2nd Battalion, 7th Marines
The 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines is a light infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. They are based at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms and consist of 1,200 Marines and Sailors; the battalion falls under the command of the 1st Marine Division. The battalion's current subordinate units are: Headquarters & Service Company Echo Company Fox Company Golf Company Weapons CompanyAt the beginning of World War II, the battalion had three subordinate rifle companies – E, F, G, a weapons company designated as H, a Headquarters Company; as the war progressed, the weapons company was eliminated and the component elements redistributed throughout the headquarters and rifle companies. During the Korean War, the battalion's three rifle companies were designated D, E and F. During the Vietnam War, the battalion was organized under a four rifle company order of battle – E, F, G and H; the battalion was activated on 1 January 1940 at Cuba. On 18 September 1942, 2/7 landed on Guadalcanal.
They fought the Battle of Guadalcanal for four months until they were relieved by elements of the United States Army's Americal Division. The battalion was sent to Australia along with the rest of the 1st Marine Division for rest and refit. 2/7 landed on Cape Gloucester, New Britain on 26 December 1943 under the command of Lieutenant colonel Odell M. Conoley securing an airfield the first day; that night, Japanese Marines counterattacked and 2/7 took the brunt of the assault and the fighting continued throughout the night. By the time the sun began to rise, the entire Japanese force had been wiped out. On 14 January, 2/7 along with the rest of the regiment assaulted and took the last Japanese stronghold on the island, Hill 660. Two days the counter-attack came but the Marines held the hilltop resorting to hand-to-hand fighting; the battalion continued to run patrols around the island to protect against guerrilla attacks from hold-out Japanese soldiers. In March 1943, New Britain were declared secure and on 1 April Marine Division was relieved by the US Army 40th Infantry Division.
2/7, the rest of the 1st Marine Division again returned to Australia. On 15 September 1944, the 7th Marines landed along with the rest of the 1st Marine Division. Note: The 2nd battalion was the only battalion to be held in reserve, they were to go in in the day in support of the 7th Marines. However, Chesty Puller's 1st Marines were having the worst time as they were on the left flank and adjacent to where the mountainous area on Peleliu called the Umurbrogal Pocket began - where all the Japanese holed up. On the night of 20 September the 2nd battalion went out to the transfer line, but there were not enough LVT's. Instead, they had to wait and go in the next morning directly in support of Chesty Puller's 1st Marines; the 2nd battalion went right into the middle of the fighting of the 1st marine regiment. When they landed they were met by intense artillery and mortar fire from Japanese positions that had not been touched by the pre-invasion bombardment. On 20 September, the 7th Marines linked up with the 1st Marines.
The battalion fought on the island for another eight weeks. On 1 April 1945, was part of the 80,000 Marines; the 1st Marine Division landed on the southern portion of Okinawa against light resistance. Their beachhead was secured and supplies began flowing in. Resistance began to become stronger; the 1st Marine Division was ordered into Reserve to protect the right flank of the invasion forces. The battalion fought the Japanese along the coast and was stopped at the Shuri Castle. For 30 days, along with the rest of the Division and the Army 77th Infantry Division, battled the Japanese stronghold. After Okinawa, 2/7 was part of the occupation in China where they were to disarm the Japanese forces there. In addition they were called upon to keep the peace during the bloody civil war between the Chinese Nationalists and Communist forces. In 1947, 2/7 returned to California and were deactivated that year. During the Battle of Chosin Reservoir Captain William Barber earned the Medal of Honor for his actions as commander of Fox 2/7.
F/2/7 held a position known as "Fox Hill" against vastly superior numbers of Chinese infantry, holding the Toktong Pass open and keeping the 5th Marine Regiment and the 7th Marine Regiment from getting cut off at Yudam-ni. His company's actions to keep the pass open, allowed these two regiments to withdrawal from Yudam-ni and consolidate with the rest of the 1st Marine Division at Hagaru-ri; the mission to relieve F/2/7 on top of Fox Hill led to LtCol Raymond Davis commanding officer of 1st Battalion 7th Marines, receiving the Medal of Honor. In addition to Chosin, the Battalion participated in the Inchon Landing, the recapture of Seoul and operations along both the Eastern and Western Fronts. 2/7 was deployed to Vietnam from July 1965 until October 1970 as part of the 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division. The Battalion operated in the southern half of I Corp most of the time. Qui Nhon, Chu Lai, Da Nang Air Base, Dai Loc and An Hoa. 2/7 were instrumental players in Operation Harvest Moon.
2/7 relocated during January 1990 to Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms and participated in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait from August 1990 through March 1991 when they redeployed back to the United States. For the rest of the 1990s the battalion took part in the regular Unit Deployment Program rotation to Okinawa. In this scheme, 7th Marine Regiment sequen
Homewood is a city in southeastern Jefferson County, United States. It is a suburb of Birmingham, located on the other side of Red Mountain due south of the city center; as of the 2010 census its population was 25,167, in 2016 the estimated population was 25,613. The first settlers of the area which would become Homewood arrived in the early 1800s; the area's population, did not grow until Birmingham suffered a major cholera epidemic in 1873. Speculators soon began buying up land and developing communities in the countryside surrounding Birmingham. Many of the smaller communities which would become Homewood were developed during this time period, including Rosedale, Grove Park and Oak Grove. Edgewood saw the greatest amount of development; the community contained an Electric Railway leading to downtown Birmingham by 1911 and a man-made lake by 1915. The lake was created by the construction of a dam along Shades Creek near Columbiana Road. Two parallel roads were graded on either side of the lake with the intention of creating a race track around the lake, however these plans never came to fruition.
The roads became Lakeshore Drive and South Lakeshore Drive. In 1926, a local attorney named Charles Rice started a movement to merge several of the communities surrounding Birmingham. In September of the same year, Rosedale and Grove Park voted to incorporate under the name Homewood; the city of Hollywood, Alabama was annexed into Homewood in 1929. In 1955, Oak Grove was annexed into Homewood; the Great Depression and a polio epidemic, which sickened 80 children in Homewood damaged Homewood's economy and social landscape. The regional economy picked up after the outbreak of World War II and the accompanying steel boom in Birmingham, where production ramped up in order to contribute to the war effort. During the 1940s, Homewood's police and fire departments doubled in size to accommodate a 73.9 percent increase in the city's population from 1940 to 1950. In 1959, Homewood voters defeated a move by Birmingham to annex the city. A second attempt succeeded in July 1964, but voting irregularities and lawsuits prevented the outcome of that election in the courts until September 9, 1966, when the Alabama Supreme Court ruled the 1964 vote null and void.
In a special election on December 13, 1966, a vote for annexation failed with 65 percent of Homewood residents voting against the annexation. Homewood avoided the worst of the turmoil associated with the Civil Rights Movement and, more the Southern Christian Leadership Conference's 1963 Birmingham campaign. However, in September 1963, the Shades Valley Sun newspaper reported on a racially motivated bombing on Central Avenue in Rosedale. In 1970, Homewood created its own school system, breaking away from the Jefferson County school system; the new Homewood High School opened in December 1972. Hollywood is a former town annexed into Homewood, Alabama, in 1929. A historic district of much of the area is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as Hollywood Historic District; the district is bounded by U. S. Highway 31, U. S. Highway 280, Lakeshore Drive and is significant for the Mission Revival and Spanish Colonial Revival architectural style of surviving houses and other buildings. Clyde Nelson began developing Hollywood Boulevard as a residential subdivision in 1926.
He employed a sales force of 75, armed with the memorable slogan "Out of the Smoke Zone, Into the Ozone", to entice Birmingham residents over Red Mountain. Architect George P. Turner designed many of the new homes in the Spanish Colonial Revival architecture, which had become fashionably linked with the glamour of Hollywood, California in the early days of the motion picture industry there. Turner nodded to the English Tudor style, widespread in Birmingham and over the mountain; the Hollywood Country Club on Lakeshore Drive and the American Legion Post 134 were built at this time. In order to support his new development, Nelson created the area's first autobus line and extended the first natural gas pipeline into Shades Valley. Hollywood incorporated as a town on January 14, 1927 with Clarence Lloyd as its first and only mayor; the town was annexed into Homewood on October 14, 1929. The Great Depression ended development of the subdivision. In 2002, the Hollywood Historic District was registered with the National Register of Historic Places, is home to The American Institute of Architects -nominated houses like 11 Bonita Drive.
The listing includes one contributing site, over a 815 acres area. Homewood is located at 33°28′6″N 86°48′29″W. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.3 square miles, all land. The city, along with the rest of Jefferson County, lies atop iron and limestone deposits. Shades Creek, part of the Cahaba River system, runs through Homewood; as of the census of 2000, there were 25,043 people, 10,688 households, 5,878 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,014.7 people per square mile. There were 11,494 housing units at an average density of 1,383.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.75% White, 15.30% Black or African-American, 0.20% Native American, 2.57% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 1.00% from other races, 1.16% from two or more races. 2.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 10,688 households out of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.0% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female h
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
Fairfax, colloquially known as Fairfax Courthouse, Downtown Fairfax, or Fairfax City, named the City of Fairfax, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 22,565, which had risen to an estimated 24,013 as of 2015; the city of Fairfax is an enclave surrounded by the separate political entity Fairfax County. Fairfax City contains an exclave of Fairfax County, as detailed below; the city of Fairfax and the area surrounding the historical border of the city of Fairfax, collectively designated by Fairfax County as "Fairfax", comprise the county seat of Fairfax County. The city is part of the Washington-Arlington-Alexandria, DC-VA-MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area as well as a part of Northern Virginia; the city is 17 miles west of Washington, D. C; the Washington Metro's Orange Line serves Fairfax through its Vienna station, a mile northeast of the city limits. CUE Bus and Metrobus operate in Fairfax. Virginia Railway Express's Burke Centre station is situated three miles southeast of the city's boundaries.
Virginia's largest public educational institution with 35,189 students in 2017 is George Mason University, located in unincorporated Fairfax County, along the city's southern border. The city derives its name from Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron, awarded 5,000,000 acres of land in northern Virginia by King Charles; the area that the city now encompasses was settled in the early 18th century by farmers from Virginia's Tidewater region. The town of "Providence" was established on the site by an act of the state legislature in 1805; the scene of the first land battle of the Civil War, the Battle of Fairfax Court House took place here on June 1, 1861, after a Union scouting party clashed with the local militia with neither side gaining advantage. A second battle took place here two years on June 27, 1863, where Union troops were defeated; this battle delayed the movements of Confederate cavalry chief Jeb Stuart with disastrous consequences for Lee at Gettysburg a few days later. Fairfax was renamed the "Town of Fairfax" in 1859.
It was incorporated as a town in 1874. It was incorporated as a city in 1961 by court order. Under Virginia law the city remains the county seat. In 1904 a trolley line connected Fairfax with Washington, D. C; the former Fairfax County Courthouse is the oldest historic building in Fairfax. The first Fairfax courthouse was established in 1742 near present-day Tyson's Corner, is the namesake for Old Courthouse Road, it intersects with Gallows Road, which today is a major commuter route, but at the time was the road where condemned prisoners were led to the gallows at the old courthouse. In 1752, the courthouse was moved to Alexandria, which offered to build the new courthouse at their own expense; the reason the courthouse was moved from the Tyson's Corner location was because of "Indian hostilities", as noted on the stone marker at the northwest corner of Gallows Road and Route 123. The courthouse operated there until 1790, when Virginia ceded the land where the courthouse was located for the creation of Washington, DC.
The General Assembly specified that the new courthouse should be located in the center of the county, was established at the corner of what was Old Little River Turnpike and is now Main Street and what was Ox Road and is now Chain Bridge Road on land donated by town founder Richard Ratcliffe. The courthouse changed hands during the Civil War, the first officer casualty, John Quincy Marr, occurred on its grounds; the first meeting of the Fairfax Court was held April 21, 1800. The oldest two-story building in the city, built in 1873, the Fairfax Public School for $2,750. In addition to elementary school use the building has housed special education, adult education, police academy training. On July 4, 1992, the building became the Fairfax Visitor Center. Joseph Edward Willard built the town hall building in 1900 gifted it to the town in 1902; the Old Town Hall now houses the Fairfax Art League. The city of Fairfax is located close to the geographic center of Fairfax County, at 38°51′9″N 77°18′15″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 6.3 square miles, of which all but 0.04 square miles is land. While the city is the county seat, a small portion of the county comprising the courthouse complex, the jail and a small area nearby is itself an exclave of the county within the city. Fairfax County's Government Center is west of the City of Fairfax; as of the census of 2010, there were 22,565 people, 8,347 households, 5,545 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,581.7 people per square mile. There were 8,680 housing units at an average density of 1,377.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.6% White, 15.2% Asian, 4.7% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.9% from other races, 4.0% from two or more races. 15.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. In 2000 there were 8,347 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.1% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.6% were non-families.
24.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.11. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.4% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 36.2% from 25 to 44, 27.6% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older
Fairmont, West Virginia
Fairmont is a city in Marion County, West Virginia, United States. The population was 18,704 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Marion County. Prior to the founding of Fairmont, the land that would become Marion County was part of Monongalia and Harrison County. In the 1700s, the earliest development of this area consisted of subsistence farming settlements. In 1789, Boaz Fleming, a Revolutionary War veteran, migrated to this area and purchased a 254-acre farm from Jonathan Bozarth. Oral history indicates that in 1808, Fleming made his annual trek to Clarksburg to pay his brother's Harrison County taxes. While in Clarksburg, Fleming attended a social gathering that included his cousin, Dolley Madison, wife of President James Madison. Fleming complained to Mrs. Madison about having to travel over a hundred miles each year from his home to pay his Monongalia County taxes and his brother's Harrison County taxes. Mrs. Madison suggested that he create his own county to save him all that travel.
In 1814, Fleming circulated a petition to do that, naming the proposed county Madison County, in honor of Dolley and James Madison. Milford was the only town within the borders of Fleming's proposed county, so Fleming decided to make Milford the seat of Madison County. However, Milford's citizens preferred to remain part of Monongalia County; as a result, Fleming's petition failed to gain sufficient support to be presented to the Virginia General Assembly. Fleming focused on creating a new town near his farm, located on the west side of the Monongahela River. In 1817, Fleming's sons—William and David—began to clear land on part of their father's farm to make way for the new town. In 1819, a road was built from Clarksburg to Morgantown. Fleming's new town was about halfway between the two cities; the town was incorporated as Middletown on January 19, 1820. It is unknown if the town was called Middletown because of its location midway between Clarksburg and Morgantown or because Fleming's first wife, Elizabeth Hutchinson, was from Middletown, Delaware.
The current borders of Marion County were established in 1842, Middletown was named the county's seat. At that time, William Haymond, Jr. suggested that the town's name be changed to Fairmont because the town had a beautiful overlook of the Monongahela River, giving it a "fair mount." The Borough of Fairmont was incorporated in 1843 by the Virginia General Assembly. Many of the first buildings in Fairmont were poorly constructed. By 1852—little more than 30 years after the city's founding—a large portion of Fairmont was reported to be run-down and dilapidated. Reports from 1873 indicate. On April 2, 1876, a fire destroyed a large portion of the city's business district, as well as many houses in the area; the continuing dilapidation of the city's buildings may have contributed to the fire. Between 1891 and 1901—in a span of only 10 years—Fairmont's population had increased from 1,000 to 7,000; the City of Fairmont was chartered in 1899. By 1901, Fairmont was an important commercial center. Many railroads—including the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad on its way from Cumberland, MD to Wheeling, WV—traveled through the city.
By this time, Fairmont was the leading center of the coal trade industry in northern West Virginia, employing some 10,000 workers in the coal mines around Fairmont. The Tygart Valley River and the West Fork River join in Fairmont to form the Monongahela River. Buffalo Creek, a tributary of the Monongahela River, flows through the northern part of the city. According to the US Army Corp of engineers, West Virginia, is the port city farthest from the ocean via an inland waterway. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 9.00 square miles, of which, 8.62 square miles is land and 0.38 square miles is water. Fairmont has a humid continental climate with warm summers and freezing winters – although it is not uncommon during winter for warm air from the Gulf of Mexico to raise temperatures above 50 °F or 10 °C, which occurs on average six times each January and over eight in December and February. In contrast, when cold air from Canada moves into West Virginia temperatures can go below 0 °F or −17.8 °C, which can be expected during 3.2 mornings each winter, but which occurred on twelve mornings during the cold January 1977, whose average temperature of 16.0 °F or −8.9 °C was the coldest month on record by 4.0 °F or 2.2 °C.
Despite the abundant precipitation throughout the year, the relative dryness of cold air means that most precipitation is rain during the winter: the most snowfall in a month being 46.5 inches is November 1950, the most in a season 77.4 inches between July 1950 and June 1951. The least snow in a season has been 12.0 inches between July 1918 and June 1919, whilst the wettest calendar year has been 1956 with 58.12 inches and the driest – as with all of West Virginia – 1930 with 26.25 inches. The hottest temperature has been 108 °F on August 8, 1918, the coldest −21 °F on January 21, 1994. Fairmont is located in the North-Central region of the state, along West Virginia's I-79 High Tech Corridor. Major highways include: Interstate 79 U. S. Highway 19 U. S. Highway 250 West Virginia Route 310 West Virginia Route 273 Fairmont Municipal Airport is a public use airport located two nautica
1st Marine Division (United States)
The 1st Marine Division is a Marine infantry division of the United States Marine Corps headquartered at Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. It is the ground combat element of the I Marine Expeditionary Force, it is the oldest and largest active duty division in the United States Marine Corps, representing a combat-ready force of more than 19,000 men and women. It is one of three active duty divisions in the Marine Corps today and is a multi-role, expeditionary ground combat force, it is nicknamed "The Old Breed". The division is employed as the ground combat element of the I Marine Expeditionary Force or may provide task-organized forces for assault operations and such operations as may be directed; the 1st Marine Division must be able to provide the ground amphibious forcible entry capability to the naval expeditionary force and to conduct subsequent land operations in any operational environment. The 1st Marine Division is organized around four regiments and several Battalions which includes the following: Headquarters Battalion 1st Marine Regiment 5th Marine Regiment 7th Marine Regiment 11th Marine Regiment 1st Tank Battalion 1st Reconnaissance Battalion 1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion 3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion 1st Combat Engineer Battalion 3rd Combat Engineer Battalion 3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion The lineal forebear of the 1st Marine Division is the 1st Advance Base Brigade, activated on 23 December 1913 at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania..
The brigade consisted of the Fixed Defense Regiment and the Mobile Defense Regiment designated as the 1st and 2nd Regiments, 1st Brigade, respectively. In 1916, while deployed in Haiti, the two regiments were again redesignated, exchanging numerals, to become the 2nd and 1st Regiments, 1st Brigade. Between April 1914 and August 1934, elements of the 1st Brigade participated in operations in Mexico, the Dominican Republic, Cuba, receiving campaign credit for service in each nation. While the 1st Brigade did not serve ashore in the European theater during the First World War, the brigade was awarded the World War I Victory Medal Streamer, with one bronze star, in recognition of the brigade's service during that conflict. On 16 September 1935, the brigade was redesignated as the 1st Marine Brigade and deployed to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba in October 1940; the 1st Marine Division was activated aboard the USS Texas on 1 February 1941. In May 1941, the 1st MARDIV relocated to Quantico and Parris Island, South Carolina and in April 1942, the division began deploying to Samoa and Wellington, New Zealand.
The division's units were scattered over the Pacific with the support elements and the 1st Marine Regiment transported en route to New Zealand on three ships, the USATs Ericsson and Elliott from Naval Reserve Air Base Oakland to New Zealand, were landed on the island of Guadalcanal, part of the Solomon Islands, on 7 August 1942. Only the 7th Marine Regiment was in garrison on British Samoa, with the 5th Marine Regiment having just encamped at Wellington, New Zealand after disembarking from USAT Wakefield, the 1st Marine Regiment not scheduled to arrive in New Zealand until 11 July; the 1st Raider Battalion was on New Caledonia, the 3rd Defense Battalion was in Pearl Harbor. All of the division's units, with the 11th Marines and 75mm howitzer armed 10th Marines battalion would rendezvous at Fiji. Due to the change in orders and shortage of attack and combat cargo vessels, all of the division's 2.5 ton trucks, M1918 155-mm howitzers and the sound and flash-ranging equipment needed for counter-battery fire had to be left in Wellington.
Because the Wellington dock workers were on strike at the time, the Marines had to do all the load reconfiguration from administrative to combat configuration. After 11 days of logistical challenges, the division, with 16,000 Marines, departed Wellington in eighty-nine ships embarked for the Solomon Islands with a 60-day combat load which did not include tents, spare clothing or bed rolls, office equipment, unit muster rolls or pay clerks. Other things not yet available to this first wave of Marine deployments were insect repellent and mosquito netting. Attached to the division was the 1st Parachute Battalion, which along with the rest of the division, conducted landing rehearsals from 28 to 30 July on Koro Island, which Major General Alexander Vandegrift described as a "disaster". On 31 July the entire Marine task force was placed under the command of Vice Admiral Frank J. Fletcher's Task Force 61; the division as a whole would fight in the Guadalcanal Campaign until relieved at 1400 on 9 December 1942 by Alexander Patch's Americal Division.
This operation won the Division its first of three World War II Presidential Unit Citations. The battle would cost the division 650 killed in action, 1,278 wounded in action with a further 8,580 contracting malaria and 31 missing in action. Others were awarded for the battles of Okinawa. Following the Guadalcanal Campaign, the division's Marines were sent to Melbourne, Australia for rest and refit, it was during this time that the division took the traditional Australian folk song "Waltzing Matilda" as its battle hymn. To this day, 1st Division Marines still ship out to this song being played; the division would next see action during Operation Cartwheel, the codename for the campaigns in Eastern New Guinea and New Britain. They came ashore at the Battle of Cape Gloucester on 26 December 1943 and fought on New Britain until March 1944 at such places as Suicide Creek and Ajar Ridge. During the course of the battle the division had 310 killed and 1,08
U.S. Naval Forces Korea
U. S. Naval Forces Korea is a major shore command of the United States Navy that serves as the shore support agency for all U. S. Naval activity in South Korea. Known by the initials "CNFK", an abbreviation of the address format of the unit, its headquarters are at Busan Naval Base, Busan. CNFK is jointly under the command of the operational command of United States Seventh Fleet, responsible for the support of all U. S. naval forces on the Korean peninsula, United States Forces Korea. CNFK is CNIC's assigned Region Commander with administrative control over what is the only naval installation in South Korea, Fleet Activity Chinhae. CNFK is commanded by a rear admiral who serves as the Navy liaison to the Commander of the United States Forces Korea. In times of war, CNFK becomes a ground-based task force of United States Seventh Fleet. U. S. Naval Forces, was established on 1 July 1957, with headquarters in Seoul; the command was created by the reorganization of the Naval Forces, Far East Command into the separate commands of Naval Forces and Naval Forces Korea.
Commander, Naval Forces Korea, assumed the following additional duties: Commander, Naval Component Command, United Nations Command Chief, U. S. Naval Advisory Group and Navy Advisor to the Republic of Korea Commander, Naval Component Command, U. S. Forces Korea On-Call Member, United Nations Military Armistice CommissionThe principal mission of CNFK was support of the United Nations Command. In this regard, the commander exercised command of U. S. Naval Forces assigned or attached, operational control over the Republic of Korea Navy. Rear Admiral Micheal Boyle assumed CNFK command in January 2018. CNFK official website CNFK on Navy.mil U. S. 7th Fleet United States Forces Korea U. S. Naval Forces Korea on Facebook