Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit
Jeanne Mathilde Sauvé was a Canadian journalist and stateswoman who served as Governor General of Canada, the 23rd since Canadian Confederation. Sauvé was born in Prud'homme and educated in Ottawa and Paris, prior to working as a journalist for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, she was elected to the House of Commons in 1972, whereafter she served as a minister of the Crown until 1980, when she became the Speaker of the House of Commons. She was in 1984 appointed as governor general by Queen Elizabeth II, on the recommendation of Prime Minister of Canada Pierre Trudeau, to replace Edward Schreyer as vicereine, she occupied the post until succeeded by Ray Hnatyshyn in 1990, she was the first woman to serve as Canada's governor general and, while her appointment as the Queen's representative was and welcomed, Sauvé caused some controversy during her time as vicereine due to increased security around the office, as well as an anti-monarchist attitude towards the position. On November 27, 1972, Sauvé was sworn into the Queen's Privy Council for Canada.
She subsequently founded and worked with the Sauvé Foundation until her death, caused by Hodgkin's lymphoma, on January 26, 1993. Sauvé was born in the Fransaskois community of Prud'homme, Saskatchewan, to Charles Albert Benoît and Anna Vaillant, three years moved with them to Ottawa, where her family had lived. In Ottawa, her father would take her to see the bronze bust on Parliament Hill of Canada's first female Member of Parliament, Agnes Macphail. Sauvé studied at Notre Dame du Rosaire Convent in Ottawa, becoming head of her class in her first year, continued her education at the University of Ottawa, working for the government of Canada as a translator in order to pay her tuition. At the same time, Sauvé involved herself in student and political affairs, it was there that Sauvé met Maurice Sauvé, the two married on September 24, 1948, the same year the couple moved to London. Two years they moved to Paris, where Sauvé was employed as the assistant to the director of the Youth Secretariat at UNESCO, in 1951, she enrolled for one year at the Sorbonne, graduating with a degree in French civilization.
Sauvé and her husband returned to Canada near the end of 1952, where the couple settled in Saint-Hyacinthe, in 1959 had one child, Jean-François. Sauvé became a founding member of the Institute of Political Research and was hired as a journalist and broadcaster with the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation's French-language broadcaster, Radio-Canada. After success on her first radio programme, Fémina, Sauvé was moved to CBC television and focused her efforts on covering political topics on both radio and television, in both English and French, she soon drew attention to herself and was invited by her friend Gérard Pelletier as a panellist on the controversial show Les Idées en Marche, there revealing her left-wing political ideologies. This absorption of a woman into the traditionally male world of political journalism and commentary was unusual, yet Sauvé managed to be taken even being given her own television show, which covered "such taboo subjects as teenage sex, parental authority, student discipline".
On air from 1956 to 1963, "it was the show that made Jeanne famous". However, Sauvé attracted negative attention due to her husband's eventual elevation as a Crown minister, it was the Liberal Party that wooed Sauvé into politics, asking her to run as a candidate in the Montreal riding of Ahuntsic during the 1972 federal election. Though she found campaigning arduous, saying: "I felt uneasy for the first time in my life when I was campaigning... I must say I had qualms about it myself", Sauvé won, she was subsequently both sworn into the Queen's Privy Council and appointed as Minister of State for Science and Technology in the Cabinet chaired by Pierre Trudeau, thus becoming the first woman from Quebec to become a minister of the Crown and the sole female in that Cabinet. Sauvé ran again in the election two years re-winning Ahuntsic, was given the environment portfolio until 1975, when she was appointed Minister of Communications. In the 1979 election, Sauvé won the riding of Laval-des-Rapides, but the Liberals lost their majority in the commons to the Progressive Conservative Party.
She remained MP for her riding after the federal election of 1980, which saw both the Liberals returned to majority position and Trudeau returned to position of prime minister, Trudeau indicated Sauvé as his choice for the Speaker of the House of Commons. Because she desired to campaign for the "No" forces in the weeks leading up to Quebec's 1980 referendum on separation from Canada, Sauvé refused the offer to run for the non-partisan position, but she acquiesced after Trudeau convinced her that she was the right person for the job and she received permission from the leaders of all the parties in the House of Commons to engage in the federalist campaign in Quebec. In her early days as speaker, Sauvé made mistakes with the names of MPs or the ridings they represented—once calling on the Prime Minister as the "leader of the opposition"—and occa
Norman Lim "Normie" Kwong was a Canadian football player who played for the Calgary Stampeders and Edmonton Eskimos of the Canadian Football League. He was an active businessman and politician being part owner of the Calgary Flames and serving as the 16th Lieutenant Governor of Alberta from January 2005 to May 2010; the son of Chinese immigrants from Taishan, Kwong was the first Canadian professional gridiron football player of Chinese heritage. In addition, Kwong was the first person of Chinese heritage to serve as lieutenant-governor of Alberta; as a former vice-regal representative of Alberta, he was styled "The Honourable" for life. Kwong was the third Canadian of Chinese heritage to be appointed as a vice-regal in Canada, after David Lam and Adrienne Clarkson. Kwong was born in Alberta on October 24, 1929 to a Chinese immigrant family, his father, Charles Lim Kwong, immigrated to Canada in 1907 and had to pay the head tax, his mother, Lily Lee, immigrated with her family in 1912. Their marriage was arranged by their parents.
They lived in British Columbia at first, but moved to Calgary because anti-Chinese discrimination was less severe there, Charles was able to open his own business, the Riverside Cash and Carry Store. Norman was the fifth of six siblings, they were lucky to have both parents in Canada, as family reunion was restricted at the time for Chinese Canadians and many children grew up with one parent. In 1947, Canada's Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed for contravening the United Nations' Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Chinese Canadians were given citizen rights for the first time, barriers for Chinese in professional sports came down. After playing football at Western Canada High School, Kwong went on to play for the Calgary Stampeders from 1948 to 1950 and, after a trade, the Edmonton Eskimos from 1951 until his retirement in 1960. Nicknamed the "China Clipper", Kwong was the first Chinese Canadian to play on a professional Canadian football team. A powerful fullback, in 11 years of recorded statistics Kwong rushed for 9,022 yards for an average of 5.2 yards per carry and scored 93 touchdowns.
He won the Grey Cup four times during his career. Kwong was a Western Conference all-star running back and three-time winner of the Eddie James Memorial Trophy, in 1951, 1955 and 1956, he was named the Schenley Most Outstanding Canadian in 1955 and 1956. He was named Canadian Athlete of the Year in 1955, he was inducted into the Canadian Football Hall of Fame in 1969, Canada's Sports Hall of Fame in 1975, the Edmonton Eskimos' Wall of Honour in 1983, the Alberta Sports Hall of Fame in 1980, the Calgary Stampeders' Wall of Fame in 2012. In November 2006, he was one of few of his contemporaries to be voted one of the Canadian Football League's Top 50 players of the sport's modern era by Canadian sports network TSN. Kwong set the CFL record for the most yards rushing by Canadian in a season with 1,437 in the 1956 season; this record held for 56 years, being broken by Jon Cornish only in 2012, though Kwong accomplished his record in fifteen games, rather than eighteen for Cornish. He was president and general manager of the Calgary Stampeders from 1988 to 1991, leading the team to a loss in the Grey Cup final in 1991.
Between 1980 and 1994, Kwong was a part owner of the Calgary Flames, having been one of the original group of six Calgary businessmen who bought and moved the NHL's Atlanta Flames hockey team to Calgary in 1980. The Calgary Flames won the Stanley Cup in 1989, making him one of few people whose name is on both the Grey Cup and the Stanley Cup; the feat would be matched by Wayne Gretzky, who in an interesting symmetry to Kwong's achievement has his name on the Stanley Cup four times as a player and on the Grey Cup once as an owner. Kwong's public stature from sports helped. In 1971 he ran for the Alberta Progressive Conservative party in Calgary-Millican. In this election, the PCs ended Social Credit's 36-year hold on power, winning all but five seats in Calgary. However, Kwong himself was defeated by longtime incumbent Arthur J. Dixon who won by a 1,600 vote plurality. In 1988 Kwong was made a member of the Order of Canada and served as the national chairman of the Canadian Consultative Council on Multiculturalism.
Kwong was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Alberta on January 20, 2005, replacing Lois Hole, who died in office on January 6, 2005. Kwong welcomed Queen Elizabeth II to Alberta in June 2005 on a visit commemorating Alberta's first 100 years in Canadian Confederation. During a private audience the Queen presented Kwong with the insignia of a Knight of Justice in the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St John of Jerusalem. Kwong swore Ed Stelmach into office as the 13th Premier of Alberta on December 14, 2006. Kwong's term concluded on May 11, 2010, he was succeeded by Don Ethell. Kwong married Mary Lee on March 26, 1960 and together they had four sons: Gregory, Bradley and Randall, he died in his sleep on September 3, 2016 at the age of 86. He was survived by his wife, four sons, ten grandchildren. In 2006 Kwong received an Honorary Degree of Doctor of Laws from the University of Alberta; the Honourable David Lam - former Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia and Canada's first vice-regal of Chinese heritage The Right Honourable Adrienne Clarkson - former Governor General of Canada and the first Chinese Canadian to serve in the post Larry Kwong, the original "China Clipper", former NHL hockey player and first Chinese-Canadian NHL player Peter Ing former NHL goaltender Philip S. Lee, former Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba Lost
Robert George Brett was a politician and physician in the North-West Territories and Alberta, Canada. Brett was well educated, attaining his medical degree, he attended various schools in the United States for his post graduate work. In 1874 he located in the small village of Arkona, where he served a term as village Reeve, he was married in 1873 to Louise T. Hungerford and had four children, all four of whom predeceased their parents. Although it has been stated that Brett moved to Manitoba in 1880 he and his family were listed in the 1881 census in Arkona. In any case in the early 1880s he helped found the Manitoba Medical College and sat as a board member on the University of Manitoba. In 1883 he moved to District of Alberta, he worked as a physician at the Banff Sanitarium. In 1888 he was elected to the Legislative Assembly of the North-West Territories, he became a de facto leader of the government as chairman of the Lieutenant-Governor's Advisory Council. Robert Brett had a rivalry with longtime member Frederick Haultain.
In 1898 Robert Brett became the first Leader of the Official Opposition during a time in which the territorial legislature made a transition to party politics. He was elected in 1898 territorial election but his lead over opponent was so narrow that a by-election was held, which Arthur Sifton won. In the 1902 election he unexpectedly dropped out of the race, a move that hurt the North-West Territories Liberal Party; when Alberta became a province in 1905 he was defeated. He served as a senior surgeon in Banff at Brett Hospital. In 1909 he became president of the Alberta Conservative Party. During his time in the early 20th century he served on a number of boards in Alberta, he was appointed the second Lieutenant Governor of Alberta in 1915 and served in the post for one decade. He died in Alberta. Mount Brett, west of Banff, was named in his honour. Johnson, Margery; the Arkona Cemetery and Mennonite Cemetery in Warwick Township. Johnson, William F. Arkona Through the Years. Stott, Greg. Arkona: A History of an Ontario Community.
Robert Brett Biography: Alberta Heritage Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Robert Brett Biography: Legislative Assembly of Alberta Lethbridge Herald – 25 May 1916
University of Alberta
The University of Alberta is a public research university located in Edmonton, Canada. It was founded in 1908 by Alexander Cameron Rutherford, the first premier of Alberta, Henry Marshall Tory, its first president, its enabling legislation is the Post-secondary Learning Act. The university is considered a “Comprehensive academic and research university”, which means that it offers a range of academic and professional programs, which lead to undergraduate and graduate level credentials, have a strong research focus; the university comprises four campuses in Edmonton, the Augustana Campus in Camrose, a staff centre in downtown Calgary. The original north campus consists of 150 buildings covering 50 city blocks on the south rim of the North Saskatchewan River valley, directly across from downtown Edmonton. 39,000 students from Canada and 150 other countries participate in 400 programs in 18 faculties. The University of Alberta is a major economic driver in Alberta; the university's impact on the Alberta economy is an estimated $12.3 billion annually, or five per cent of the province's gross domestic product.
The University of Alberta is a leading institution for the study of Ukraine and is home to the Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies. The University of Alberta has graduated more than 275,000 alumni, including Governor General Roland Michener; the university is a member of the Alberta Rural Development Network, the Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education and the Sustainability Tracking, Assessment & Rating System. The University of Alberta, a single, public provincial university, was chartered in 1906 in Edmonton, Alberta with the University Act in the first session of the new Legislative Assembly, with Premier Alexander C. Rutherford as its sponsor; the university was modelled on the American state university, with an emphasis on extension work and applied research. The governance was modelled on Ontario's University of Toronto Act of 1906: a bicameral system consisting of a senate responsible for academic policy, a board of governors controlling financial policy and having formal authority in all other matters.
The president, appointed by the board, was to provide a link between the two bodies and perform institutional leadership. Heated wrangling took place between the cities of Calgary and Edmonton over the location of the provincial capital and of the university, it was stated that the capital would be north of the North Saskatchewan River and that the university would be in a city south of it. The city of Edmonton became the capital and the then-separate city of Strathcona on the south bank of the river, where Premier Alexander Rutherford lived, was granted the university; when the two cities were amalgamated in 1912, Edmonton became both the political and academic capital. With Henry Marshall Tory as its first president, the University of Alberta started operation in 1908. Forty-five students attended classes in English and modern languages, on the top floor of the Queen Alexandra Elementary School in Strathcona, while the first campus building, Athabasca Hall, was under construction. In a letter to Alexander Cameron Rutherford in early 1906, while he was in the process of setting up McGill University College in Vancouver, Tory wrote, "If you take any steps in the direction of a working University and wish to avoid the mistakes of the past, mistakes which have fearfully handicapped other institutions, you should start on a teaching basis."Under Tory's guidance, the early years were marked by recruitment of professors and construction of the first campus buildings.
Today, he has a building named after him. Percy Erskine Nobbs & Frank Darling designed the master plan for the University of Alberta in 1909–10. Nobbs designed the Arts Building and Power House. With Cecil S. Burgess, Nobbs designed the Provincial College of Medicine. Architect Herbert Alton Magoon designed several buildings on campus, including St. Stephen's Methodist College and the residence for professor Rupert C. Lodge; the University of Alberta awarded its first degrees in 1912, the same year it established the Department of Extension. The Faculty of Medicine was established the following year, the Faculty of Agriculture began in 1915, but along with these early milestones came the First World War and the global influenza pandemic of 1918, whose toll on the university resulted in a two-month suspension of classes in the fall of 1918. Despite these setbacks, the university continued to grow. By 1920, it had two schools, it awarded a range of degrees: Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, Bachelor of Laws, Bachelor of Pharmacy, Bachelor of Divinity, Master of Arts, Master of Science, Doctor of Laws.
There were 851 male students and 251 female students, 171 academic staff, including 14 women. The Breton Soil Plots were established at the faculty of agriculture from 1929 – present to provide agricultural research on fertilization, crop rotations and farming practices on Gray-Luvisolic soils, which cover many regions in western Canada; the University of Alberta spearheaded an extraordinary rate of volunteerism in the Province of Alberta to the First World War from its medical faculty. Experience gained was used by returning veteran
John J. Bowlen
John James Bowlen was a Canadian rancher, provincial politician and the seventh Lieutenant Governor of Alberta. Upon the death of his wife, his eldest daughter, Mary Bowlen Mooney became official hostess as "Lady to His Honour the Lieutenant Governor." Official biography
Horace Andrew Olson, was a Canadian businessman and the 14th Lieutenant Governor of Alberta. He served as a Member of Parliament, Minister of Agriculture, Minister of Economic and Regional Development, he was a farmer and rancher, president and operating officer of Farmer's Stockmen's Supplies in Medicine Hat and Lethbridge, Alberta. Born in Iddesleigh, Alberta on October 6, 1925. On January 27, 1947, he married Marion Lucille McLachlan, they had four children: Sharon Lee, Andrea Lucille, Juanita Carol and Horace Andrew Jr. Bud Olson was first elected to the House of Commons of Canada in the 1957 election as a Social Credit Member of Parliament from Medicine Hat, he was defeated in the Diefenbaker sweep of 1958, but re-elected in 1962, 1963 and 1965. With the Social Credit Party's English Canadian wing disintegrating, Olson crossed the floor in 1967 to join the Liberal Party. Olson supported Pierre Trudeau's successful candidacy for the Liberal leadership in 1968, narrowly won re-election as an MP in 1968 and became minister of agriculture in the first Trudeau government.
Olson served in that position. He was one of only four Liberal MPs elected from Alberta in 1968 – all of whom were defeated in 1972 due to Trudeau's increasing unpopularity in Western Canada Alberta. Olson was unsuccessful in his attempt to return to Parliament in 1974, in 1977 Trudeau appointed him to the Senate of Canada. Olson served as leader of the opposition in the Senate in 1979, returned to Cabinet when the Trudeau Liberals returned to power in 1980, he served as Minister of Economic and Regional Development from 1980 to 1984, as well as Leader of the Government in the Senate. As one of Trudeau's most powerful ministers, he chaired the cabinet committee on economic development from 1980 to 1983, he was the minister responsible for the Northern Pipeline Agency from 1980 to 1984,and the government leader in the Senate from 1982 to 1984. It was Olson's job to promote the government's unpopular National Energy Program in Alberta. Olson resigned from the Senate when he was appointed Alberta's 14th Lieutenant-Governor in April 1996.
He served in that position until 2000. Bud Olson died in Medicine Hat in 2002. Bud Olson – Parliament of Canada biography