William Frederick "Buffalo Bill" Cody was an American scout, bison hunter, showman. He was born in Le Claire, Iowa Territory, but he lived for several years in his father's hometown in Toronto Township, Canada, before the family returned to the Midwest and settled in the Kansas Territory. Buffalo Bill started working at the age of eleven, after his father's death, became a rider for the Pony Express at age 15. During the American Civil War, he served the Union from 1863 to the end of the war in 1865, he served as a civilian scout for the US Army during the Indian Wars, receiving the Medal of Honor in 1872. One of the most colorful figures of the American Old West, Buffalo Bill's legend began to spread when he was only twenty-three. Shortly thereafter he started performing in shows that displayed cowboy themes and episodes from the frontier and Indian Wars, he founded Buffalo Bill's Wild West in 1883, taking his large company on tours in the United States and, beginning in 1887, in Great Britain and continental Europe.
Cody was born on February 1846, on a farm just outside Le Claire, Iowa. His father, Isaac Cody, was born on September 5, 1811, in Toronto Township, Upper Canada, now part of Mississauga, directly west of Toronto. Mary Ann Bonsell Laycock, Bill's mother, was born about 1817 near Philadelphia, she moved to Cincinnati to teach school, there she met and married Isaac. She was a descendant of a Quaker who had settled in Pennsylvania. There is no evidence to indicate. In 1847 the couple moved to Ontario, having their son baptized in 1847, as William Cody, at the Dixie Union Chapel in Peel County, not far from the farm of his father's family; the chapel was built with Cody money, the land was donated by Philip Cody of Toronto Township. They lived in Ontario for several years. In 1853, Isaac Cody sold his land in rural Scott County, for $2000, the family moved to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas Territory. In the years before the Civil War, Kansas was overtaken by political and physical conflict over the slavery question.
Isaac Cody was against slavery. He was invited to speak at Rively's store, a local trading post where pro-slavery men held meetings, his antislavery speech so angered the crowd. A man stabbed him twice with a Bowie knife. Rively, the store's owner, rushed Cody to get treatment, but he never recovered from his injuries. In Kansas, the family was persecuted by pro-slavery supporters. Cody's father spent time away from home for his safety, his enemies plotted to kill him on the way. Bill, despite his youth, rode 30 miles to warn his father. Isaac Cody went to Cleveland, Ohio, to organize a group of thirty families to bring back to Kansas, in order to add to the antislavery population. During his return trip he caught a respiratory infection which, compounded by the lingering effects of his stabbing and complications from kidney disease, led to his death in April 1857. After his death, the family suffered financially. At age 11, Bill took a job with a freight carrier as a "boy extra". On horseback he would ride up and down the length of a wagon train and deliver messages between the drivers and workmen.
Next he joined Johnston's Army as an unofficial member of the scouts assigned to guide the United States Army to Utah, to put down a rumored rebellion by the Mormon population of Salt Lake City. According to Cody's account in Buffalo Bill's Own Story, the Utah War was where he began his career as an "Indian fighter": Presently the moon rose, dead ahead of me, he wore this war-bonnet of the Sioux, at his shoulder was a rifle pointed at someone in the river-bottom 30 feet below. I fired; the figure collapsed, tumbled down the bank and landed with a splash in the water.'What is it?' called McCarthy, as he hurried back.'It's over there in the water."Hi!' he cried.'Little Billy's killed an Indian all by himself!' So began my career as an Indian fighter. At the age of 14, in 1860, Cody was struck by gold fever, with news of gold at Fort Colville and the Holcomb Valley Gold Rush in California, On his way to the gold fields, however, he met an agent for the Pony Express, he signed with them, after building several stations and corrals, Cody was given a job as a rider.
He worked at this. Cody claimed to have had many jobs, including trapper, bullwhacker, "Fifty-Niner" in Colorado, Pony Express rider in 1860, stagecoach driver, a hotel manager, but historians have had difficulty documenting them, he may have fabricated some for publicity. Namely, it is argued that in contrast to Cody's claims, he never rode for the Pony Express, but as a boy, he did work for its parent company, the transport firm of Russell and Waddell. In contrast to the adventurous rides, hundreds of miles long, that he recounted in the press, his real job was to carry messages on horseback from the firm's office in Leavenworth to the telegraph station three miles away. After his mother recovered, Cody wanted to enlist as a soldier in the Union Army during the American Civil War but was refused because of his young age, he began working with a freight caravan that delivered supplies to Fort Laramie in present-day Wyoming. In 1863, at age 17, he enlisted as a teamster with the rank of private in Company H, 7th Kansas Cavalry, served until discharged in 1865.
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
The Treaty of Fort Laramie was an agreement between the United States and the Oglala and Brulé bands of Lakota people, Yanktonai Dakota and Arapaho Nation, following the failure of the first Fort Laramie treaty, signed in 1851. The treaty was divided into 17 articles, it established the Great Sioux Reservation including ownership of the Black Hills, set aside additional lands as "unceded Indian territory" in areas of South Dakota and Nebraska, Montana. It established that the US government would hold authority to punish not only white settlers who committed crimes against the tribes, but tribe members who committed crimes and who were to be delivered to the government rather than face charges in a tribal courts, it stipulated that the government would abandon forts along the Bozeman Trail, included a number of provisions designed to encourage a transition to farming, move the tribes "closer to the white man's way of life." The treaty protected specified rights of third parties not partaking in the negotiations, ended Red Cloud's War.
It was negotiated by members of the government-appointed Indian Peace Commission, signed between April and November 1868 at and near Fort Laramie in the Wyoming Territory, with the final signatories being Red Cloud himself and others who accompanied him. Animosities over the agreement arose with neither side honoring the terms. Open war again broke out in 1876, the US government unilaterally annexed native land protected under the treaty in 1877; the treaty formed the basis of the 1980 Supreme Court case, United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians, in which the court ruled that tribal lands covered under the treaty had been taken illegally by the US government, the tribe was owed compensation plus interest; as of 2018 this amounted to more than $1 billion. The Sioux have refused the payment; the first Treaty of Fort Laramie, signed in 1851, attempted to resolve disputes between tribes and the US Government, as well as among tribes themselves, in the modern areas of Montana, Wyoming and North and South Dakota.
It set out that the tribes would make peace among one another, allow for certain outside access to their lands, that tribes would be responsible for wrongs committed by their people. In return, the US Government would offer protection to the tribes, pay an annuity of $50,000 per year. No land covered by the treaty was claimed by the US at the time of signing; the five “respective territories” of the participating tribes – Sioux and Cheyenne, Assiniboine, Arikara and Mandan – were defined. North of the Sioux, the Arikara and Mandan held a joint territory; the territory of the Crows extended westward from that of their traditional enemies in the Sioux tribe. The Powder River divided the two lands; when the Senate reduced the annuity to 10 years from 50, all tribes except the Crow accepted the cut. The treaty was recognized as being in force; the 1851 treaty had a number of shortcomings which contributed to the deterioration of relations, subsequent violence over the next several years. From an inter-tribal view, the lack of any “enforcement provisions” protecting the 1851 boundaries proved a drawback for the Crow and the Arikara and Mandan.
The federal government never kept its obligation to protect tribal resources and hunting grounds, only made a single payment toward the annuity. Although the federal government operated via representative democracy, the tribes did so through consensus, although local chiefs signed the treaty as representatives, they had limited power to control others who themselves had not consented to the terms; the discovery of gold in the west, the construction of the Union Pacific Railroad, led to increased travel through the area outside the 1851 Sioux territory. This led to clashes between the tribes and the US government, open war between the Sioux and the whites in 1866. None of the other tribes signing the 1851 treaty engaged in battle with the US soldiers, most allied the Army. With the 1851 intertribal peace soon broken, the Arikara and Mandan called for US military support against raiding Sioux Indians in 1855. By summer 1862, the three tribes had abandoned all their permanent villages of earth lodges in the treaty territory south of the Missouri, now under Sioux control, lived together in Like-a-Fishhook Village north of the river.
In the mid-1850s, the western Sioux bands crossed the Powder River and entered the Crow treaty territory. Sioux chief Red Cloud organized a war party against a Crow camp at the mouth of Rosebud River in 1856. Despite the Crows fighting "... large-scale battles with invading Sioux" near present-day Wyola in Montana, the Sioux had taken over the western Powder River area by 1860. In 1866 the United States Department of the Interior called on tribes to negotiate safe passage through the Bozeman Trail, while the United States Department of War moved Henry B. Carrington, along with a column of 700 men into the Powder River Basin, sparking Red Cloud's War. However, most of the wagon track to the city of Bozeman “crossed land guaranteed to the Crows under the 1851 treaty” “... the Sioux attacked the United States anyway, claiming the Yellowstone was now their land.” Red Cloud’s war “... appeared to be a great Sioux war to protect their land. And it was – but the Sioux had only conquered this land from other tribes and now defending the territory
Thunderheart is a 1992 contemporary western mystery film directed by Michael Apted from an original screenplay by John Fusco. The film is a loosely based fictional portrayal of events relating to the Wounded Knee incident in 1973, when followers of the American Indian Movement seized the South Dakota town of Wounded Knee in protest against federal government policy regarding Native Americans. Incorporated in the plot is the character of Ray Levoi, played by actor Val Kilmer, as an FBI agent with Sioux heritage investigating a homicide on a Native American reservation. Sam Shepard, Graham Greene, Fred Ward and Sheila Tousey star in principal supporting roles. In 1992, Apted had directed a documentary surrounding a Native American activist episode involving the murder of FBI agents titled Incident at Oglala; the documentary depicts the indictment of activist Leonard Peltier during a 1975 shootout on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. The film was a co-production between the motion picture studios of TriStar Pictures, Tribeca Productions, Waterhorse Productions.
It was commercially distributed by TriStar Pictures theatrically, by Columbia TriStar Home Video for home media. Thunderheart explores civil topics, such as political activism and murder. Following its cinematic release, the film garnered several award nominations from the Political Film Society. On November 24, 1992, the Original Motion Picture Soundtrack was released by the Intrada Records label; the film score was composed by musician James Horner. Thunderheart premiered in theaters in-wide release in the United States on April 3, 1992 grossing $22,660,758 in domestic ticket sales; the film was considered a minor financial success after its theatrical run, was met with positive critical reviews before its initial screening in cinemas. The widescreen DVD edition of the film featuring scene selections and the theatrical trailer, was released in the United States on September 29, 1998. FBI agent Ray Levoi is assigned to aid in the investigation of a political murder, that of tribal council member Leo Fast Elk, on a Native American reservation in South Dakota.
Agent William Dawes, Ray's superior, has chosen him for the task due to his mixed Sioux heritage, which might assist in the inquiry as they interview local townspeople. Ray is partnered with agent Frank "Cooch" Coutelle, who has diligently worked on the probe looking to apprehend a prime suspect: Aboriginal Rights Movement radical Jimmy Looks Twice. While helping Cooch track down the suspect, Ray becomes sensitized to Indian issues from his attraction to Maggie Eagle Bear, a Native American political activist and schoolteacher. Mocked and ridiculed by the locals, including tribal police officer Walter Crow Horse, Ray finds that he has an unaccountable standing with some of the tribal elders such as Grandpa Sam Reaches; the natives recognize Ray as "Thunderheart", a Native American hero slain at the Wounded Knee Massacre in the past, now reincarnated to deliver them from their current troubles. Much to Cooch's anger, Ray comes to suspect there is a conspiracy and cover-up involving the small town.
He and Crow Horse discover that a local government-sponsored plan to strip mine uranium on the reservation is at the root of the killings. The mining is polluting the water supply and fueling a bloody conflict between the reservation's anti-government ruling council and the pro-government natives who, led by tribal council president Jack Milton, are not above using violence to further their aims. Milton does not own the land where the mining gets kickbacks from the leases. Cooch is revealed to be part of the scandal to silence the opposition and help broker the land deal. Soon after finding Maggie Eagle Bear and former convict Richard Yellow Hawk murdered, a showdown ensues between Cooch and pro-government collaborators against Ray, Crow Horse and the anti-government activists. Cooch becomes outnumbered by the armed resistance and is investigated on charges of corruption. Val Kilmer as Ray Levoi Sam Shepard as Frank "Cooch" Coutelle Graham Greene as Walter Crow Horse Fred Ward as Jack Milton Fred Thompson as William Dawes Sheila Tousey as Maggie Eagle Bear Ted Thin Elk as Grandpa Sam Reaches John Trudell as Jimmy Looks Twice Julius Drum as Richard Yellow Hawk Sarah Brave as Maisy Blue Legs Allan R.
J. Joseph as Leo Fast Elk Sylvan Pumpkin Seed as Hobart Patrick Massett as Agent Mackey Rex Linn as FBI Agent Brian A. O'Meara as FBI Agent The film was shot on location in South Dakota. Specific sets included the Pine Ridge Reservation, dubbed the Bear Creek Reservation. Other filming locations used were in the Washington, D. C. area for the opening sequences. The film employed many Indian actors; the actor John Trudell, who played an Indian activist suspected of murder in the film inspired by the real-life events surrounding Leonard Peltier, is in fact an Indian activist, as well as a poet and singer. Chief Ted Thin Elk, who played an honored Lakota medicine man, is a Lakota elder himself. Badlands National Park and Wounded Knee in South Dakota were used as backdrop locations for the real-life incidents which took place during the 1970s. Filming was done with the support of the Oglala Sioux people, who trusted Apted and Fusco to express their story; the original motion picture soundtrack for Thunderheart was released by the Intrada Records music label on November 24, 1992.
The score for the film was orchestrated by James Horner, while original songs written by musical artists Bruce Springsteen, Ali Olmo, Sonny Lemaire, among others, were used in-between dialogue shots throughout the film. Jim Henrikson edited the film's music. A paperback
Porcupine, South Dakota
Porcupine is a census-designated place in Oglala Lakota County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 1,062 at the 2010 census; the community most was named after Porcupine Butte. Porcupine has been noted for its unusual place name, for its designation as the unofficial capital of the unrecognized Republic of Lakotah. Porcupine is located at 43°15′45″N 102°20′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 9.5 square miles, all land. Porcupine has been assigned the ZIP code 57772. Porcupine is the unofficial capital of the unrecognized Republic of Lakotah. Porcupine is home to KILI, a non-profit radio station broadcasting to the Lakota people on the Pine Ridge, Cheyenne River, Rosebud Indian Reservations, part of the Great Sioux Nation; the station started broadcasting in 1983 as the first American Indian-owned radio station in the United States. As of the census of 2000, there were 407 people, 89 households, 76 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 42.9 people per square mile.
There were 103 housing units at an average density of 10.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 1.23% White, 98.28% Native American, 0.49% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.47% of the population. There were 89 households out of which 47.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.6% were married couples living together, 38.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 13.5% were non-families. 9.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 1.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.57 and the average family size was 4.83. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 42.0% under the age of 18, 13.5% from 18 to 24, 21.6% from 25 to 44, 18.9% from 45 to 64, 3.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.5 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $24,583, the median income for a family was $26,667.
Males had a median income of $26,786 versus $26,250 for females. The per capita income for the CDP was $4,429. About 30.8% of families and 28.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.1% of those under age 18 and none of those age 65 or over. KILI FM 90.1, is licensed to Porcupine. Broadcasting to the Lakota people on the Pine Ridge, Cheyenne River, Rosebud Indian Reservations, part of the Great Sioux Nation, it started broadcasting in 1983 as the first American Indian-owned radio station in the United States. At the end of 2008, KILI announced on its website that the station would be powered by a wind turbine. Old Chief Smoke, an original Oglala Sioux head chief, he is buried southeast of Porcupine. Russell Means, an American Indian Movement activist and actor; as "a grandfather with twenty-two grandchildren" Russell Means... " his time between Chinle, Navajo Nation and Porcupine." In December 2007, while a resident of Porcupine, he joined with members of the American Indian Movement, "dropped in on the State Department and the embassies of Bolivia, Venezuela and South Africa... seeking recognition for their effort to form a free and independent Lakota nation," to be known as the Republic of Lakotah.
Edgar Bear Runner - Citizen used by the FBI to negotiate with AIM occupiers during the Wounded Knee incident, survivor of the Pine Ridge Reign of Terror carried out by FBI, local law enforcements, the paramilitary GOONs. Activist who lobbies for the clemency of AIM activist Leonard Peltier for his alleged crimes during the Wounded Knee incident
University of Nebraska Press
The University of Nebraska Press known as UNP, was founded in 1941 and is an academic publisher of scholarly and general-interest books. The press is under the auspices of the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, the main campus of the University of Nebraska system. UNP publishes non-fiction books and academic journals, in both print and electronic editions; the press has strong publishing programs in Native American studies, Western American history, sports and national affairs, military history. The press has been active in reprinting classic books from various genres, including science fiction and fantasy. Since its inception, UNP has published more than 4,000 books and 30 journals, adding another 150 new titles each year, making it the 12th largest university press in the United States. Since 2010, two of UNP's books have received the Bancroft Prize, the highest honor bestowed on history books in the U. S. UNP began in November 1941 at the prompting of University of Nebraska Chancellor Chauncey Borcher, who hired Emily Schossberger as UNP's first editor.
UNP became 7th in the Midwest. During Schossberger's 17-year tenure UNP published 97 books focused on regional titles and the works of Louise Pound, Karl Shapiro, George W. Norris. Following Schossberger's departure, Bruce Nicoll became UNP's first official director and Virginia Faulkner became editor-in-chief. Nicoll led the UNP for 27 years and expanded its focus to publish books of more diverse backgrounds, not monographs for and by scholars; that led to the launch of UNP's first imprint in 1961, Bison Books, specializing in paperback books which would be sold in non-traditional places such as truck stops, drug stores, gas stations. In 1966 the press expanded by creating distribution partnerships overseas. In 1975, Dave Gilbert became UNP director and reoriented Bison Books toward a more western focus. Gilbert hired designer Richard Eckersley and his wife Dika to bring all book design in house. Gilbert left UNP for a post at Cornell University and was succeeded by editor-in-chief Bill Reiger, UNP's third full-time director.
Reiger expanded UNP's focus beyond the American West. UNP into foreign translations and literature France and Scandinavia, with three translation authors receiving Nobel Prizes. By 1991, UNP had 2,000 books in print, was adding 100 new books a year, had annual sales of $4.5 million. In 1995, Dan Ross took over as UNP's fourth director, expanding Bison Books to focus on sports books baseball, resulting in UNP's regarded publishing program in sports; that same year UNP's annual sales topped $6 million, a 600 percent increase from 1980. By the early 2000s, Gary Dunham took over as director and in 2009 UNP sold its longtime warehouse in the Haymarket. With Donna Shear as editor-in-chief, Bison Books was redefined to represent books of the west and UNP in general switched to a print-on-demand model of publishing, coordinating simultaneous release of e-books with the print editions. Shear tripled journal production to 30 publications and in September 2011 the press entered into a collaborative publishing arrangement with the Jewish Publication Society, one of the oldest Jewish publishers in the United States.
In April 2013, the press acquired Potomac Books, a publisher specializing in military and diplomatic topics. With the new additions, UNP surpassed $7 million in sales in 2015, moved up in status with the American Association of University Presses, become the 12th largest university press in the country. Since 2010, two of the press' books have received the Bancroft Prize, the highest honor bestowed on history books in the U. S. Under its Nebraska imprint, UNP publishes both scholarly and general interest books, with a particular focus on Native and Indigenous studies, sports history, American studies and cultural criticism, environmental studies and creative works. UNP publishes scholarly editions of the works of Willa Cather, including the classics My Antonia and O Pioneers!. Bison Books began in 1961 as UNP's first trade imprint and focused on inexpensive paperbacks of general-interest works in Western Americana. In 2013 Bison Books shifted its focus to the trans-Mississippi West; the imprint has featured the work of notable authors such as André Breton, George Armstrong Custer, William F. Cody, Loren Eiseley, Michel Foucault, Che Guevara, Wright Morris, Tillie Olsen, Mari Sandoz, Wallace Stegner, Leo Tolstoy, Philip Wylie, Stefan Zweig.
Potomac Books began in 1983 as the imprint of British publishing house Brassey and established a strong reputation for works on military history. The trade imprint was acquired by Books International in 1999 and renamed Potomac Books in 2004, expanding its catalog to include world and national affairs, presidential history and diplomacy, biography and memoir. UNP purchased Potomac Books in 2013; the Jewish Publication Society known as JPS and known as the Jewish Publication Society of America, is the oldest nonprofit, nondenominational publisher of Jewish works in English. Founded in Philadelphia in 1888, JPS is well known for its English translation of the Hebrew Bible, the JPS Tanakh. UNP purchased all of JPS's outstanding book inventory, is responsible for the production and marketing of all JPS publications, although JPS continues its operations from its Philadelphia headquarters, acquiring new manuscripts and developing new projects. Prairie Schooner magazine Nineteenth-Century French Studies Official website Fight Over a Beloved Book
American Indian Movement
The American Indian Movement is a Native American advocacy group in the United States, founded in July 1968 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. AIM was formed to address Native American affirmation, treaty issues and leadership while addressing incidents of police harassment and racism against Natives forced to move away from reservations and tribal culture by the Indian Termination Policies. AIM's paramount objective is to create "real economic independence for the Indians". From November 1969 to June 1971, AIM participated in the occupation of the abandoned federal penitentiary known as Alcatraz, organized by seven Indian movements, including the Indian of All Tribes and Richard Oakes, a Mohawk activist. In October 1972, AIM and other Indian groups gathered members from across the United States for a protest in Washington, D. C. known as the Trail of Broken Treaties. According to public documents obtained under the Freedom of Information Act, advanced coordination occurred between Washington, D. C.-based Bureau of Indian Affairs and the authors of a twenty-point proposal drafted with the help of the AIM for delivery to the United States government officials focused on proposals intended to enhance United States–Indian relations.
In the decades since AIM's founding, the group has led protests advocating indigenous American interests, inspired cultural renewal, monitored police activities and coordinated employment programs in cities and in rural reservation communities across the United States. AIM has supported indigenous interests outside the United States as well. By 1993, AIM had split into two main factions. One faction is the AIM-Grand Governing Council based in Minneapolis; the other faction is AIM-International Confederation of Autonomous Chapters, based in Denver Colorado. While government-directed Indian termination policies were enforced during the Eisenhower administration, hastily executed uranium mining contracts to permit it preceded the imposition of unprecedented-scale government-sanctioned commercial uranium extraction operations from various parts of traditional Indian western North American tribal lands and the uranium mining was permitted. However, the uranium mining contracts were signed without tribal permissions, Navajo workers were not informed of the health risks involved with working in uranium mines.
On March 6, 1968, President Johnson signed Executive Order 11399, establishing the National Council on Indian Opportunity. President Johnson said "the time has come to focus our efforts on the plight of the American Indian" and NCIO's formation would "launch an undivided, Government-wide effort in this area". While knowing little of the American Indian issues, Johnson tried to connect the nation's trust responsibility to the tribes and nations to civil rights, an area with which he was much more familiar. In Congress, the Democratic chairman of the House Subcommittee on Indian Affairs, James Haley from Florida, supported Indian rights. In the 1960s Haley met with president Kennedy and then-vice-president Johnson, pressed for Indian self-determination and control in transactions over land. One struggle was over the long-term leasing of American Indian land. Non-Indian businesses and banks said they could not invest in leases of 25 years with generous options, as the time was too short for land-based transactions.
Relieving the long-term poverty on most reservations through business partnerships by leasing land was seen as infeasible. A return to the 19th century 99-year leases was seen as a possible solution. But, an Interior Department memo said, "a 99-year lease is in the nature of a conveyance of the land"; these battles over land had their beginnings in the 1870s when federal policy related to wholesale taking, not leases. In the 1950s, many Native Americans believed that leases were too a way for outsiders to control Indian land. Wallace "Mad Bear" Anderson was a Tuscarora leader in New York in the 1950s, he struggled to resist the New York City planner Robert Moses' plan to take tribal land in upstate New York for use in a state hydropower project to supply New York City. The struggle ended in a bitter compromise; as had civil rights and antiwar activists, AIM used the American press and media to present its message to the United States public. It created events to attract the press. If successful, news outlets would seek out AIM spokespersons for interviews.
Rather than relying on traditional lobbying efforts, AIM took its message directly to the American public. Its leaders looked for opportunities to gain publicity. Sound bites such as the "AIM Song" became associated with the movement. During ceremonies on Thanksgiving Day 1970 to commemorate the 350th anniversary of the Pilgrims' landing at Plymouth Rock, AIM seized the replica of the Mayflower in Boston. In 1971, members occupied Mount Rushmore for a few days, as it was created in the Black Hills of South Dakota, long sacred to the Lakota; this area was within the Great Sioux Reservation as created by the Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868. After the discovery of gold, in 1874, the federal government took the land in 1877 and sold it for mining and settlement to European Americans. Native American activists in Milwaukee staged a takeover of an abandoned Coast Guard station along the Lake Michigan; the takeover was inspired by the 1969 Alcatraz occupation. Activists cited the Treaty of Fort Laramie and demanded the abandoned federal property revert to the control of the Native peoples of Milw
George Armstrong Custer
George Armstrong Custer was a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the American Indian Wars. Custer graduated from West Point in 1861, bottom of his class, but as the Civil War was just starting, trained officers were in immediate demand, he worked with General McClellan and the future General Pleasonton, who both recognised his qualities as a cavalry leader, he was brevetted brigadier general of Volunteers at age 23. At Gettysburg, he commanded the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, defeated Jeb Stuart’s assault on Cemetery Ridge, while outnumbered. In 1864, Custer served in the Overland Campaign and in Sheridan’s army in the Shenandoah Valley, defeating Jubal Early at Cedar Creek, his division blocked Lee's final retreat and received the first flag of truce from the Confederates, Custer being present at Lee’s surrender to U. S. Grant at Appomattox. After the war, Custer was appointed a lieutenant colonel in the Regular Army, sent west to fight in the Indian Wars.
On June 25, 1876, while leading the 7th Cavalry at the Battle of the Little Bighorn in Montana Territory against a coalition of Native American tribes, he was killed along with over one third of his command during an action romanticized as "Custer's Last Stand". His dramatic end was as controversial as the rest of his career, his legacy remains divided, his bold leadership in battle is unquestioned, but his legend was of his own fabrication, through his extensive journalism, more through his wife’s energetic lobbying throughout her long widowhood. Custer's paternal immigrant ancestors and Gertrude Küster, emigrated to the North American English colonies around 1693 from the Rhineland in Germany among thousands of Palatine refugees whose passage was arranged by the English government to gain settlers in New York and Pennsylvania. According to family letters, Custer was named after George Armstrong, a minister, in his devout mother's hope that her son might join the clergy. Custer was born in New Rumley, Ohio, to Emanuel Henry Custer, a farmer and blacksmith, his second wife, Marie Ward Kirkpatrick, of English and Scots-Irish descent.
He had two younger brothers and Boston. His other full siblings were the family's youngest child, Margaret Custer, Nevin Custer, who suffered from asthma and rheumatism. Custer had three older half-siblings. Custer and his brothers acquired their life-long love of practical jokes, which they played out among the close family members. Emanuel Custer was an outspoken Democrat who taught his children politics and toughness at an early age. In a February 3, 1887 letter to his son's widow, Libby, he related an incident "when Autie was about four years old, he had to have a tooth drawn, he was much afraid of blood. When I took him to the doctor to have the tooth pulled, it was in the night and I told him if it bled well it would get well right away, he must be a good soldier; when he got to the doctor he took his seat, the pulling began. The forceps slipped off and he had to make a second trial, he pulled it out, Autie never scrunched. Going home, I led him by the arm, he jumped and skipped, said'Father you and me can whip all the Whigs in Michigan.'
I thought, saying a good deal but I did not contradict him." In order to attend school, Custer lived with an older half-sister and her husband in Monroe, Michigan. Before entering the United States Military Academy, Custer attended the McNeely Normal School known as Hopedale Normal College, in Hopedale, Ohio, it was to train teachers for elementary schools. While attending Hopedale and classmate William Enos Emery were known to have carried coal to help pay for their room and board. After graduating from McNeely Normal School in 1856, Custer taught school in Ohio, his first sweetheart was Mary Jane Holland. Custer entered West Point as a cadet on July 1, 1857, as a member of the class of 1862, his class numbered seventy-nine cadets embarking on a five-year course of study. With the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, the course was shortened to four years, Custer and his class graduated on June 24, 1861, he was 34th in a class of 34 graduates: 23 classmates had dropped out for academic reasons while 22 classmates had resigned to join the Confederacy.
Throughout his life, Custer tested rules. In his four years at West Point, he amassed a record-total of 726 demerits, one of the worst conduct records in the history of the academy. A fellow cadet recalled Custer as declaring there were only two places in a class, the head and the foot, since he had no desire to be the head, he aspired to be the foot. A roommate noted, "It was alright with George Custer. Under ordinary national conditions, Custer's low class rank would result in an obscure posting, but Custer had the "fortune" to graduate as the Civil War broke out. All officers were needed. Like the other graduates, Custer was commissioned as a second lieutenant. S. Cavalry Regiment and tasked with drilling volunteers in Washington, D. C. On July 21, 1861, he was with his regiment at the First Battle of Bull Run during the Manassas Campaign, where Army commander Winfield Scott detailed him to carry messages to Major General Irvin McDowell. After the battle, Custer continued participating in the defenses of Washington D.
C. until October, when he became ill. He was absent from his unit until February 1862. In March, he participated with the 2nd Cavalry in the Peninsula Campaign in Virginia until April 4. On April 5, Custer s