University of Minnesota
The University of Minnesota, Twin Cities is a public research university in Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota. The Minneapolis and St. Paul campuses are 3 miles apart, the St. Paul campus is in neighboring Falcon Heights, it is the oldest and largest campus within the University of Minnesota system and has the sixth-largest main campus student body in the United States, with 50,943 students in 2018-19. The university is the flagship institution of the University of Minnesota system, is organized into 19 colleges and schools, with sister campuses in Crookston, Duluth and Rochester; the University of Minnesota is one of America's Public Ivy universities, which refers to top public universities in the United States capable of providing a collegiate experience comparable with the Ivy League. Founded in 1851, The University of Minnesota is categorized as a Doctoral University – Highest Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Minnesota is a member of the Association of American Universities and is ranked 14th in research activity with $881 million in research and development expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015.
The University of Minnesota faculty and researchers have won 30 Nobel Prizes and three Pulitzer Prizes. Notable University of Minnesota alumni include two Vice Presidents of the United States, Hubert Humphrey and Walter Mondale, Bob Dylan, who received the 2016 Nobel Prize in Literature; the university organization structure consists of 19 colleges and other major academic units: The university has six university-wide interdisciplinary centers and institutes whose work crosses collegiate lines: Center for Cognitive Sciences Consortium on Law and Values in Health and the Life Sciences Institute for Advanced Study at University of Minnesota Institute for Translational Neuroscience Institute on the Environment Minnesota Population Center In 2018, Minnesota was ranked 37th in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities. The Times Higher Education World University Rankings for 2015 ranks Minnesota 46th in the world; the Center for World University Rankings ranked the university 35th in the world and 25th in the United States in 2018.
In 2016, the Nature Index ranked Minnesota 34th in the world based on research publication data from 2015. In 2015, Academic Ranking of World Universities ranked the university 11th in the world for mathematics; the University of Minnesota is ranked 14 overall among the nation's top research universities by the Center for Measuring University Performance. The university's research and development expenditures ranked 13th–15th among U. S. academic institutions in the 2010 through 2015 National Science Foundation reports. The U. S. News & World Report's 2016 rankings placed the undergraduate program of the university as the 69th-best National University in the United States, it ranked the Chemical Engineering program third-best, the Doctor of Pharmacy program third best, the Economics PhD program tenth, Psychology eighth, Statistics sixteenth, Audiology ninth, the University of Minnesota Medical School 6th for primary care and 34th for research. The Law School recognized as a'Top Law School' by U.
S. News & World Report, is ranked 20th in the nation, is a national leader in commercial law, international law, clinical education. Additionally, nineteen of the university's graduate-school departments have been ranked in the nation's top-twenty by the U. S. National Research Council. In 2008 and 2012 U. S. News & World Report ranked the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. 2016 U. S. News & Report now rank the College of Pharmacy 2nd in the nation. In 2011, U. S. News & World Report ranked the School of Public Health 8th in the nation, home to the 2nd ranked program for the Master of Healthcare Administration degree; the University of Minnesota ranked 19th in NIH funding in 2008. Minnesota is listed as a "Public Ivy" in 2001 Greenes' Guides The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities. U. S. News & World Report has ranked the Nursing Informatics program of University of Minnesota as 2nd best in the nation; the university is known for innovation in research. The inventions by students and faculty have ranged from food science to health technologies.
Most of the public research funding in Minnesota is funneled to the University of Minnesota as a result of long standing advocacy by the university itself. The university developed Gopher, a precursor to the World Wide Web which used hyperlinks to connect documents across computers on the internet. However, the version produced by CERN was favored by the public since it was distributed and could more handle multimedia webpages; the university houses the Charles Babbage Institute, a research and archive center specializing in computer history. The department has strong roots in the early days of supercomputing with Seymour Cray of Cray supercomputers; the university became a member of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory in 2007, has led data analysis projects searching for gravitational waves – the existence of which were confirmed by scientists in February 2016. Puffed rice – Alexander P. Anderson led to the discovery of "puffed rice", a starting point for a new breakfast cereal advertised as "Food Shot From Guns".
Transistorized cardiac pacemaker – Earl Bakken founded Medtronic, where he developed the first external, battery-operated, wearable artificial pacemaker in 1957. ATP synthase – Paul D. Boyer elucidated the enzymatic mechanism for synthesis of adenosine triphosphate, leading to a Nobel Prize in 1997
Frederick Augustus Genth
Frederick Augustus Ludwig Karl Wilhelm Genth was a German-American chemist, specializing in analytical chemistry and mineralogy. Genth studied at the Hanau gymnasium and at the University of Heidelberg, under Justus von Liebig at Giessen, under Christian Gerling and Robert Bunsen at Marburg, where he received the degree of Ph. D. in 1846. For three years he acted as assistant to Bunsen. In 1848, Genth emigrated to the United States, he organized an analytical laboratory. In 1872 he was appointed professor of mineralogy in the University of Pennsylvania, he resigned his professorship in 1888, re-established his laboratory. He held the office of chemist to the Geological Survey of Pennsylvania and to the board of agriculture of that state. Genth was a member of many scientific societies in the United States: he was elected in 1872 to membership in the National Academy of Sciences. Benjamin Silliman, Jr. alluded to Genth as having "no superior in this country as an analytical chemist." Genth contributed careful analyses of minerals to the literature of chemistry.
His name is associated with the ammonia cobalt bases which he discovered in 1846, and, in joint authorship with Wolcott Gibbs, he contributed to the "Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge" a monograph on "Researches on the Ammonia-Cobalt Bases". Genth is the author of 102 separate papers on subjects in mineralogy. Of these, about 30 were not related to mineralogy. Among the non-mineralogical papers were papers on fertilizers, which were related to his work for the Pennsylvania Board of Agriculture, he published "Tabellarische Übersicht der wichtigsten Reactionen welche Basen in Salzen zeigen" the same in relation to "Acids". Genth was first to describe and characterize a number of new minerals ores of tellurium. Among those still recognized today are: melonite, cosalite, coloradoite, kerrite, willcoxite, endlichite, nesquehonite and penfieldite, he married twice, the first time to Karolina Jäger, with whom he had three children, the second time to Paulina Fischer, with whom he had nine children.
Gilman, D. C.. "Genth, Frederick Augustus". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Wilson, J. G.. "Genth, Frederick Augustus L. C. W.". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography. New York: D. Appleton; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Rines, George Edwin, ed.. "Genth, Frederick Augustus". Encyclopedia Americana. Myers, William Marsh. "Frederick Augustus Genth, 1820-1893, mineralogist, collector". Journal of the Franklin Institute. 241: 341–354. Doi:10.1016/0016-003290484-X. Kauffman, G. B.. "Early Experimental Studies of Cobalt-Ammines". Isis. 68: 392–403. Doi:10.1086/351815. JSTOR 231315. Barker, George Frederick. "Memoir of Frederick Augustus Genth, 1820-1893". Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences. 4
Ira Remsen was a chemist who, along with Constantin Fahlberg, discovered the artificial sweetener saccharin. He was the second president of Johns Hopkins University. Ira Remsen was born in New York City and earned an M. D. from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1867. Remsen subsequently studied chemistry in Germany, studying under chemist Wilhelm Rudolph Fittig, receiving a PhD from University of Göttingen in 1870. In 1872, after researching pure chemistry at University of Tübingen, Remsen returned to the United States and became a professor at Williams College, where he wrote the popular text Theoretical Chemistry. Remsen's book and reputation brought him to the attention of Daniel Coit Gilman, who invited him to become one of the original faculty of Johns Hopkins University. Remsen founded the department of chemistry there, overseeing his own laboratory. In 1879 Remsen founded the American Chemical Journal, which he edited for 35 years. In 1879 Fahlberg, working with Remsen in a post-doctoral capacity, made an accidental discovery that changed Remsen's career.
Eating rolls at dinner after a long day in the lab researching coal tar derivatives, Fahlberg noticed that the rolls tasted sweet but bitter. Since his wife tasted nothing strange about the rolls, Fahlberg tasted his fingers and noticed that the bitter taste was from one of the chemicals in his lab; the next day at his lab he tasted the chemicals that he had been working with the previous day and discovered that it was the oxidation of o-toluenesulfonamide he had tasted the previous evening. He named the substance saccharin and he and his research partner Remsen published their finding in 1880. Remsen became angry after Fahlberg, in patenting saccharin, claimed that he alone had discovered saccharin. Remsen had no interest in the commercial success of saccharin, from which Fahlberg profited, but he was incensed at the perceived dishonesty of not crediting him as the head of the laboratory. Throughout his academic career, Remsen was known as an excellent teacher, rigorous in his expectations but patient with the beginner.
"His lectures to beginners were models of didactic exposition, many of his graduate students owe much of their success in their own lecture rooms to the pedagogical training received from attendance upon Remsen's lectures to freshmen."In 1901 Remsen was appointed the president of Johns Hopkins, where he proceeded to found a School of Engineering and helped establish the school as a research university. He introduced many of the German laboratory techniques he had learned and wrote several important chemistry textbooks. In 1912 he stepped down as president, due to ill health, retired to Carmel, California. In 1923 he was awarded the Priestley medal, he died on March 4, 1927. After his death, the new chemistry building, completed in 1924, was named after him at Johns Hopkins, his ashes are located behind a plaque in Remsen Hall. His Baltimore house was added to the National Register of Historic Places and declared a National Historic Landmark in 1975. Remsen Hall in Queens College is named for him.
In 1946, to commemorate the centenary of Remsen, the Maryland chapter of the American Chemical Society, began awarding the Remsen award, in his honor. Awardees are of the highest caliber, included a sequence of 16 Nobel laureates between 1950 and 1980. Recipients Noyes W. A.. "Ira Remsen". Science. 66: 243–246. Doi:10.1126/science.66.1707.243. PMID 17742012. Ira Remsen: The Chemistry was Right The History of African-Americans at The Johns Hopkins University. Ira Remsen — Biographical Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences Papers of Ira Remsen
J. Lawrence Smith
John Lawrence Smith was an American chemist, born in Louisville and educated at the University of Virginia, the Medical College of South Carolina, in Germany under Liebig, in Paris under Pelouze. In 1844 he began the practice of medicine at Charleston and established the Medical and Surgical Journal of South Carolina. Between 1846 and 1850, he investigated the mineral resources of Turkey, for Turkey's government, he discovered deposits of coal, chrome ore, the famous emery deposits of Naxos. In Turkey he discovered liebigite, named it after his German teacher Liebig. In 1850, while professor of chemistry at the University of Louisiana, Smith invented the inverted microscope. From 1852 to 1854 he was professor of chemistry in the University of Virginia. From 1854 to 1866 he was Chair and Professor of Medical Chemistry and Toxicology at the Medical Department of the University of Louisville, he was president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and of the American Chemical Society.
His collection of meteorites was the finest in the United States, upon his death, he passed it to Harvard. He published Chemistry, Original Researches; the J. Lawrence Smith Medal is named in his honor; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "article name needed". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. J. Lawrence Smith at Find a Grave J. Lawrence Smith at Journal of Chemical Education, February 1928 Works by or about J. Lawrence Smith in libraries
Josiah Willard Gibbs
Josiah Willard Gibbs was an American scientist who made important theoretical contributions to physics and mathematics. His work on the applications of thermodynamics was instrumental in transforming physical chemistry into a rigorous inductive science. Together with James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann, he created statistical mechanics, explaining the laws of thermodynamics as consequences of the statistical properties of ensembles of the possible states of a physical system composed of many particles. Gibbs worked on the application of Maxwell's equations to problems in physical optics; as a mathematician, he invented modern vector calculus. In 1863, Yale awarded Gibbs the first American doctorate in engineering. After a three-year sojourn in Europe, Gibbs spent the rest of his career at Yale, where he was professor of mathematical physics from 1871 until his death. Working in relative isolation, he became the earliest theoretical scientist in the United States to earn an international reputation and was praised by Albert Einstein as "the greatest mind in American history".
In 1901, Gibbs received what was considered the highest honor awarded by the international scientific community, the Copley Medal of the Royal Society of London, "for his contributions to mathematical physics". Commentators and biographers have remarked on the contrast between Gibbs's quiet, solitary life in turn of the century New England and the great international impact of his ideas. Though his work was entirely theoretical, the practical value of Gibbs's contributions became evident with the development of industrial chemistry during the first half of the 20th century. According to Robert A. Millikan, in pure science, Gibbs "did for statistical mechanics and for thermodynamics what Laplace did for celestial mechanics and Maxwell did for electrodynamics, made his field a well-nigh finished theoretical structure". Gibbs was born in Connecticut, he belonged to an old Yankee family that had produced distinguished American clergymen and academics since the 17th century. He was the fourth of five children and the only son of Josiah Willard Gibbs Sr. and his wife Mary Anna, née Van Cleve.
On his father's side, he was descended from Samuel Willard, who served as acting President of Harvard College from 1701 to 1707. On his mother's side, one of his ancestors was the Rev. Jonathan Dickinson, the first president of the College of New Jersey. Gibbs's given name, which he shared with his father and several other members of his extended family, derived from his ancestor Josiah Willard, Secretary of the Province of Massachusetts Bay in the 18th century; the elder Gibbs was known to his family and colleagues as "Josiah", while the son was called "Willard". Josiah Gibbs was a linguist and theologian who served as professor of sacred literature at Yale Divinity School from 1824 until his death in 1861, he is chiefly remembered today as the abolitionist who found an interpreter for the African passengers of the ship Amistad, allowing them to testify during the trial that followed their rebellion against being sold as slaves. Willard Gibbs was educated at the Hopkins School and entered Yale College in 1854 at the age of 15.
At Yale, Gibbs received prizes for excellence in mathematics and Latin, he graduated in 1858, near the top of his class. He remained at Yale as a graduate student at the Sheffield Scientific School. At age 19, soon after his graduation from college, Gibbs was inducted into the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences, a scholarly institution composed of members of the Yale faculty. Few documents from the period survive and it is difficult to reconstruct the details of Gibbs's early career with precision. In the opinion of biographers, Gibbs's principal mentor and champion, both at Yale and in the Connecticut Academy, was the astronomer and mathematician Hubert Anson Newton, a leading authority on meteors, who remained Gibbs's lifelong friend and confidant. After the death of his father in 1861, Gibbs inherited enough money to make him financially independent. Recurrent pulmonary trouble ailed the young Gibbs and his physicians were concerned that he might be susceptible to tuberculosis, which had killed his mother.
He suffered from astigmatism, whose treatment was still unfamiliar to oculists, so that Gibbs had to diagnose himself and grind his own lenses. Though in years he used glasses only for reading or other close work, Gibbs's delicate health and imperfect eyesight explain why he did not volunteer to fight in the Civil War of 1861–65, he was not conscripted and he remained at Yale for the duration of the war. In 1863, Gibbs received the first Doctorate of Philosophy in engineering granted in the US, for a thesis entitled "On the Form of the Teeth of Wheels in Spur Gearing", in which he used geometrical techniques to investigate the optimum design for gears. In 1861, Yale had become the first US university to offer a Ph. D. degree and Gibbs's was only the fifth Ph. D. granted in the US in any subject. After graduation, Gibbs was appointed as tutor at the College for a term of three years. During the first two years, he taught Latin and during the third year, he taught "natural philosophy". In 1866, he patented a design for a railway brake and read a paper before the Connecticut Academy, entitled "The Proper Magnitude of the Units of Length", in which he proposed a scheme for rationalizing the system of units of measurement used in mechanics.
After his term as tutor ended, Gibbs traveled to Europe with his sisters. They spent the winter of 1866–67 i
Farrington Daniels, was an American physical chemist, is considered one of the pioneers of the modern direct use of solar energy. Daniels was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota on March 8, 1889. Daniels began day school in 1895 at the Kenwood School and on to Douglas School; as a boy, he was fascinated with Thomas Edison, Samuel F. B. Morse, Alexander Graham Bell, John Charles Fields, he decided early that he wanted to be an inventor. He attended East Side high schools. By this point he liked chemistry and physics, but enjoyed “Manual Training." In 1906 he entered the University of Minnesota, majoring in chemistry and adding to the usual mathematics and analytical courses some courses in botany and scientific German. He was initiated into the Beta Chapter of Alpha Chi Sigma in 1908, he sometimes worked summers as a railroad surveyor. He took his degree in chemistry in 1910; the following year he spent half his time in teaching and received an M. S. for graduate work in physical chemistry. He entered Harvard in 1911, paying for his studies through a teaching fellowship, received a Ph.
D. in 1914. His doctoral research on the electrochemistry of thallium alloys was supervised by Theodore William Richards. In the summer of 1912, Daniels had visited Europe. After earning his Ph. D. Harvard would have sent him on a traveling fellowship in Europe, but World War I broke out. So instead he accepted a position as instructor at the Worcester Polytechnic Institute, besides teaching, he found he had considerable time for research in calorimetry, for which he received a grant from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he joined the University of Wisconsin in 1920 as an assistant professor in 1920, remained until his retirement in 1959 as chairman of the chemistry department. Daniels was director of the Metallurgical Laboratory of the Manhattan Project and, after the war, became concerned to limit or stop the nuclear arms race. In that regard, he became a Board Member of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists. In 1947 Daniels conceived the pebble bed reactor, in which helium rises through fissioning uranium oxide or carbide pebbles and cools them by carrying away heat for power production.
The "Daniels' pile" was an early version of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor developed further at ORNL without success, but being developed as nuclear power plant by Rudolf Schulten. Daniels is known for writing several textbooks on physical chemistry, including Mathematical preparation for physical chemistry, Experimental physical chemistry, co-authored with J. Howard Mathews and John Warren, Chemical Kinetics, Physical Chemistry, co-authored with Robert Alberty; some of these books went through many subsequent editions until about 1980. He was awarded the Priestley Medal in 1957. Daniels died on June 1972 from complications from liver cancer, he was survived by his wife, four children, twelve grandchildren. He was inducted posthumously to the Alpha Chi Sigma Hall of Fame in 1982. Daniels became a leading American expert on the principles involved with the practical utilization of solar energy, he pursued understanding of the heat and the convection that can be derived from it, as well as the electrical energy that could be derived from it.
As Director of the University of Wisconsin–Madison's Solar Energy Laboratory, he explored such areas of practical application as cooking, space heating and industrial drying, distillation and refrigeration, photo- and thermo-electric conversion, he was interested in energy storage. In particular, he believed there were many practical applications of solar energy for ready use in the developing world. Daniels was active with the Association for Applied Solar Energy in the mid-1950s, he suggested that AFASE embark upon the publication of a scientific journal, the first issue of The Journal of Solar Energy Science and Engineering appeared in January, 1957. As Professor Emeritus of Chemistry of the University of Wisconsin–Madison, he led a group of solar scientists who proposed that AFASE be reorganized, that its directors and officers be elected by the membership, that the name be changed to The Solar Energy Society – all of, done, he supported solar energy because, as he said in 1955, "We realize, as never before, that our fossil fuels – coal and gas – will not last forever."One of his classic books is Direct Use of the Sun's Energy, published by Yale University Press in 1964.
The book was reprinted in a mass market edition in 1974 by Ballantine Books, after the 1973 oil crisis, was described as "The best book on solar energy that I know of" by the Whole Earth Catalog's Steve Baer. National Academy of Sciences Biographical Memoir
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine; as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academy is one of the highest honors in the scientific field. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation" on science and medicine; the group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Founded in 1863 as a result of an Act of Congress, approved by Abraham Lincoln, the NAS is charged with "providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. … to provide scientific advice to the government'whenever called upon' by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services."
As of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005; the current members annually elect new members for life. Up to 84 members who are US citizens are elected every year. 190 members have won a Nobel Prize. By its own admission in 1989, the addition of women to the Academy "continues at a dismal trickle", at which time there were 1,516 male members and 57 female members; the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science. The ICSU Advisory Committee, in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and serves as a liaison for U. S. national committees for individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there is informal dialogue; the National Academy is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, all of whom are elected from among the Academy membership.
About 85 percent of funding comes from the federal government through contracts and grants from agencies and 15 percent from state governments, private foundations, industrial organizations, funds provided by the Academies member organizations. The Council has the ability ad-hoc to delegate certain tasks to committees. For example, the Committee on Animal Nutrition has produced a series of Nutrient requirements of domestic animals reports since at least 1944, each one being initiated by a different sub-committee of experts in the field for example on dairy cattle; the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C., documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, makes more than 5,000 publications available on its website. From 2004 to 2017, the National Academy of Sciences administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work.
The museum's exhibits focused on infectious disease. In 2017 the museum closed and made way for a new science outreach program called LabX; the National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States. The National Academy of Sciences Building is located at 2101 Constitution Avenue, in northwest Washington, D. C.. S. State Department; the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Goodhue engaged a team of artists and architectural sculptors including Albert Herter, Lee Lawrie, Hildreth Meiere to design interior embellishments celebrating the history and significance of science; the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, NAM. The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5, 2014. 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. In June 2012, it reopened to visitors after a major two-year restoration project which restored and improved the building's historic spaces, increased accessibility, brought the building's aging infrastructure and facilities up to date.
More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, D. C; the Keck Center houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences – located at 525 E St. N. W. – hosted visits from the public, school field trips, traveling exhibits, permanent science exhibits. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts; the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center is located on 100 Academy Drive in Irvine, near the campus of the University of California, Irvine. The J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility; the Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS members came from the so-called "Scientific Lazzaroni," an informal network of phy