatic of paranoid schizophrenia. Frank asks Donnie, who in turn asks his science teacher Dr. Kenneth Monnitoff, if he believes in time travel. Monnitoff gives Donnie The Philosophy of Time Travel, a book written by Roberta Sparrow, a former science teacher at the school, now a senile old woman living outside of town. Donnie starts seeing Gretchen Ross, who has moved into town with her mother under a new identity to escape her violent stepfather. Frank begins to influence Donnie's actions, including causing him to flood his high school by breaking a water main. Gym teacher Kitty Farmer attributes the act of vandalism to the influence of the short story "The Destructors", assigned by dedicated English teacher Karen Pomeroy. Kitty begins teaching "attitude lessons" taken from local motivational speaker Jim Cunningham, but Donnie rebels against these, leading to friction between Kitty and Rose.
Kitty arranges for Cunningham to speak at a school assembly. He finds Cunningham's wallet and address, Frank suggests setting his house on fire. Firefighters discover a hoard of child pornography there. Cunningham is arrested, Kitty, who wishes to testify in his defense, asks Rose to take her place as chaperone for their daughters' dance troupe on its trip to Los Angeles. With Rose and little sister Samantha in Los Angeles, Eddie away for business and Elizabeth hold a Halloween costume party to celebrate Elizabeth's acceptance to Harvard. At the party, Gretchen arrives distraught as her mother has gone missing, she and Donnie have sex for the first time; when Donnie realizes that Frank's prophesied end of the world is only hours away, he takes Gretchen and two other friends to see Sparrow. Instead of Sparrow, they find two high school bullies and Ricky, who were trying to rob Sparrow's home. Donnie and Ricky get into a fight in the road in front of her house, just as Sparrow is returning home.
Ricky and Seth leave when an oncoming car swerves to avoid Sparrow and runs over Gretchen, killing her. The driver turns out to be Elizabeth's boyfriend, Frank Anderson, wearing the same rabbit costume from Donnie's visions. Donnie shoots Frank in the eye with his father's gun, walks home carrying Gretchen's body. Donnie returns home as a vortex forms over his house, he borrows one of his parents' cars, loads Gretchen's body into it, drives to a nearby ridge that overlooks town. There, he watches as the plane carrying Rose and the dance troupe home from Los Angeles gets caught in the vortex's wake, which violently rips off one of its engines, sends it back in time. Events of the previous 28 days unwind. Donnie wakes up in his bedroom, recognizes the date is October 2, laughs as the jet engine falls into his bedroom, crushing him. Around town, those whose lives Donnie would have touched wake up from troubled dreams. Gretchen, who in this timeline had never met Donnie, rides by the Darko home the next morning, learns of Donnie's death.
Gretchen and Rose exchange glances and wave, as if they know each other, but cannot remember from where, in a moment of Déjà vu. Jason Schwartzman was slated to play the titular character, but could not due to a
Frank Sound Forest
Frank Sound Forest lies near the southern coast of the East End distinct of Grand Cayman, one of the Cayman Islands, a British Overseas Territory in the Caribbean Sea. It is one of the territory’s Important Bird Areas. Frank Sound Forest is a 223 ha tract of native tropical dry forest surrounding Queen Elizabeth II Botanic Park, it is owned, unprotected and is subject to fragmentation and clearance for agricultural and urban development. The IBA was identified as such by BirdLife International because it supports populations of Cuban amazons, Caribbean elaenias, thick-billed vireos, Yucatan vireos and vitelline warblers
TV's Frank, played by Frank Conniff, is a fictional character, lab assistant to mad scientist Dr. Clayton Forrester in the television comedy series Mystery Science Theater 3000, he appears at the beginning of Season 2, with the departure of Forrester's earlier co-scientist Dr. Laurence Erhardt, continues through Season 6. According to The Mystery Science Theater 3000 Amazing Colossal Episode Guide, Dr. Forrester discovered Frank working at a nearby Arby's. Early on he was called Frank. Frank wears a black chauffeur's uniform and his hairstyle includes a spit-curl, he has an unusual habit of calling Dr. Forrester "Steve", he is listed in Deep 13's employee records as "Frank, TV's," indicating that "Frank" is his surname and "TV's" is his given name. Little is known about Frank's past save that he attended Harriet Tubman High School, where he was held back at least twice. While working at Arby's, Frank was nicknamed "Zeppo" due to his supposed sense of humor. Frank had a large personal fortune which surfaced whenever a large amount of money was required for a particular skit.
TV's Frank's first MST3K episode was episode #201 Rocketship X-M, where still in his Arby's mindset, he took fast-food orders and, rather to Dr. Forrester's annoyance brought the Satellite of Love down so the crew could "dine in." His last regular appearance was episode #624 Samson vs. the Vampire Women, during which he was assumed into "Second-Banana Heaven", where sidekicks and henchmen could live in a peaceful paradise without fear of reprisal from their cruel masters, by the angel Torgo the White. Dr. Forrester was very saddened when Frank left him for Second Banana Heaven lamenting his loss in a song entitled "Who Will I Kill?" Frank appeared to the despondent Forrester as an otherworldly entity and "reconciled" with him agreeing to "push the button" one last time. After his departure, he was immortalized in the following year's Mystery Science Theater 3000: The Movie as a door handle on the way to the theater. Frank made a guest appearance in the Season 10 opener Soultaker, having gotten a job in the afterlife as a Soultaker after complaining that Second-Banana Heaven was "too political" and that Pat Buttram "had it in" for him.
In this appearance, Frank plays ring toss with it in Castle Forrester. During TV's Frank's tenure, the catchphrase "Push the button, Frank!" was a staple of most shows and the last thing heard before the credits would roll. Frank serves as a foil to his evil boss, Dr. Forrester, is on the receiving end of many of Forrester's experiments or punishments, he always returns alive and well shortly afterwards. In the episode Laserblast, Pearl finds his spare head in a box, Dr. Forrester having made Frank's head explode years earlier in Gunslinger. However, Frank gets revenge on his taskmaster by directly or indirectly causing Forrester harm. One significant example of sidekick payback occurs in episode #619 Red Zone Cuba, when Frank owing the mob "50 large", passes Forrester off as himself, earning the evil scientist two severe beatings and an episode-long stint in full-body bandages. Frank participates in the weekly invention exchanges that are a feature of the Joel Robinson years, his first invention was a rip-off of Joel's invention.
He repeated his thievery by introducing the "Cheese Phone", which Joel had recorded in his notes from the 1970s. Unlike Forrester, Frank took a liking to the'Bots, who reciprocated his friendship. In Season 6, Dr. Forrester discovers that his mother, Mrs. Pearl Forrester, has had a strong friendship with TV's Frank that he'd been unaware of; when she comes to visit, she winds up spending all her time with Frank and neglecting her son, suggesting some of the formative influences that made Dr. Forrester an evil scientist. In Season 12, it is revealed that Frank, along with Dr. Forrester, had died sometime prior to the events of the season and their remains were recovered by Dr. Erhardt. Frank Conniff was one of the MST3K writers, providing his share of the movie "riffs" that defined the show, he frequently screened the movies that ended up as MST3K fodder. Frank's multiple roles affected the show's storyline. In episode #621 The Beast of Yucca Flats, one host segment sketch features Crow T. Robot continually asking if it's 11:30 yet, based on breakfast-skipping Conniff's obsession with having lunch at 11:30.
On two occasions, the Mads try their hand at riffing. In episode #323: The Castle of Fu Manchu, taunted by Joel and the Bots, they make a weak attempt at riffing, fail miserably. In episode #611: Last of the Wild Horses, in a parody of Star Trek episode "Mirror, Mirror", TV's Frank and Dr. Forrester become the SOL captives and spend part of the episode providing all the riffs. Dr. Forrester comments as they enter the theater that he wasn't going to carry Frank in, a reference to Joel or Mike carrying
The Franks were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine, on the edge of the Roman Empire. The term was associated with Romanized Germanic dynasties within the collapsing Roman Empire, who commanded the whole region between the rivers Loire and Rhine, they imposed power over many other post-Roman kingdoms and Germanic peoples, still they were given recognition by the Catholic Church as successors to the old rulers of the Western Roman Empire. Although the Frankish name does not appear until the 3rd century, at least some of the original Frankish tribes had long been known to the Romans under their own names, both as allies providing soldiers and as enemies; the new name first appears when their allies were losing control of the Rhine region. The Franks were first reported as working together to raid Roman territory, but from the beginning these raids were associated with attacks upon them from outside their frontier area, by the Saxons, for example, with the desire of frontier tribes to move into Roman territory with which they had had centuries of close contact.
Frankish peoples inside Rome's frontier on the Rhine river were the Salian Franks who from their first appearance were permitted to live in Roman territory, the Ripuarian or Rhineland Franks who, after many attempts conquered the Roman frontier city of Cologne and took control of the left bank of the Rhine. In a period of factional conflict in the 450s and 460s, Childeric I, a Frank, was one of several military leaders commanding Roman forces with various ethnic affiliations in Roman Gaul. Childeric and his son Clovis I faced competition from the Roman Aegidius as competitor for the "kingship" of the Franks associated with the Roman Loire forces; this new type of kingship inspired by Alaric I, represents the start of the Merovingian dynasty, which succeeded in conquering most of Gaul in the 6th century, as well as establishing its leadership over all the Frankish kingdoms on the Rhine frontier. It was on the basis of this Merovingian empire that the resurgent Carolingians came to be seen as the new Emperors of Western Europe in 800.
In the Middle Ages, the term Frank came to be used as a synonym for Western European, as the Carolingian Franks were rulers of most of Western Europe, established a political order, the basis of the European ancien regime that only ended with the French revolution. Western Europeans shared their allegiance to the Roman Catholic church and worked as allies in the Crusades beyond Europe in the Levant, where they still referred to themselves and the Principalities they established as Frankish; this has had a lasting impact on names for Western Europeans in many languages. From the beginning the Frankish kingdoms were politically and divided between an eastern Frankish and Germanic part, the western part that the Merovingians had founded on Roman soil; the eastern Frankish kingdom came to be seen as the new "Holy Roman Empire", was from early times called "Germany". Within "Frankish" Western Europe itself, it was the original Merovingian or "Salian" Western Frankish kingdom, founded in Roman Gaul and speaking Romance languages, which has continued until today to be referred to as "France" - a name derived directly from the Franks.
The name Franci was not a tribal name, but within a few centuries it had eclipsed the names of the original peoples who constituted it. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the English adjective "frank" meaning "free". There have been proposals that Frank comes from the Germanic word for "javelin". Words in other Germanic languages meaning "fierce", "bold" or "insolent", may be significant. Eumenius addressed the Franks in the matter of the execution of Frankish prisoners in the circus at Trier by Constantine I in 306 and certain other measures: Latin: Ubi nunc est illa ferocia? Ubi semper infida mobilitas?. Latin: Feroces was used to describe the Franks. Contemporary definitions of Frankish ethnicity vary both by point of view. A formulary written by Marculf about 700 AD described a continuation of national identities within a mixed population when it stated that "all the peoples who dwell, Romans and those of other nations, live... according to their law and their custom."
Writing in 2009, Professor Christopher Wickham pointed out that "the word'Frankish' ceased to have an exclusive ethnic connotation. North of the River Loire everyone seems to have been considered a Frank by the mid-7th century at the latest. Apart from the more respected History of the Franks by Gregory of Tours, two more colourful early sources that describe the origin of the Franks are a 7th-century work known as the Chronicle of Fredegar and the anonymous Liber Historiae Francorum, written a century later; the author of the Chronicle of Fredegar claimed that the Franks came from Troy and quoted the works of Vergil and Hieronymous, the Franks are mentioned in those works, by Hieronymous. The chronicle describes Priam as a Frankish king whose people migrated to Macedonia after the fall of Troy. In Macedonia, the Franks divided; the Eur