Philip Toll Hill Jr. was an American automobile racer and the only American-born driver to win the Formula One World Drivers' Championship. He scored three wins at each of the 24 Hours of Le Mans and 12 Hours of Sebring sports car races. Hill once said, "I'm in the wrong business. I don't want to beat anybody, I don't want to be the big hero. I'm a peace-loving man, basically." Born in Miami, Hill was raised in Santa Monica, where he lived until his death. He studied business administration at the University of Southern California from 1945 to 1947, where he was a member of the Kappa Sigma fraternity. Hill left early working as a mechanic on other drivers' cars. Hill began racing cars at an early age, going to England as a Jaguar trainee in 1949 and signing with Enzo Ferrari's team in 1956, he made his debut in the French Grand Prix at Reims France in 1958 driving a Maserati. That same year, paired with Belgian teammate Olivier Gendebien, Hill became the first American-born winner of the 24 Hours of Le Mans with Hill driving most of the night in horrific rainy conditions.
He and Gendebien would go on to win the famous endurance race again in 1961 and 1962. Hill began driving full-time for the Ferrari Formula One team in 1959, earning three podium finishes and fourth place in the Drivers' Championship. In 1960 he won the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, the first Grand Prix win for an American driver in nearly forty years, since Jimmy Murphy won the 1921 French Grand Prix; this turned out to be the last win for a front-engined car in Formula 1. The following season, Hill won the Belgian Grand Prix and with two races left trailed only his Ferrari teammate Wolfgang von Trips in the season standings. A crash during the Italian Grand Prix killed fourteen spectators. Hill won the race and clinched the championship but the triumph was bittersweet. Ferrari's decision not to travel to America for the season's final round deprived Hill of the opportunity to participate in his home race at Watkins Glen as the newly crowned World Champion; when he returned for the following season, his last with Ferrari, Hill said, "I no longer have as much need to race, to win.
I don't have as much hunger anymore. I am no longer willing to risk killing myself." After leaving Ferrari at the end of 1962, he and fellow driver Giancarlo Baghetti started for the new team ATS created by ex-Ferrari engineers in the great walkout of 1961. In 1964 Hill continued in Formula One, driving for the Cooper Formula One Team before retiring from single-seaters at the end of the season and limiting his future driving to sports car racing with Ford Motor Company and the Chaparral Cars of Jim Hall. During the 1966 Formula One season, Hill participated in race weekends behind the wheel of a Ford GT40 prototype, accompanied by a remote-control Panasonic camera in order to produce images for the movie Grand Prix. In that same season, he entered his last Formula One race, the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, racing for Dan Gurney's All American Racers, but he failed to qualify. Hill retired from racing altogether in 1967. Hill has the distinction of having won the first and last races of his driving career, the final victory driving for Chaparral in the BOAC 500 at Brands Hatch in England in 1967.
Hill drove an experimental MG, EX-181, at Bonneville Salt Flats. The "Roaring Raindrop" had a 91-cubic-inch supercharged MGA twin cam engine, using 86% methanol with nitrobenzene and sulphuric ether, for an output of 290 HP. In 1959 Hill attained 257 mph in this car, breaking the previous record of Stirling Moss in the same car, 246 mph. Following his retirement, Hill built up an award-winning classic car restoration business in the 1970s called Hill & Vaughn with business partner Ken Vaughn, until they sold the partnership to Jordanian Raja Gargour and Vaughn went on to run a separate business on his own in 1984. Hill remained with Gargour at Hill & Vaughn until the sale of the business again in 1995. Hill worked as a television commentator for ABC's Wide World of Sports. Hill had a distinguished association with Road & Track magazine, he wrote several articles for them, including road tests and retrospective articles on historic cars and races. He shared his "grand old man" status at R&T with 1960s racing rival Paul Frère, who died in 2008.
Hill, in his last years, devoted his time to his vintage car collection and judged at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance more than any other individual. Hill was married to Alma, had three children: Derek and Jennifer. Derek raced in International Formula 3000 in 2001, 2002 and 2003, but was forced to retire when Phil became ill with Parkinson's disease. After traveling to the Monterey Historic Automobile Races in August 2008, Hill was taken to Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula, where he died after a short illness from complications of Parkinson's disease in Monterey, California, on August 28. In 1991, he was inducted into the International Motorsports Hall of Fame, he was inducted in the Motorsports Hall of Fame of America as the sole sports cars driver in the inaugural 1989 class. Primary career victories: 24 Hours of Le Mans: 1958, 1961, 1962 12 Hours of Sebring: 1958, 1959, 1961 1000 km Buenos Aires: 1958, 1960 1000 km Nürburgring: 1962, 1966 F1 Italian Grand Prix: 1960, 1961 F1 Belgian Grand Prix: 1961 BOAC 500 (Bra
Frank Biela is an auto racing driver competing in touring cars and sportscar racing. He has raced in cars manufactured by the Audi marque since 1990. Biela started his career in 1983 in karting before joining the Ford Youngster Team programme in 1987 alongside Manuel Reuter and Bernd Schneider, he drove for the team in Formula Ford and the Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft, where he won the race at AVUS in 1987. Biela continued to compete in the DTM in 1988, raced a limited season in German Formula Three, scoring two wins. In 1990, he moved to Audi, winning the DTM race at the Nürburgring and the DTM championship in 1991 before Audi left the DTM in mid-season of 1992. Biela stayed with the company, with the rise of the two-litre Class 2 rules in other series across Europe, he was entered in various European touring car series over the following few seasons such as the French Supertouring Championship in 1993 driving the Audi 80 entered by Audi into the championship pairing alongside Marc Sourd.
Since his French Supertouring Championship victory in 1993, he is the only standing non-French driver to win it. In 1995, he won the Touring Car World Cup race at Paul Ricard in the new Audi A4, which became one of the dominant touring cars of the mid-1990s. Biela competed in the Super Tourenwagen Cup in his native Germany during 1994 and 1995. During the AVUS Berlin race in September 1995, Biela's Audi struck Kieth O'dor's accident-stranded Nissan Primera squarely on the driver's side, fatally injuring O'dor, who died that day in a Berlin hospital. For 1996, Audi decided to enter a works team of two A4s in the BTCC. Biela was selected to lead the team. Biela comfortably won the title, finishing every single race and being classified in the top ten in all but two races, he capped an astonishing season by taking first place in the Guia Race of Macau. Because of the Audis' dominance in 1996, the BTCC organisers imposed a heavy ballast weight "penalty" on all four-wheel-drive cars for the 1997 season.
With his Audi badly handicapped by the penalty, Biela struggled to make a serious impact. The weight penalty was halved at the midpoint of the season, results improved to the point where Biela finished second overall to eventual champion Alain Menu. Biela left Britain to return to the German Super Tourenwagen Cup for 1998, but was ineffective, he finished a lowly 14th in the final standings. In 1999, Biela abandoned touring cars in favour of joining the Audi R8 sports car project, racing under the Audi Sport Team Joest name, it was a good match, Biela excelled in sportscar racing over the next few seasons, winning several classic events at the wheel of the R8 as well as three ALMS races. The highlight of Biela's time with the R8 team was three successive victories in the 24 Hours of Le Mans alongside Emanuele Pirro and Tom Kristensen. Audi began to scale back support for the R8 programme after the 2002 season. After winning the ALMS series in 2003, Biela returned to the revamped German touring car series, driving an Audi for Joest Racing.
Biela continued to race an R8 at Le Mans each year with mixed results. In 2003, he ran out of fuel, he finished 3rd in 2004 and 2005, respectively. In December 2005 he participated in the first runs of the new Audi R10 diesel sportscar, the R8's successor. Driving an R10 in the 2006 24 Hours of Le Mans, alongside Pirro and new team-mate Marco Werner, Biela took his fourth victory to date in the classic race, he repeated the victory with the same car and team in 2007. His greatest achievements include winning: 1991 Deutsche Tourenwagen Meisterschaft German Touring Car Championship with an Audi V8 1993 French Touring Car Championship 1995 short-lived Touring Car World Cup one-off race 1996 BTCC in 1996 1996 Macau Grand Prix Guia Race 2000, 2001, 2002 24 Hours of Le Mans with an Audi R8 2006, 2007 24 Hours of Le Mans with an Audi R10 In a 2005 poll conducted by Motorsport Magazine, Biela was voted 19th best touring car driver ever. † — Retired, but was classified as he completed 90% of the winner's race distance.
‡ A non-championship one-off race was held in 2004 at the streets of China. ‡ Not eligible for points due to being a guest driver. Official Website
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Sébastien Olivier Buemi is a Swiss professional racing driver, who competed for Scuderia Toro Rosso in Formula One. In F1, Buemi is a reserve driver for Scuderia Toro Rosso's sister team, Red Bull Racing. Buemi has competed in the FIA World Endurance Championship with Toyota Gazoo Racing since 2012, he became the 2014 World Endurance Champion in the LMP1 class. He won the 2018 24 Hours of Le Mans. Buemi has raced FIA Formula E Championship with e.dams Renault since 2014. He won the Formula E Championship in 2015-16. Born in Aigle, Buemi graduated from karting and spent 2004 and 2005 in German Formula BMW, finishing third and second in the championship respectively, he was runner up in the 2005 FBMW World Final. Following a single race in Spanish Formula Three in 2005, Buemi moved up to the Formula Three Euroseries for 2006, finishing 12th in the championship, ceding 11th place to Charlie Kimball on countback, he remained in the series for 2007, finished second in the championship, behind Romain Grosjean.
He has competed in the special Masters of Formula 3 and Macau Grand Prix races. For the 2006–07 A1 Grand Prix season, Buemi shared driving duties for A1 Team Switzerland with Neel Jani and Marcel Fässler; the team finished eighth in the championship. Buemi was drafted in at short notice to replace the injured Michael Ammermüller at ART Grand Prix for the Monaco round of the 2007 GP2 Series season, he performed creditably on his GP2 début, finishing seventh. He joined the Arden International team for the 2008 GP2 Asia Series, finished as runner-up with a win and four second places, he continued with the team for the main 2008 season. He scored his first win in the French sprint race, starting 21st on the grid on slick tyres on a drying track and benefitting as most rivals had to pit for slicks, he ended the season sixth in the championship. On 18 September 2007 he drove the Red Bull RB3 at the F1 test session in Jerez, he was third quickest on the day, behind Timo Glock and Vitantonio Liuzzi but ahead of names such as Rubens Barrichello and Nelson Piquet Jr..
On 16 January 2008 Red Bull Racing confirmed Buemi as their test and reserve driver for the 2008 season. At the 2008 Japanese Grand Prix, Buemi drove the medical car as usual driver Dr Jacques Tropenat had been suffering from an ear problem. Scuderia Toro Rosso confirmed its signing of Buemi as one of its race drivers on 9 January 2009, he was the first Swiss driver to take part in an F1 race since Jean-Denis Délétraz drove for Pacific at the 1995 European Grand Prix. In his first race, the 2009 Australian Grand Prix, Buemi outqualified his teammate Sébastien Bourdais and scored a point in the race by finishing in eighth position, he was promoted to seventh place as a result of Lewis Hamilton being disqualified. At the Chinese Grand Prix, he scored another point, this time in the wet, finishing eighth after starting tenth. After a mid season dip in the Toro Rosso's form, Buemi rounded off a good weekend to finish 7th in the 2009 Brazilian Grand Prix, he followed this with a third top ten qualification in a row and another points finish at the season finale in Abu Dhabi.
Buemi finished the year sixteenth with 6 points as the best rookie. On 9 November 2009, it was confirmed. During the first free practice session of the 2010 Chinese Grand Prix, a front suspension wishbone broke under braking on Buemi's Toro Rosso as he braked for Turn 14; the two front wheels flew off. One wheel went over the safety fence and landed in a spectator area, missing a camera man on its way. Buemi's car continued to travel forward, veering to the left and sliding along an Armco barrier, knocking off the front wing. Neither Buemi nor any spectators were injured as a result of the incident. Toro Rosso blamed a failure of a new front right upright for the incident. Buemi completed 2010 with eight points to teammate Alguersuari's five, he was sixteenth again in the drivers' championship. Buemi, along with his teammate from 2009 and 2010 – Jaime Alguersuari, continued to race for Scuderia Toro Rosso in 2011. On 14 December 2011 it was announced that both Buemi and Alguersuari had been dropped by the team, would be replaced by Daniel Ricciardo and Jean-Éric Vergne for the 2012 season.
In January 2012 it was announced that Buemi would rejoin Red Bull Racing as a test and reserve driver for the 2012 season, as well as acting as Toro Rosso's reserve driver. Buemi continued as Red Bull's reserve driver for the 2013 and 2014 seasons. Buemi was again announced as reserve driver for 2019 for Red Bull Racing. Buemi signed a deal to contest the 24 Hours of Le Mans with Toyota Motorsport GmbH, driving a Toyota TS030 Hybrid with Anthony Davidson and Hiroaki Ishiura. After a strong performance, the car was running in third position in the early evening when Davidson collided with a GT Ferrari and crashed heavily. In 2013, Buemi continued driving with Toyota for a full season and ended with third place in the drivers' championship. For the 2014 season, he drove Toyota's new car – the Toyota TS040 Hybrid. With four wins and seven podiums from the eight races, Buemi became World Endurance Drivers' Champion with teammate Anthony Davidson. Buemi is the most successful driver in the series' history having claimed more wins, fastest laps and points than any other driver in the series.
Buemi raced in the inaugural Formula E season for e.dams alongside Frenchman Nicolas Prost. Buemi's season did not start
Endurance racing (motorsport)
Endurance racing is a form of motorsport racing, meant to test the durability of equipment and endurance of participants. Teams of multiple drivers attempt to cover a large distance in a single event, with participants given a break with the ability to change during the race. Endurance races can be run either to cover a set distance in laps as as possible, or to cover as much distance as possible over a preset amount of time. One of the more common lengths of endurance races has been running for 1,000 kilometres, or six hours. Longer races can run for 1,000 miles, 12 hours, or 24 hours. Teams can consist of anywhere from two to four drivers per event, dependent on the driver's endurance abilities, length of the race, or the rules for each event. Coppa Florio was an Italian car race started in 1900, renamed in 1905 when Vincenzo Florio offered the initial 50 000 Lira and a cup designed by Polak of Paris; the Brescia race visited the route Brescia-Cremona-Mantova-Brescia. In 1908, the race used the Circuito di Bologna: Bologna-Castelfranco Emilia-Sant'Agata Bolognese-San Giovanni in Persiceto-Bologna.
Since 1914 most of the Coppa Florio was co-organized with the Targa Florio near Palermo, running four or five laps, 108 km each. The Targa Florio was an open road endurance automobile race founded in 1906- the track length of the last decades was limited to the 72 kilometres of the Circuito Piccolo delle Madonie, lapped 11 times; the Mille Miglia was an open-road endurance race which took place in Italy 24 times from 1927 to 1957. The world's first organized 24-hour automobile race event was held on a 1-mile oval track at Driving Park, Ohio on July 3–4, 1905. Beginning on the afternoon of July 3, four cars from Frayer-Miller, Pope-Toledo and White Steamer raced for a $500 silver trophy; the winning Pope-Toledo car covered 828.5 miles. A protest was filed by the Frayer-Miller and Peerless teams, alleging the Pope-Toledo was not owned by the driver, instead sent from the factory with an engine built for racing; the first 24-hour race to take place at a dedicated motorsport venue was at Brooklands, eleven days after its opening in 1907.
This would lead to the Double Twelve race. This format meant the race took place for 12 hours each between 8am to 8pm and between it, the cars were locked up overnight to prevent maintenance work from being performed on them; the 2001 Dakar Rally saw competitors cover a distance of 10,739 kilometres with a winning time of 70 hours over 20 days with three classes of cars and trucks. The 1992 Paris–Cape Town Rally covered a distance of 12,427 km; the 1994 edition saw competitors return for a distance of 13,379 km. The Expedition Trophy, first held in 2005, runs from Murmansk to Vladivostok, for a total distance of 12,500 km; the 1908 New York to Paris Race covered a distance of over 16,000 km, taking 169 days from February 12 to July 30. In the beginning of formalised endurance racing, the races tended to be for sports cars while the Grand Prix cars of the era began to evolve into the open wheel racing cars of today and ran over shorter distances. Over time sports cars began to evolve away from their roots as a production based alternative to pure-bred racing machines of Grand Prix cars, which led to the creation of GT and touring car racing classes, these classes continued to embrace the endurance format.
Multiple drivers per car was an early adaptation as the rigors of endurance racing overcome the abilities of most racing drivers to compete solo, although solo attempts on 24 hour races like Le Mans would continue into the 1950s. The various endurance formats were appealing to manufacturers, not only as alternatives to the expense of Grand Prix racing, but because of its increased relevance to road going models. In automobile endurance racing, three events have come to form a Triple Crown, they are considered three of the most challenging endurance races over the decades: the 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, 24 Hours of Le Mans. Phil Hill was the first in 1964 to win the three races, Timo Bernhard the most recent. No driver has won the three events in the same year. Bold on year indicate. Strong spectator figures, media interest and television coverage of endurance racing's Triple Crown events has led to the establishment of several endurance racing series — thereby giving teams the opportunity of running their cars in Championship events throughout the year.
The FIA World Endurance Championship is an international sports car racing series organized by both the Automobile Club de l'Ouest and the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile. It supersedes the Intercontinental Le Mans Cup run in 2010 and 2011, uses similar rules to the ALMS/USCC and ELMS below; the series features both Le Mans GT cars. The 24 Hours of Le Mans is included as a feature race; the other races are 6 hours long and take place in countries all over the world such as Bahrain, Brazil and the United States. The WEC is considered a revival of the defunct World Sportscar Championship which ended in 1992. An early championship was the Australian Endurance Championship, held since 1981; the WeatherTech SportsCar Championship is a US sports car racing series organized by the International Motor Sports Association. The season begins with
1930 24 Hours of Le Mans
The 1930 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 8th Grand Prix of Endurance that took place at the Circuit de la Sarthe on 21 and 22 June 1930. It saw the first appearance of the first entry from female drivers. In the smallest field in the Le Mans history there were only 17 starters; this was a race of two halves. At the start the Mercedes of Rudolf Caracciola/Christian Werner was pursued by the supercharged ‘Blower’ Bentley of Tim Birkin. Twice he passed the white car on the Mulsanne Straight and both times he was thwarted by a rear-tyre blowout. Sammy Davis chased in a works Bentley; when that car was put into the sandbank at Pontlieue corner, it was the other works Bentley of Woolf Barnato and Glen Kidston taking up the Germans’ challenge. The lead changed a number of times into the night, until at 1.30am when the Mercedes was retired with a broken dynamo and a flat battery. After that it became a procession for the remaining Bentleys, although both the privateer Blower Bentleys retired on Sunday; the two works cars cruised to another formation finish.
Barnato had won his third consecutive Le Mans, from three starts. Talbot finished third and fourth and took the lucrative Index of Performance prize by the narrowest of margins from the winning Bentley; the Bugatti of Marguerite Mareuse and Odette Siko had a trouble-free run and finished seventh, stealing the contemporary headlines from Bentley. The AIACR Appendix C rules stayed in effect; the biggest change this year was the Automobile Club de l'Ouest now allowing private entrants as well as “works” entries from the manufacturers. This just acknowledged the existing practice of private owners being entered by the car-company. Five engine-classes were specified, with brackets at 3.0, 1.5 and 1-litres. To be eligible, a minimum of thirty vehicles had to have been produced, the cars had to be “as per sales catalogue”. Many small companies were selling bare chassis upon which an owner would get a coach-builder to put on a body-shelled, so the specifications were still quite broad as long as the car had some basic minimum equipment.
As engine power advanced, the ACO once again adjusted the Index target distances. Example targets included the following: The Société des Pétroles Jupiter, Shell’s French agents, provided three standard fuel options: Gasoline, Benzole and a 70/30 blend of the two. Teams were allowed to add up to 2% by volume of their own additives; as before, all liquids could only be replenished after every 20 laps. Night-time, when headlights had to be used, was defined by the ACO for the race as between 9.30pm and 4am. In the middle of the Great Depression, the auto-industry was being hit hard. Only 33 cars entered for the race; that said it was a quality field with two big Bentley entries challenged by a mighty 7-litre supercharged Mercedes and one of the supercharged Alfa Romeos dominating European racing, both entered. France could muster only two works Tractas, a BNC and a privateer Bugatti to their premier touring car race. Note: The first number is the number of entries, the second the number who started.
Defending champions Bentley once again arrived with a solid works team, this year bringing a trio of their big Speed Six model. Introduced in 1928 as a competitor to the Rolls-Royce Phantom I, it had a 6.6-litre engine that produced 190 bhp giving it a top speed of 185 kp/h. Company director, Woolf Barnato would drive the lead car – the same chassis, entered in the 1929 race; this year his co-driver was his wealthy friend Glen Kidston. The other two were driven by 1924-winner Frank Clement with former Stutz-driver Dick Watney, 1927-winner and journalist Sammy Davis with Clive Dunfee. Back in 1928, Barnato’s fellow race-winner, Sir Henry “Tim” Birkin had seen the threat posed by the new supercharged Mercedes and Alfa Romeos to Bentley’s dominance of touring car racing, he had approached Barnato about supercharging the green cars. Barnato was not convinced and W. O loathed the idea, he found an investor in the form of young heiress, keen motorist, Dorothy Paget. The cars were not race-ready in time for the 1929 race.
Based on the 4½ Litre model, a massive, distinctive Roots supercharger was fitted in front of the radiator. This boosted the engine output from 130 to 240 bhp. However, it raised the fuel consumption and its front-end weight gave the car noticeable understeer. Improved over the close-season, a team of three “Blower Bentleys” arrived, managed by former Bentley-driver and Lagonda team-manager Bertie Kensington-Moir. Birkin renewed his 1928 Le Mans partnership with Jean Chassagne, while race-winner Dudley Benjafield drove with former Alfa Romeo test-driver Giulio Ramponi; the third car was driven by Jack Dunfee, Clive's older brother. The first German car to run at Le Mans was a privateer entry. Mercedes and Benz had merged in 1926 and had considerable racing success, but with the Depression the company closed its works racing team. Team manager Alfred Neubauer, convinced the board to bankroll a privateer team; this was run by their top works driver Rudolf “Rudi” Caracciola. The SSK was designed by Ferdinand Porsche as a development of the SS model.
The giant 170 bhp 7.1-litre engine could be augmented by a Roots supercharger to put out 300 bhp. However, unlike the Bentleys, the supercharger was not designed to be run all the time, the team wa
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K