Jacob Collamer was an American politician from Vermont. He served in the U. S. House of Representatives, as Postmaster General in the cabinet of President Zachary Taylor, as a U. S. Senator. Born in Troy, New York, raised in Burlington, Collamer graduated from the University of Vermont, studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1813. After service in the militia during the War of 1812, he became active as an attorney, first in Royalton, in Woodstock. Regarded in the legal profession, he became a respected prosecutor and judge. Elected to the House of Representatives in 1842, Collamer became a prominent Whig leader and advocate of the anti-slavery cause. President Taylor selected Collamer to serve as Postmaster General following the 1848 presidential election. Collamer served until shortly after Taylor's death, when he resigned to allow Taylor's successor, Millard Fillmore, to name his own appointee. Collamer was elected to the Senate as a Republican in 1855, shortly after the formation of the new party.
He became a respected voice against slavery and a prominent supporter of the Lincoln administration during the American Civil War. An advocate of more stringent postwar Reconstruction measures than those that were favored by Lincoln and his successor, Andrew Johnson, Collamer advocated congressional control of the Reconstruction process, he was buried at River Street Cemetery in Woodstock. He was born in Troy, New York in 1791, the son of Samuel Collamer and Elizaberth Collamer, his family moved to Burlington, Vermont in 1795, he received a bachelor of arts degree from the University of Vermont in 1810, after additional study, UVM changed Collamer's degree to master of arts. He studied law in St. Albans, Vermont with Asa Aldis, Asahel Langworthy, Benjamin Swift, he relocated to Randolph, where he completed his legal studies with attorney William Nutting, he was admitted to the bar in 1813. He served as an officer in a Vermont Militia unit during the War of 1812. Appointed as a first lieutenant, Collamer served first with an artillery unit on Vermont's border with Canada and as aide-de-camp to Brigadier General John French.
In 1816, he moved to Royalton, where he continued to practice law. He remained a resident of Royalton for 20 years, practicing law in partnership with Judge James Barrett. Among the prospective attorneys who studied law under his supervision was Lyman Gibbons, who served as a Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court. Collamer served in local offices, including Register of Probate, Windsor County State’s Attorney, member of the Vermont House of Representatives. From 1833 to 1842 Collamer was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Vermont, succeeding Nicholas Baylies. In 1836 he moved to Woodstock. From 1839 to 1845 Collamer was a Trustee of the University of Vermont. Elected to the US House of Representatives in 1842 as a Whig, Collamer served three terms, from 1843 to 1849, he opposed the extension of slavery, the Texas Annexation, the Mexican–American War. Collamer was Chairman of the Committee on Public Lands. Collamer served as Postmaster General under President Taylor. After he was appointed at the start of the Taylor administration in 1849, he held office until he resigned in July 1850.
Collamer resigned shortly after Taylor's death to enable President Fillmore to name his own appointee. As Postmaster General, Collamer was criticized by Whig partisans of the spoils system because he was reluctant to remove local Democratic postmasters en masse. Upon returning to Vermont, Collamer was appointed a Judge of the state Circuit Court, where he served until 1854, he was succeeded on the bench by Abel Underwood, who served until the state Circuit Court was abolished in an 1857 court reorganization. Collamer was a longtime trustee of and lecturer at the Vermont Medical College in Woodstock and served as President of the Board of Trustees. In 1855 Collamer was elected to the Senate as a anti-slavery Republican. In his first term, Collamer was Chairman of the Committee on Engrossed Bills. In 1856, Collamer received several votes for Vice President at the Republican National Convention. In the Senate, he defended his positions vigorously when he was in the minority; when the Committee on Territories, chaired by Stephen A. Douglas, recommended passage of the Crittenden Amendment, which proposed resubmitting for popular vote the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution for Kansas and James R. Doolittle of Wisconsin refused to vote in favor but instead crafted a persuasive minority report explaining their opposition.
Collamer represented the minority view in June 1860, when the committee, chaired by James Murray Mason, issued its report on John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry. Mason argued that Brown's raid was the work of an organized abolitionist movement, which needed to be curtailed with federal authority. Collamer and Doolittle countered that Brown and his followers had been caught and punished and that further government action was not necessary. Collamer's years on the bench helped develop his reputation as the best lawyer in the Senate, his colleagues were known to pay close attention to his remarks on the Senate floor though he spoke infrequently and then too to reach the entire chamber or the galleries. Charles Sumner referred to Collamer as the "Green-Mountain Socrates". At the 1860 Republican National Convention, Collamer received the favorite son votes of Verm
Richard Bache, born in Settle, England, immigrated to Philadelphia, in the colony of Pennsylvania, where he was a businessman, a marine insurance underwriter, served as head of the American Post Office. He was the son-in-law of Benjamin Franklin. Bache immigrated as a young man in 1760 to New York to join his brother Theophylact in a dry goods and marine insurance business. After a couple of years, he went to Philadelphia, he was among nearly 30 young men who in October 1766 met at the city's London Coffee House to found the Gloucester Fox Hunting Club, the first in America, to take up a pursuit associated with becoming "true Englishmen."In 1767, Bache suffered financial problems when debts contracted by him were repudiated by his London associate, Edward Green. That year, Bache had proposed to Sarah Franklin, known as Sally, the only daughter of Benjamin Franklin and Deborah Read, they given his precarious finances and rumors that Bache was a fortune hunter. Although Franklin and his wife Deborah Read never formally approved, they acquiesced to the marriage in 1767.
Bache and Sally had eight children together, including Benjamin Franklin, Louis Franklin and Richard Franklin. During the American Revolution, Bache served on the Board of War, his wife, Sally Bache, was known for her patriotism and charitable activities. Franklin arranged an appointment for Bache as the US Postmaster General, to succeed him. After Franklin's death in 1790, Bache and Sally lived off her inheritance from Franklin, moving their family to the Vandegrift residence in 1794 along the Delaware River north of Philadelphia, their oldest son, Benjamin Franklin Bache, became a publisher, founding a newspaper. He was a spokesman for the Jeffersonian Republicans. Sally and Bache's son, Richard Bache, Jr. served in the Republic of Texas Navy and was elected as a Representative to the Second Texas Legislature in 1847. The U. S. Navy surgeon Benjamin Franklin Bache and the physicist Alexander Dallas Bache were grandsons of Sally and Richard Bache, Sr
Burlington is a city and the county seat of Des Moines County, United States. The population was 25,663 in the 2010 census, a decline from the 26,839 population in the 2000 census. Burlington is the center of a micropolitan area including West Burlington and Middletown, Gulfport, Illinois. Burlington is the home of Snake Alley, once labelled the crookedest alley in the world. Prior to European settlement, the area was neutral territory for the Sac and Fox Indians, who called it Shoquoquon, meaning Flint Hills. In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson organized two parties of explorers to map the Louisiana Purchase; the Lewis and Clark Expedition followed the Missouri River, while Lt. Zebulon Pike followed the Mississippi River. In 1805, Pike landed at the bluffs below Burlington and raised the United States Flag for the first time on what would become Iowa soil and recommended construction of a fort; the recommendation went unheeded. The American Fur Company of John Jacob Astor established a post in the area in 1829.
Settlement began in 1833, shortly after the Black Hawk Purchase, when Samuel White, Amzi Doolitle, Morton M. McCarver crossed the Mississippi River from Big Island and staked claims there. According to an account A. T. Andreas wrote in 1875, White erected a cabin in the area platted to be Front Street between Court and High streets. Andreas called White and Doolittle the Romulus and Remus of their settlement, referring to the mythic heroes who founded Rome, a city surrounded by hills. A few weeks William R. Ross joined them and established a general store. In November and December, he surveyed the settlement for Doolittle. In the spring of 1834 they allowed John Gray, who purchased the first lot with his wife Eliza Jane, to rename the town for $50. Gray chose to name it Burlington in honor of his hometown in Vermont; the Grays' daughter Abigail was born in Burlington that same year, the first European-descended American settler child born on Iowa soil. In 1837, Burlington was designated the second territorial capital of the Wisconsin Territory.
The Iowa Territory was organized in the following year, Burlington was named as its first territorial capital. The government used "Old Zion," the first Methodist Church in Iowa, to conduct its business. A historical marker commemorates the site of early territorial government. On May 22, 1849, Maj. William Williams visited Burlington, writing a brief description in his journal: This town called Flint Hill- the Indian name was Shoquokon, Flint or Rock Hill. Beautifully elevated, situated on the west side of the Mississippi River, a place of considerable business; the town is well built. Houses are good taste, brick dwellings. A great many handsome residences on the more elevated parts of the bluff; the number of inhabitants between 3,000 and 3,500.... Was the first seat of government after the formation of the Territory of Iowa; the view of the city is picturesque from the river. The main part of the city is situated like an amphitheater formed by the surrounding hills, beautiful buildings and private residences on the eminences around.
From the location of Burlington it must always be a place of considerable trade. The city is well built modern style, a intelligent population... The river here is over 3/4 of mile wide and steam ferry boats plying between this and the Illinois shore. Iowa's nickname, "The Hawkeye State," has its roots in Burlington. At Judge David Rorer's suggestion, publisher James G. Edwards changed The Iowa Patriot newspaper's name to The Hawk-Eye and Iowa Patriot in tribute to his friend, Chief Black Hawk. Rorer is said to have found the name in James Fenimore Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans, but Edwards proposed the nickname to "...rescue from oblivian a momento, at least of the name of the old chief."Burlington was a bustling river port in the steamboat era and a central city to the Chicago and Quincy Railroad. The "Burlington Route" merged into the Burlington Northern Railroad, which in turn merged into the BNSF Railway; the "Burlington" name has been given to one of the United States' largest railroads.
One of BNSF's main east-west lines still crosses the Mississippi at Burlington. In the late twentieth century, retail expanded with suburbanization of the population. After purchasing Benner Tea, Aldi opened its first store in the United States at Burlington in 1976. Westland Mall opened in nearby West Burlington in 1977. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.24 square miles, of which, 14.48 square miles is land and 0.76 square miles is water. As of the 2010 census, there were 25,663 people, 10,938 households, 6,693 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,772.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,899 housing units at an average density of 821.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.2% White, 14.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.7% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.1% of the population. There were 10,938 households of which 29.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.9% were married couples living together, 14.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 38.8% were non-families.
32.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age in the city was
Joseph Holt was a leading member of the Buchanan administration and was Judge Advocate General of the United States Army, most notably during the Lincoln assassination trials. Joseph Holt was born in Breckinridge County, Kentucky, on January 6, 1807, he was educated at St. Joseph's College in Bardstown and Centre College in Danville, Kentucky, he settled in Elizabethtown and set up a law office in town. He married Mary Harrison and moved to Louisville, Kentucky, in 1832. There, he became assistant editor of the Louisville Public Advertiser and the Commonwealth's Attorney from 1833 to 1835. Holt moved to Port Gibson and practiced law there as well as in Natchez and Vicksburg, Mississippi. Holt and his wife contracted tuberculosis. Mary died of it, Joseph returned to Louisville to recuperate. Holt remarried, to Margaret Wickliffe. In 1857, Holt was appointed Commissioner of Patents by President Buchanan and moved to Washington D. C.. He served until 1859; the Buchanan administration was shaken in December 1860 and January 1861, when the Confederacy was formed and many cabinet members resigned, but Holt was both against slavery and for the Union.
He was appointed Secretary of War upon the resignation of John B. Floyd of Virginia. Holt served as Secretary of War until the end of Buchanan's presidency. Holt joined the Army as a colonel in 1862 and was appointed by President Abraham Lincoln to be the Judge Advocate General of the Union Army, he was the first Judge Advocate General. He prosecuted the court-martial against Major General Fitz John Porter for crimes of disobedience of a lawful order and misbehavior in front of the enemy. Lincoln offered Holt the position of Secretary of the Interior that same year and Attorney General in 1864, but Holt declined both offices, he was one of the many politicians considered for the Republican Vice Presidential nomination in 1864. It went to Andrew Johnson, Lincoln was re-elected. On April 14, 1865, Lincoln was assassinated by Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth. Booth's accomplice, Lewis Powell injured Secretary of State Seward, Vice President Johnson was targeted. Holt prepared an order for the signature of Johnson for the arrest of Confederate President Jefferson Davis and five other suspects.
Booth was killed by Boston Corbett, a soldier who violated orders. As Judge Advocate General of the Army, Holt was the chief prosecutor in the trial of the accused conspirators before a military commission chaired by General David Hunter. Two assistant judge advocates, John Bingham and General Henry Lawrence Burnett assisted Holt; the defendants were George Atzerodt, David Herold, Samuel Arnold, Michael O'Laughlen, Edman Spangler, Samuel Mudd, Mary Surratt. The trial lasted two months. Holt and Bingham attempted to obscure the fact; the first plot was to exchange him for Confederate prisoners held by the Union. The second was to assassinate Lincoln and Seward and so throw the government into chaos, it was important for the prosecution not to reveal the existence of a diary taken from the body of Booth. The diary made; the defense did not call for Booth's diary to be produced in court. Holt was accused of withholding evidence. On June 29, 1865, the eight were found guilty of conspiracy to kill the President.
Arnold, O'Laughlen, Mudd were sentenced to life in prison, Spangler to six years in prison, Atzerodt, Herold and Surratt to be hanged, the first woman to be executed by the US federal government. They were executed July 7, 1865. O'Laughlen died in prison in 1867. Arnold and Mudd were pardoned by Johnson in early 1869. Accusations still remain. Holt's public image was besmirched by the trial and his prosecution of it, many historians believe that the controversy surrounding it ended Holt's political career. In 1866, Holt issued a pamphlet, titled Vindication of Judge Advocate General Holt From the Foul Slanders of Traitors, Confessed Perjurers and Suborners, Acting in the Interest of Jefferson Davis, in which he attempted to defend himself against the various allegations and clear up some of the confusion stemming from the trial. Holt served as Judge Advocate General until he retired on December 1, 1875, he had a quiet retirement and died in Washington on August 1, 1894. He is buried in the Holt Family Cemetery in Kentucky.
Holt County, Nebraska is named after him, as is the hamlet of Holtsville, New York and the town of Holt, Michigan. Camp Joe Holt List of American Civil War generals Bell, William Gardner. "Josepht Holt". Secretaries of War and Secretaries of the Army: Portraits & Biographical Sketches. United States Army Center of Military History. CMH Pub 70-12. Leonard, Elizabeth D. "One Kentuckian's Hard Choice: Joseph Holt and Abraham Lincoln," Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, 106, 373-407. 1898 fight over Holt purported will "Joseph Holt". Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-02-12. Joseph Holt at Mr. Lincoln's White House samuelmudd.com
Gideon Granger was an early American politician and lawyer. He was the father of fellow Postmaster General and U. S. Representative Francis Granger. Granger was born in Suffield, Connecticut on July 19, 1767, he was the son of Tryphosia Granger. He graduated from Yale University and became a lawyer. Granger was considered a brilliant political essayist. Using the pseudonyms Algernon Sydney and Epaminondas many of his writings, defending Jeffersonian principles, were published in many pamphlets, he was a member of the Connecticut House of Representatives and ran unsuccessfully for the United States Congress in 1798. A staunch supporter of Thomas Jefferson's, Granger was appointed as Postmaster General at the start of his term in 1801, he served in this post until 1814 when James Madison, replaced him. He is the longest serving Postmaster General as of 2015. After leaving Washington, D. C. Granger settled in Canandaigua, New York, where he built a homestead that would be "unrivaled in all the nation" from which he could administer the many land tracts he had acquired further to the west.
Today his home is a museum. He became a member of the New York Senate and continued to be influential in politics and law including being a key figure in the Erie Canal project. On June 14, 1790, Granger was married to the daughter of Joseph Pease. Together, they were the parents of three sons, including: Francis Granger, who married Cornelia Rutsen Van Rensselaer, the granddaughter of Brigadier General Robert Van Rensselaer, a member of the New York Provincial Congress from 1775 to 1777 and a member of the New York State Assembly in the 1st, 2nd and 4th New York State Legislatures. John Albert Granger, who married Harriet Jackson, the daughter of Amasa Jackson, the first president of the Union Bank of New York, Mary Jackson, the only daughter and heiress of Oliver Phelps, her paternal grandfather was General Michael Jackson, who commanded a regiment of minutemen in the Battle of Lexington. Ill health forced him to retire early in 1821 and he died the next year on December 31, 1822, he was interred in Woodlawn Cemetery in Canandaigua.
Granger is the namesake of Ohio. Granger Homestead and Carriage Museum Gideon Granger at Find a Grave
William T. Barry
William Taylor Barry was an American statesman and jurist. He served as Postmaster General for most of the administration of President Andrew Jackson, was the only Cabinet member to not resign in 1831 as a result of the Petticoat affair. Born near Lunenburg, Virginia, he moved to Fayette County, Kentucky, in 1796 with his parents John Barry, an American Revolutionary War veteran, Susannah Barry, he attended the common schools, Pisgah Academy and Kentucky Academy in Woodford County, Transylvania University at Lexington and graduated from the College of William & Mary at Williamsburg, Virginia in 1803, after which studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1805. He commenced practice at Jessamine County, Kentucky and at Lexington, he was a member of Kentucky House of Representatives in 1807, a member of the U. S. House of Representatives from 1810 to 1811, served in the War of 1812, was a U. S. Senator from Kentucky, 1815 to 1816. During his time in the Kentucky Senate he wrote to former President James Madison seeking support for a plan of subsidizing public education across the state.
S. Postmaster General in Andrew Jackson's administration from 1829 to 1835, he was the only member of Jackson's original Cabinet not to resign as a result of the Petticoat Affair, which involved the social ostracism of Margaret O'Neill Eaton, the wife of Secretary of War John H. Eaton by a coalition of Cabinet members wives led by Second Lady Floride Calhoun. Barry, like Jackson, had sided with the Eatons, he was appointed ambassador to Spain, but died before he could take office en route to his post, while stopped in Liverpool, England August 30, 1835. He was interred and a cenotaph still stands at St. James's Cemetery, England. Barry County, Barry County, Missouri and Barryville, New York are named in his honor. During the 1820s, Barry was a member of the prestigious society, Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences, who counted among their members former presidents Andrew Jackson and John Quincy Adams and many prominent men of the day, including well-known representatives of the military, government service and other professions.
Barry was an uncle to Kentucky governor Luke P. Blackburn. United States Congress. "William T. Barry". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. William T. Barry at Find A Grave Allen, William B.. A History of Kentucky: Embracing Gleanings, Antiquities, Natural Curiosities and Biographical Sketches of Pioneers, Jurists, Statesmen, Mechanics, Farmers and Other Leading Men, of All Occupations and Pursuits. Bradley & Gilbert. Pp. 254–256. This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
During the American Civil War, the Union Army referred to the United States Army, the land force that fought to preserve the Union of the collective states. Known as the Federal Army, it proved essential to the preservation of the United States of America as a working, viable republic; the Union Army was made up of the permanent regular army of the United States, but further fortified and strengthened by the many temporary units of dedicated volunteers as well as including those who were drafted in to service as conscripts. To this end, the Union Army fought and triumphed over the efforts of the Confederate States Army in the American Civil War. Over the course of the war, 2,128,948 men enlisted in the Union Army, including 178,895 colored troops. Of these soldiers, 596,670 were wounded or went missing; the initial call-up was for just three months, after which many of these men chose to reenlist for an additional three years. When the American Civil War began in April 1861, there were only 16,367 men in the U.
S. Army, including 1,108 commissioned officers. 20% of these officers, most of them Southerners, choosing to tie their lives and fortunes to the Army of the Confederacy. In addition 200 West Point graduates who had left the Army, including Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, Braxton Bragg, would return to service at the outbreak of the war; this group's loyalties were far more divided, with 92 donning Confederate gray and 102 putting on the blue of the Union Army. The U. S. Army consisted of ten regiments of infantry, four of artillery, two of cavalry, two of dragoons, three of mounted infantry; the regiments were scattered widely. Of the 197 companies in the army, 179 occupied 79 isolated posts in the West, the remaining 18 manned garrisons east of the Mississippi River along the Canada–United States border and on the Atlantic coast. With the Southern slave states declaring secession from the Union, with this drastic shortage of men in the army, President Abraham Lincoln called on the states to raise a force of 75,000 men for three months to put down this subversive insurrection.
Lincoln's call forced the border states to choose sides, four seceded, making the Confederacy eleven states strong. It turned out that the war itself proved to be much longer and far more extensive in scope and scale than anyone on either side, Union North or Confederate South, expected or imagined at the outset on the date of July 22, 1861; that was the day that Congress approved and authorized subsidy to allow and support a volunteer army of up to 500,000 men to the cause. The call for volunteers was met by patriotic Northerners and immigrants who enlisted for a steady income and meals. Over 10,000 Germans in New York and Pennsylvania responded to Lincoln's call, the French were quick to volunteer; as more men were needed, the number of volunteers fell and both money bounties and forced conscription had to be turned to. Between April 1861 and April 1865, at least 2,128,948 men served in the Union Army, of whom the majority were volunteers, it is a misconception that the South held an advantage because of the large percentage of professional officers who resigned to join the Confederate army.
At the start of the war, there were 824 graduates of the U. S. Military Academy on the active list. Of the 900 West Point graduates who were civilians, 400 returned to the Union Army and 99 to the Confederate. Therefore, the ratio of Union to Confederate professional officers was 642 to 283; the South did have the advantage of other military colleges, such as The Citadel and Virginia Military Institute, but they produced fewer officers. Though officers were able to resign, enlisted soldiers did not have this right. While the total number of those is unknown, only 26 enlisted men and non-commissioned officers of the regular army are known to have left the army to join the Confederate army when the war began; the Union Army was composed of numerous organizations, which were organized geographically. Military division A collection of Departments reporting to one commander. Military Divisions were similar to the more modern term Theater. Department An organization that covered a defined region, including responsibilities for the Federal installations therein and for the field armies within their borders.
Those named for states referred to Southern states, occupied. It was more common to name departments for regions. District A subdivision of a Department