Carbonado is a town in Pierce County, United States. Carbonado is located near the Carbon River in northern Pierce County 50 miles southeast of Seattle. Carbonado is the last town before entering Mount Rainier National Park and is a popular spot for jeeping. Carbonado served as an important coal mining community in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, when the town operated the largest coal mine in Pierce County; the population was 610 at the 2010 census. Carbonado was one of quite a few towns in the Carbon River valley to be settled during an economic boom in the region; the boom was brought on by raw material demands in nearby growing towns such as Tacoma. Starting with the town of Burnett and moving on through Wilkeson, Montezuma and Manley Moore, these settlements sprawled up the valley to the boundary of Mount Rainier National Park. Most of these towns were company towns, meaning that they specialized in the harvest of raw materials owned the plot of land that the town was situated on and that the resources were harvested from.
Often—and such was the case of Carbonado—the company owned the houses and the energy resources as well. The energy resource in Carbonado was the raw material that the citizens of the company town were harvesting, coal. During the time of the initial boom in the valley Carbonado grew to rival the size of Tacoma at the time; the railroad, integral to the transportation of people, of the raw materials harvested and the supplies need by the towns, stretched all the way up the valley too. Not only did it service the towns but several homesteads farther up the valley; these homesteads were settled predominantly by Polish immigrants. They supplied the towns down the valley with fresh milk and eggs. Two survive to present day, one known as Carbon River Ranch and the other known as Huckle-Chuck. At Huckle-Chuck the original homesteaders house and one of their barns are still used and functional. At the peak of the boom both of these homesteads and the towns which they supplied were quite productive and lively.
However, the boom did not last as the economy took a downturn and with it came the end of the need for the lower grade coal being mined at Carbonado and the timber being harvested for use in the settlements further up the valley. Since the decline of the mining era, Carbonado has experienced extreme shrinking and small booms ending with a steady population. All of the current residents work elsewhere and what was once an economic center for the valley is now a residential community; the railroad pulled out and destroyed its towns quite recently. The Rails to Trails project has most of the actual rail line land in its possession; the time that Carbonado did spend as a coal mining town is forever kept by the cemetery, abandoned mines, a grown-over coal slag pile, a school, the company houses left behind. The cemetery holds the memories of older and more recent dead with many of the graveholders family still living nearby. Huge concrete monoliths that once held that cables for the mining carts, point straight towards the old mine shafts and openings and stand overgrown and utilized now only by the town's children.
One hill in town now has been carpeted by ivy and trees. The school makes up what is known as the Carbonado Historical School District and grades K-8th still attend there. Many of the houses that the company built and owned still line main street, they look similar to each other as was the style of the company builders at the time. And though many of the miners abandoned the town, in some of those houses still live the direct descendants of the original miners. Carbonado was incorporated on September 13, 1948. Carbonado is located at 47°04′47″N 122°03′05″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.42 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2010, there were 610 people, 208 households, 153 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,452.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 218 housing units at an average density of 519.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.1% White, 0.7% African American, 1.0% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, 2.5% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.8% of the population. There were 208 households of which 39.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.7% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 9.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 26.4% were non-families. 18.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.93 and the average family size was 3.37. The median age in the town was 34.9 years. 43.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 52.5% male and 47.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 621 people, 200 households, 158 families residing in the town; the population density was 1,527.9 people per square mile. There were 210 housing units at an average density of 516.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 96.46% White, 0.48% Native American, 0.64% from other races, 2.42% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.93% of the population. There were 200 households out of which 48.0% have children under the age of 18 living
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing and running a new business, initially a small business. The people who create these businesses are called entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship has been described as the "capacity and willingness to develop and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit". While definitions of entrepreneurship focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of start-up businesses have to close due to "lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis, lack of market demand—or a combination of all of these. A broader definition of the term is sometimes used in the field of economics. In this usage, an Entrepreneur is an entity which has the ability to find and act upon opportunities to translate inventions or technology into new products: "The entrepreneur is able to recognize the commercial potential of the invention and organize the capital and other resources that turn an invention into a commercially viable innovation."
In this sense, the term "Entrepreneurship" captures innovative activities on the part of established firms, in addition to similar activities on the part of new businesses. Entrepreneurship is the act of being an entrepreneur, or "the owner or manager of a business enterprise who, by risk and initiative, attempts to make profits". Entrepreneurs oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process by which either an individual or a team identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation. Early-19th-century French economist Jean-Baptiste Say provided a broad definition of entrepreneurship, saying that it "shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and greater yield". Entrepreneurs create something new, something different—they change or transmute values. Regardless of the firm size, big or small, they can partake in entrepreneurship opportunities; the opportunity to become an entrepreneur requires four criteria.
First, there must be situations to recombine resources to generate profit. Second, entrepreneurship requires differences between people, such as preferential access to certain individuals or the ability to recognize information about opportunities. Third, taking on risk is a necessity. Fourth, the entrepreneurial process requires the organization of resources; the entrepreneur is a factor in and the study of entrepreneurship reaches back to the work of Richard Cantillon and Adam Smith in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. However, entrepreneurship was ignored theoretically until the late 19th and early 20th centuries and empirically until a profound resurgence in business and economics since the late 1970s. In the 20th century, the understanding of entrepreneurship owes much to the work of economist Joseph Schumpeter in the 1930s and other Austrian economists such as Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek. According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is a person, willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation.
Entrepreneurship employs what Schumpeter called "the gale of creative destruction" to replace in whole or in part inferior innovations across markets and industries creating new products including new business models. In this way, creative destruction is responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth; the supposition that entrepreneurship leads to economic growth is an interpretation of the residual in endogenous growth theory and as such is hotly debated in academic economics. An alternative description posited by Israel Kirzner suggests that the majority of innovations may be much more incremental improvements such as the replacement of paper with plastic in the making of drinking straws; the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities may include: Developing a business plan Hiring the human resources Acquiring financial and material resources Providing leadership Being responsible for both the venture's success or failure Risk aversionEconomist Joseph Schumpeter saw the role of the entrepreneur in the economy as "creative destruction" – launching innovations that destroy old industries while ushering in new industries and approaches.
For Schumpeter, the changes and "dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur the norm of a healthy economy". While entrepreneurship is associated with new, for-profit start-ups, entrepreneurial behavior can be seen in small-, medium- and large-sized firms and established firms and in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including voluntary-sector groups, charitable organizations and government. Entrepreneurship may operate within an entrepreneurship ecosystem which includes: Government programs and services that promote entrepreneurship and support entrepreneurs and start-ups Non-governmental organizations such as small-business associations and organizations that offer advice and mentoring to entrepreneurs Small-business advocacy organizations that lobby governments for increased support for entrepreneurship programs and more small business-friendly laws and regulations Entrepreneurship resources and facilities Entrepreneurship education and training programs offered by schools and universities Financing In the 2000s, usage of the term "entrepreneurship" expanded to include how and why some individuals ide
Carbonado known as the "black diamond", is the toughest form of natural diamond. It is an impure form of polycrystalline diamond consisting of diamond and amorphous carbon, it is found in alluvial deposits in the Central African Republic and in Brazil. Its natural colour is black or dark grey, it is more porous than other diamonds. Carbonado diamonds are pea-sized or larger porous aggregates of many tiny black crystals; the most characteristic carbonados have been found only in the Central African Republic and in Brazil, in neither place associated with kimberlite, the source of typical gem diamonds. Lead isotope analyses have been interpreted as documenting crystallization of carbonados about 3 billion years ago; the carbonados are found in younger sedimentary rocks. Mineral grains included within diamonds have been studied extensively for clues to diamond origin; some typical diamonds contain inclusions of common mantle minerals such as pyrope and forsterite, but such mantle minerals have not been observed in carbonado.
In contrast, some carbonados do contain inclusions of minerals characteristic of the Earth's crust: these inclusions do not establish formation of the diamonds in the crust, because while these obvious crystal inclusions occur in the pores that are common in carbonados, they may have been introduced after carbonado formation. Inclusions of other minerals, rare or nearly absent in the Earth's crust, are found at least incorporated in diamond, not just in pores: among such other minerals are those with compositions of Si, SiC, Fe‑Ni. No distinctive high-pressure minerals, including the hexagonal carbon polymorph, have been found as inclusions in carbonados, although such inclusions might be expected if carbonados formed by meteorite impact. Isotope studies have yielded further clues to carbonado origin; the carbon isotope value is low. Carbonado exhibits strong luminescence induced by nitrogen and by vacancies existing in the crystal lattice. Luminescence halos are present around radioactive inclusions, it is suggested that the radiation damage occurred after formation of the carbonados, an observation pertinent to the radiation hypothesis listed below.
The origin of carbonado is controversial. Some proposed hypotheses are as follows: Direct conversion of organic carbon under high-pressure conditions in the Earth's interior, the most common hypothesis for diamond formation Shock metamorphism induced by meteoritic impact at the Earth's surface Radiation-induced diamond formation by spontaneous fission of uranium and thorium Formation inside an earlier-generation giant star in our area, that long ago exploded in a supernova. An origin in interstellar space, due to the impact of an asteroid, rather than being thrown from within an exploding star. None of these hypotheses for carbonado formation had come into wide acceptance in the scientific literature by 2008. Supporters of an extraterrestrial origin of carbonados propose that their material source was a supernova which occurred at least 3.8 billion years ago. After coalescing and drifting through outer space for about one and a half billion years, a large mass fell to earth as a meteorite 2.3 billion years ago.
It fragmented during entry into the Earth's atmosphere and impacted in a region which would much split into Brazil and the Central African Republic, the only two known locations of carbonado deposits. Amsterdam Diamond Bort Korloff Noir Material properties of diamond Popigai diamonds Sergio Spirit of de Grisogono Diamond Superhard material Photo of porous carbonado at National Science Foundation Photo of glossy carbonado and article on possible extraterrestrial origins at PBS Nova Mystery Diamonds: Geoscientists Investigate Rare Carbon Formation ScienceDaily Story Diamonds From Outer Space: Geologists Discover Origin Of Earth's Mysterious Black Diamonds ScienceDaily Story
The Robinson R22 is a two-bladed, single-engine light utility helicopter manufactured by Robinson Helicopter Company. The two-seat R22 was designed in 1973 by Frank Robinson and has been in production since 1979; the majority of flight testing was performed at Zamperini Field in California. Flight testing and certification was performed in the late 1970s by test pilot Joseph John "Tym" Tymczyszyn and the R22 received FAA certification in March 1979. Due to low acquisition and operating costs, the R22 has been popular as a primary rotorcraft trainer around the world and as a livestock management tool on large ranches in North America and cattle stations in Australia; the R22 has a low inertia rotor system and the control inputs are operated directly by push rods with no hydraulic assistance. Thus, the flight controls are sensitive and require a light touch to avoid over correcting. A student that masters an R22 does not have a problem transitioning to a heavier helicopter. Due to the issues relating to a low inertia rotor system and a teetering main rotor, operation by any pilot in the United States of the Robinson R22 or Robinson R44 requires a special endorsement by a certified flight instructor.
Tip weights were added to increase rotor inertia. The R22 is a light, two-place, single reciprocating-engined helicopter with a semi-rigid two-bladed main rotor and a two-bladed tail rotor; the main rotor has two coning hinges. The tail rotor has only a teetering hinge; the normal production variant has skid landing gear. The Mariner version —, no longer manufactured — provided floats. Wheeled gear is not available; the basic structure is welded chromoly steel tubing. The forward fuselage is made of fiberglass and aluminum with a Plexiglas canopy; the tailcone and vertical and horizontal stabilizers are aluminum. It has an enclosed cabin with side-by-side seating for a passenger; the doors may be removed for flight, as is done for photographic flights, interior cooling in high temperatures, or a 10.4 lb weight saving. The first version was produced as the R22, followed by the R22 HP, R22 Alpha, R22 Beta, R22 Beta II. Superficially, the aircraft appear similar; the R22 HP was fitted with a 160 bhp Lycoming O-320-B2C engine, an increase of 10 bhp over the original R22.
The steel tube frame on the R22 Alpha was modified by extending the aft landing gear mounting points, giving the ship a nose-down attitude on the ground and better matching of the skids to the ground in a low altitude hover with two people on board. The R22 Beta added an engine speed governor, rotor brake, auxiliary fuel tank; the battery was moved from below the instrument cluster to the engine compartment for better balance. The R22 has been offered as an instrument trainer version, with optional fixed floats as the R22 Mariner, other special configurations for police work, electronic news gathering, so on; the R22 Beta II received a larger Lycoming O-360 engine de-rated for sea level operation. It allows greater altitudes for hovering out of ground effect; the R22 Beta II made the engine speed governor standard and included a carburetor heat assist which correlates adding carburetor heat with decrease in collective control. Only the basic skid style is being sold. Instead of floor-mounted cyclic sticks between the pilot's knees, the R22 uses a unique teetering "T-Bar" control connected to a stick that emerges from the console between the seats.
This makes it easier for occupants to enter and exit the cabin and reduces chances for injury in the event of a hard landing. The teetering bar has a hand grip on both sides. Thus, if teetered to the right, the right side pilot would be flying and the left grip would be about 12 inches above the left pilot's lap. R22 flight instructors learn how to fly with their hand in the air; the left part of the bar, left collective control, left tail rotor pedals can be removed if the left seat occupant is not certified to fly the R22 or if the space is needed for technical or observer duties. A floor-mounted foot-activated push-to-talk switch facilitates intercom communications for the left seat occupant, although some models may be equipped with a voice activated intercom system; the helicopter rotor system consists of a two-bladed main rotor and two-bladed anti-torque rotor on the tail, each equipped with a teetering hinge. The main rotor is equipped with two coning hinges. Collective and cyclic pitch inputs to the main rotor are transmitted through pushrods and a conventional swashplate mechanism.
Control inputs to the pre-coned tail rotor are transmitted through a single pushrod inside the aluminum tail cone. To ease the pilot's workload, a mechanical throttle correlator adjusts the throttle as the collective pitch control is raised or lowered; the pilot needs to make only small adjustments by twisting the throttle grip on the collective throughout the flight regime. Models are equipped with an electronic governor which works to maintain RPM within normal operating limits; the governor can be switched on or off with a toggle switch located at the end of the pilot's collective pitch control. When the governor is not engaged, a yellow caution light glows on the instrument panel; the R22 uses a horizontally mounted Lycoming O-320, flat-four, air-cooled aspirated, carburetor-equipped reciprocating engine. It is fueled with 100LL grade aviation gasoline. Cooling is provided through a direct drive squirrel-cage cooling fa
University of Washington
The University of Washington is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. Founded in 1861, Washington was first established in downtown Seattle a decade after the city's founding to aid its economic development. Today, the university's 703-acre main Seattle campus is situated in the University District above the Montlake Cut, within the urban Puget Sound region of the Pacific Northwest; the university has two additional campuses in Bothell. Overall, UW encompasses over 500 buildings and over 20 million gross square footage of space, including one of the largest library systems in the world with over 26 university libraries, as well as the UW Tower, lecture halls, art centers, laboratories and conference centers; the university offers bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees through 140 departments in various colleges and schools, sees about 46,000 in total student enrollment every year, functions on a quarter system. Washington is a member of the Association of American Universities and classified as an R1 Doctoral Research University classification under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education.
It is cited as a leading university in the world for scientific performance and research output by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings and the CWTS Leiden Ranking. In the 2015 fiscal year, the UW received nearly $1.2 billion in research funding, the 3rd largest among all universities in the United States. As the flagship institution of the six public universities in Washington State, it is known for its research in medicine, science, as well as its highly-competitive computer science and engineering programs. Additionally, Washington continues to benefit from its deep historical ties and major collaborations with numerous technology giants in the region, such as Amazon, Boeing and Microsoft. Paul G. Allen, Bill Gates and others spent significant time at Washington computer labs for a prior venture before founding Microsoft, its 22 varsity sports teams are highly competitive, competing as the Huskies in the Pac-12 Conference of the NCAA Division I, representing the United States at the Olympic Games, other major competitions.
The University has been affiliated with many notable alumni and faculty, including 20 Nobel Prize laureates and numerous Pulitzer Prize winners, Fulbright Scholars, Rhodes Scholars, Marshall Scholars, as well as members of other distinguished institutions. In 1854, territorial governor Isaac Stevens recommended the establishment of a university in the Washington Territory. Prominent Seattle-area residents, including Methodist preacher Daniel Bagley, saw this as a chance to add to the city's potential and prestige. Bagley learned of a law that allowed United States territories to sell land to raise money in support of public schools. At the time, Arthur A. Denny, an early founder of Seattle and member of the territorial legislature, aimed to increase the city's importance by moving the territory's capital from Olympia to Seattle. However, Bagley convinced Denny that the establishment of a university would assist more in the development of Seattle's economy. Two universities were chartered, but the decision was repealed in favor of a single university in Lewis County provided that locally donated land was available.
When no site emerged, Denny petitioned the legislature to reconsider Seattle as a location in 1858. In 1861, scouting began for an appropriate 10 acres site in Seattle to serve as a new university campus. Arthur and Mary Denny donated eight acres, while fellow pioneers Edward Lander, Charlie and Mary Terry, donated two acres on Denny's Knoll in downtown Seattle. More this tract was bounded by 4th Avenue to the west, 6th Avenue to the east, Union Street to the north, Seneca Streets to the south. John Pike, for whom Pike Street is named was the builder. On November 4, 1861, the university opened as the Territorial University of Washington; the legislature passed articles incorporating the University, establishing its Board of Regents in 1862. The school struggled, closing three times: in 1863 for low enrollment and again in 1867 and 1876 due to funds shortage. Washington awarded its first graduate Clara Antoinette McCarty Wilt in 1876, with a bachelor's degree in science. By the time Washington State entered the Union in 1889, both Seattle and the University had grown substantially.
Washington's total undergraduate enrollment increased from 30 to nearly 300 students, the campus's relative isolation in downtown Seattle faced encroaching development. A special legislative committee, headed by UW graduate Edmond Meany, was created to find a new campus to better serve the growing student population and faculty; the committee selected a site on the northeast of downtown Seattle called Union Bay, the land of the Duwamish, the legislature appropriated funds for its purchase and construction. In 1895, the University relocated to the new campus by moving into the newly built Denny Hall; the University Regents tried and failed to sell the old campus settling with leasing the area. This would become one of the University's most valuable pieces of real estate in modern-day Seattle, generating millions in annual revenue with what is now called the Metropolitan Tract; the original Territorial University building was torn down in 1908, its former site now houses the Fairmont Olympic Hotel.
The sole-surviving remnants of Washington's first building are four 24-foot, hand-fluted cedar, Ionic columns. They were salvaged by Edmond S. Meany, one of the University's first graduates and former head of its history dep
Cessna CH-1 Skyhook
The Cessna CH-1 Skyhook is the only helicopter built by the Cessna Aircraft Company. It was the first helicopter to land on the summit of Pike's Peak and the last piston-engined helicopter to set the helicopter altitude record; the CH-1 had a single, two-bladed main rotor, a front-mounted reciprocating engine which gave the aircraft a stable center of gravity. Its semi-monocoque airframe resembles its light airplane siblings built by Cessna; the CH-1 was named Skyhook for the civil market, similar to the marketing names used in the Cessna single engine airplane line, such as Skyhawk and Skywagon. The United States Army designated the CH-1C as the YH-41 Seneca. While the CH-1 achieved several helicopter firsts and set a world record, it never became a commercial or military success. Cessna Aircraft Company acquired the Seibel Helicopter Company of Wichita, Kansas on 14 January 1952 through a stock swap with Seibel investors. All equipment from the Seibel Helicopter Company, including the Seibel S-4B, was moved to Cessna's Pawnee Plant in Wichita and work began on the CH-1 design during the summer of 1952.
Charles Seibel, who became the new Helicopter Division's chief engineer as part of the acquisition, believed that the S-4B with a Cessna body would make an excellent helicopter. Cessna pilots test flew Seibel's S-4B for several months to familiarize the engineers with helicopters, it was scrapped. A quarter-size wind tunnel model of the CH-1 was created and tests were conducted at Wichita State University; the first full-size machine did not have an enclosed fuselage or cowling, nor a horizontal stabilizer. This test bed skeleton, referred to as CH1-1, first hovered in July 1953 making test flights as high as 10,000 feet; the actual prototype CH-1 was built based on modifications made to the test bed aircraft and this second ship made its first flight in 1954, at the Prospect plant. On 9 June 1955, the CH-1 received CAA type-certificate 3H10. Certified as a two-place helicopter, stability problems at higher gross weights required additional engineering solutions. A larger, free-floating horizontal stabilizer was introduced.
During forward flight, the stabilizer pivoted to a variable mechanical stop, linked to the fore and aft cyclic control, thereby altering the stabilizer angle of incidence during flight. Reworking the stabilizer permitted the addition of a second row of seating, the four-place ship, designated the CH-1A, was certificated on 28 February 1956. In December 1955, Cessna was awaiting a contract to produce a limited number of CH-1s for evaluation by the Army. In preparation for the contract, Cessna began modifying the CH-1A with a Continental FSO-526 engine and other aerodynamic and structural changes in the possibility of eliciting a production contract. In spring 1956, the Army awarded Cessna with a US$1.1 million contract for 10 test aircraft, designated as the YH-41 Seneca. For marketing purposes, the CH-1A prototype was painted in an olive drab Army scheme; the aircraft incorporated a unique L-section hinges to attach the main rotor blades to the hub in place of more conventional pitch change bearings.
The CH-1 external design was created by an industrial designer for Cessna. It was a low profile streamlined aircraft-style body, featuring the engine in front and cabin seating behind the powerplant; the forward engine location provided "ease of access...efficient cooling, frees the center of gravity behind the cockpit for use in disposable load," but presented a problem for how to vent the exhaust which would prove to be a problem throughout the aircraft's life. Additionally, the tail boom size, resulting from the airplane-style fuselage, created aerodynamic problems in hover and forward flight that would have to be solved by aerodynamic structural changes; the prototype CH-1 was equipped with a supercharged Continental FSO-470 six-cylinder engine, producing 260 hp at 3,200 rpm. The engine's supercharger and cooling fans were driven by belts. Cessna had a long relationship with Continental who provided engines for the company's light airplanes, but the use of the Continental engine in a helicopter was as much of a test for the engine company, as Cessna's foray into the helicopter market, itself.
This was true when considered that most other light helicopter manufacturers were using Franklin and Lycoming engines. The CH-1 established many firsts; the CH-1A was the first helicopter to land on Pikes Peak, at an altitude of 14,110 feet on 15 September 1955, it had a higher cruise speed than comparable machines, a CH-1B, modified with an FSO-526-2X engine, set an official FAI world altitude record for helicopters of 29,777 feet on December 28, 1957, while being piloted by Army Captain James E. Bowman; the previous record had been set by a turbine powered Aérospatiale Alouette II and was broken by another Alouette II, but the record set by the CH-1B remains the highest altitude achieved by a piston-powered helicopter. The CH-1C was the first helicopter to receive IFR certification by the FAA. Production was ended in December 1962; the company indicated that this was due to the civil aviation market not being ready for this type of aircraft, although CH-1 owner Rex Trailer claims that it was due to catastrophic transmission failures.
CH1-1 test bed machine which did not have a skin, for initial flight testing. CH-1 The prototype CH-1 was powered by a Continental FSO-470 engine with a 2-place cabin. CH-1A Four-seat version of the CH-1 created by solving stability problems presented by the tail boom. CH-1B 1955 changes to secure an Army contract. Continental FSO-526 engine producing 270 hp at 3000 rpm, with a gear-driven supercharger and horizontal cooling fan. An automatic collecti
Air & Space 18A
The Air & Space 18A is a gyroplane, manufactured in the central United States between 1965 and 2000. The Air & Space 18A is one of the last three gyroplanes issued a Standard Airworthiness Certificate by the United States Federal Aviation Administration. Raymond E. Umbaugh, a manufacturer of agricultural fertilizer, founded Umbaugh Aircraft Corporation in Ocala, Florida, in 1957 to develop a gyroplane based on experience he acquired while modifying single-seat Bensen Gyrocopters. Gilbert Devore commenced the design of Umbaugh's tandem two-seat jump-takeoff gyroplane in 1958, basing the rotor system on that of the Sznycer Omega BS-12 helicopter; the prototype Umbaugh U-17, built by Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation of Hagerstown, flew in August 1959. Further test flights were conducted by chief pilot Ken Hayden and former Pitcairn Autogiro Company pilot Slim Soule; the majority of the testing of the aircraft was done at Bartow Air Base in Fl. The prototype exhibited stability problems due to its single rudder and minimal T-tail horizontal stabilizer positioned on a boom behind the pusher propeller.
The second prototype, named Umbaugh U-18, was fitted with a V-tail which proved inadequate. The third empennage tested unsuccessfully, was a T-tail with two large vertical end plates on the horizontal tail plane. Sufficient stability was achieved by the use of two fixed vertical fins with a centrally mounted all-flying rudder, all mounted on a horizontal stabilizer. Umbaugh had by this time concluded an agreement for Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation to undertake final development and mass production of the U-18 as the “Flymobil.” Fairchild built five development gyroplanes during 1960, one of, used to gain FAA Approved Type Certificate 1H17 in September 1961. Umbaugh established a large network of dealers and distributors in the United States, upon whom he imposed minimum sales quotas to generate a large order backlog, but he experienced difficulty filling the orders due to inadequate manufacturing capability at Fairchild. Under pressure from the dealers, Umbaugh Aircraft Corporation ceased operations in 1962 and the agreement with Fairchild was terminated.
About one hundred Umbaugh dealers took over the assets of Umbaugh Aircraft Corporation and in 1964 established Air and Space Manufacturing, Inc. of Muncie, Indiana, to commence production. In early 1965, the FAA awarded the corporation a production certificate for the Air & Space Model 18A gyroplane, a model which had only minor differences from the Umbaugh U-18. By late 1965 sixty-eight gyroplanes had been completed and delivered, 14 more were near completion, some were stolen when Air and Space Manufacturing was in receivership. Air and Space Manufacturing, Inc. was again faced with dealer pressure for aircraft and commenced efforts to raise $2.5 million for expansion. The fund raising resulted in accusations of stock irregularities by the U. S. Securities and Exchange Commission, though those concerned were cleared of all charges, the associated costs and delays resulted in the collapse of the company in 1966; the assets of Air and Space Manufacturing went into storage, were acquired by one of the dealers, retired Pan Am pilot Don Farrington of Paducah, Kentucky.
John Potter went into partnership with Don Farrington until the year 2000 when Don died of a heart attack. Potter tried to re-establish the 18A program and transported an inventory of parts and some 18As to LaBelle, where he and partner Gene Ferrel established Heliplane Aircraft International Corp. Robert Kelsall of Euroa, was engaged to design a four-place version of the 18A termed 28A. Potter died of cancer in 2006. Heliplane Aircraft International Corp. resides in Summerville, SC outside Charleston. Gene Ferrel owns the FAA Type II certificate for this aircraft, along with three trailers full of parts and airframes; as of November 2011, no progress has been made placing the 18A back into production. Lacking ownership of the type certificate, Farrington Aircraft Corporation remanufactured existing aircraft and developed Supplemental Type Certificate modifications including: a collective pitch trim system to allow increased cruise speed, fiberglass engine cowlings and exhaust system to suppress the significant propeller and exhaust noise, a yaw warning delay circuit system.
Farrington Aircraft Corporation operated a gyroplane pilot training facility at Farrington Airpark, a owned, public-use airport in Paducah and engaged in extensive promotional efforts. In 1991, Farrington obtained the Air & Space 18A Type Certificate, undertook efforts to manufacture new gyroplanes as Air and Space America, Inc. with a selling price of $75,000. Work was under way in 1996 to certify a Model 20A, fitted with a Lycoming IO-360 200 horsepower fuel-injected engine. Farrington suffered a heart attack while flying an Air and Space 18A at an airshow in April 2000. Farrington Aircraft Corporation ceased operations shortly after, the gyroplane assets were sold at auction. At some point the type certificate along with several aircraft were moved to Fort Pierce and Heliplane Aircraft Corporation International was formed; the owner of HACI is Eugene Ferrel. Plans to fit the 18A with a DeltaHawk 200 hp diesel engine never materialized beyond the planning stage and the company has done little else.
HACI filed for Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection on July 1, 2011. The Bankruptcy court has since converted the case to Chapter 7 and the type certificate and all assets are being liquidated. Heliplane USA is the 2012 corporation that has purchased the type certificate and assets and