A police officer, known as a policeman, police agent, or a police employee is a warranted law employee of a police force. In the United States, the officer is typically the formal name of the lowest police rank. In many other countries, officer is a term not specifying a particular rank. In some nations the use of the officer is legally reserved for military personnel. Police officers may be sworn to an oath, and have the power to arrest people and detain them for a time, along with other duties. Although many police officers wear a uniform, some police officers are plain-clothed in order to dissimulate as ordinary citizens. The word police comes from the Greek politia meaning government, which came to mean its civil administration, Police officers are those empowered by government to enforce the laws it creates. In The Federalist Papers, James Madison wrote If men were angels and these words apply to those who serve government, including police. The more general term for the function is law enforcement officer or peace officer, a sheriff is typically the top police officer of a county, with that word coming from the person enforcing law over a shire. A person who has been deputized to serve the function of the sheriff is referred to as the deputy, a common nickname for a police officer is cop.
The term copper is used in Britain to mean someone who captures. The common myth is that its a term referring to the officers buttons which are made of copper. The word Cop derives from a Gaelic word which has the equivalence of saying, leader, the terms are almost nearly homophonic but have similar meanings. The term County Mountie is used specifically in reference to county police officers or county sheriffs deputies in the United States, as with Canadian Mounties, the term mountie comes from police who serve while mounted on horseback. Responsibilities of an officer are varied, and may differ greatly from within one political context to another. Typical duties relate to keeping the peace, law enforcement, protection of people and property, officers are expected to respond to a variety of situations that may arise while they are on duty. Rules and guidelines dictate how an officer should behave within the community, in some countries and procedures dictate that a police officer is obliged to intervene in a criminal incident, even if they are off-duty.
Police officers in all countries retain their lawful powers while off duty
Sergeant at Arms of the United States Senate
One of the chief roles of the Sergeant at Arms is to hold the gavel used at every session. The Sergeant at Arms can compel the attendance of an absent Senator when ordered to do so by the Senate, with the Architect of the Capitol and the House Sergeant at Arms, he serves on the Capitol Police Board, responsible for security around the building. The Sergeant at Arms can, upon orders of the Senate, the Sergeant at Arms is the executive officer for the Senate and provides Senators with computers and repair and security services. On January 6th,2015, the Senate swore in the Sergeant-at-Arms for its current term, Sergeant at Arms of the United States House of Representatives Official Site
Villanova University is a private research university located in Radnor Township, a suburb northwest of Philadelphia, within the Archdiocese of Philadelphia in the United States. Named after Saint Thomas of Villanova, the school is the oldest Catholic university in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, U. S. News & World Report ranks Villanova as tied for the 50th best National University in the U. S. for 2017. The university is a member of the Augustinian Secondary Education Association, in October 1841, two Augustinian friars from Saint Augustines Church in Philadelphia purchased the 200-acre Belle Air estate in Radnor Township with the intention of starting a school. The school, which was called the Augustinian College of Vilanova, the Philadelphia Nativist Riots of 1844 that burned Saint Augustines Church in Philadelphia caused financial difficulties for the Augustinians, and the college was closed in February 1845. The college reopened in 1846 and graduated its first class in 1847, in March 1848, the governor of Pennsylvania incorporated the school and gave it the power to grant degrees.
In 1859, the first masters degree was conferred on a student, in 1857, the school closed again as the demand for priests in Philadelphia prevented adequate staffing, and the crisis of the Panic of 1857 strained the school financially. The school remained closed throughout the Civil War and reopened in September 1865 and its prep department moved to Malvern, a town along the Main Line, and is still run by the order. The School of Technology was established in 1905, in 1915, a two-year pre-medical program was established to help students meet medical schools new requirements. This led to a four-year pre-medical program, the B. S. in biology, Villanova was all-male until 1918, when the college began evening classes to educate nuns to teach in parochial schools. In 1938, a laywoman received a Villanova degree for the first time and it was not until the nursing school opened in 1953 that women permanently began attending Villanova full-time. In 1958, the College of Engineering admitted its first female student, Villanova University became fully coeducational in 1968.
During World War II, Villanova was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission, after World War II, Villanova expanded, returning veterans swelling enrollments and the faculty growing fourfold. Additional facilities were built, and in 1953, the College of Nursing, Villanova achieved university status on November 18,1953. Between 1954 and 1963,10 new buildings were built or bought on land adjacent to the campus, including Bartley, during the 1970s and 1980s, Villanova worked to become a nationally recognized university. The quality of faculty and students improved dramatically and international studies programs were introduced, additional residential and recreational facilities were constructed, and efforts to increase the endowment were undertaken. In the 1980s, endowed chairs were established in theology, philosophy and business, scholarship funding was increased, and the curriculum expanded and improved.
An extensive building campaign created facilities for the Colleges of Liberal Arts and Sciences, Engineering and Finance, as well as student residences on the south, in 1985, the school won the Mens NCAA basketball tournament, giving the school increased national exposure. Augustine High School in San Diego, which was established in 1922 with teaching staff dispatched from Villanova, Villanova University sits on 254 acres just 12 miles from Center City Philadelphia
United States Secret Service
The United States Secret Service is a federal law enforcement agency under the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. Until 2003, the Service was part of the U. S. Department of the Treasury, the Secret Services initial responsibility was to investigate counterfeiting of U. S. currency, which was rampant following the U. S. Civil War. The agency evolved into the United States first domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency, the Secret Service has two primary missions, investigation of financial crimes and physical protection of designated protectees. After the 1901 assassination of President William McKinley, Congress directed the Secret Service to protect the President of the United States, Protection remains the other key mission of the United States Secret Service. From 1997 until 2013, legislation became effective limiting Secret Service protection to former Presidents, President Barack Obama signed legislation reversing this limit and reinstating lifetime protection on January 10,2013.
The Secret Service investigates thousands of incidents a year of individuals threatening the President of the United States, the Director of Secret Service is appointed by the President of the United States. With a reported one third of the currency in circulation being counterfeit at the time, Chief William P. Wood was sworn in by Secretary of the Treasury Hugh McCulloch. It was commissioned in Washington, D. C. as the Secret Service Division of the Department of the Treasury with the mission of suppressing counterfeiting, the legislation creating the agency was on Abraham Lincolns desk the night he was assassinated. At the time, the other federal law enforcement agencies were the United States Park Police. Post Office Departments Office of Instructions and Mail Depredations, and the U. S. Marshals Service, the Marshals did not have the manpower to investigate all crime under federal jurisdiction, so the Secret Service began to investigate everything from murder to bank robbery to illegal gambling.
After the assassination of President William McKinley in 1901, Congress informally requested that the Secret Service provide presidential protection, a year later, the Secret Service assumed full-time responsibility for presidential protection. In 1902, William Craig became the first Secret Service agent to die while serving, the Secret Service was the first U. S. domestic intelligence and counterintelligence agency. Domestic intelligence collection and counterintelligence responsibilities were vested in the Federal Bureau of Investigation upon the FBIs creation in 1908, the Secret Service assisted in arresting Japanese American leaders and in the Japanese American internment during World War II. Secret Service is not a part of the U. S, on October 16, the day of the summit, Burnham discovered a man holding a concealed palm pistol standing at the El Paso Chamber of Commerce building along the procession route. Burnham signaled a Texas Ranger, Private C. R. Moore, in 1950, President Harry S. Truman was residing in Blair House while the White House, across the street, was undergoing renovations.
On November 1,1950, two Puerto Rican nationalists, Oscar Collazo and Griselio Torresola, approached Blair House with the intent to assassinate President Truman and Torresola opened fire on Private Leslie Coffelt and other White House Police officers. Though mortally wounded by three shots from a 9 mm German Luger to his chest and abdomen, Private Coffelt returned fire, as of 2017, Coffelt is the only member of the Secret Service killed while protecting a US president against an assassination attempt. Collazo was shot, but survived his injuries and served 29 years in prison before returning to Puerto Rico in late 1979, in 1968, as a result of Robert F. Kennedys assassination, Congress authorized protection of major presidential and vice presidential candidates and nominees
Maryland State Police
The Maryland State Police, officially the Department of Maryland State Police, is the official state police force of the U. S. state of Maryland. The Maryland State Police is headquartered at 1201 Reisterstown Road in the Pikesville CDP in unincorporated Baltimore County, all sworn members are organized into 1 of 4 bureaus or are assigned to the Office of the Superintendent. The Office of the Superintendent includes staff and units that support the administrative responsibilities of the Secretary. Those units and staff report to the Chief of Staff, some of the main functions of the Office of the Superintendent include, The Strategic Planning Command deals with all planning within the department. The command manages the Budget and Finance Division, Government Affairs Unit, Policing Division, Staff Inspections Section, within the Planning and Research Division is the Property Unit and the Accreditation Section. The Accreditation Section is responsible for authoring and issuance of all departmental directives, in addition, this section manages all aspects of the MSPs CALEA accreditation.
The MSP received CALEAs coveted Tri-Arc award in November 2014 and is accredited in Law Enforcement, Training Academy, the section collects and coordinates the acquisition and dissemination of criminal intelligence information. The section has overall responsibility for the prosecution of all disciplinary cases. The Executive Protection Section provides security for the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Attorney General, Comptroller of the Treasury, and State Treasurer. The Legislative Security Section is charged with ensuring the safety and security of the President of the Senate, Speaker of the House, the section ensures thorough and objective investigations of allegations and complaints of misconduct against employees so that a proper defensive or appropriate disciplinary actions is processed. The legal advisor represents the Superintendent on legal issues and handles all matters referred by the Superintendent, the office is responsible for the daily dissemination of information to the media and public, and the facilitation of internal communication from the Office of the Superintendent.
The Field Operations Bureau is the most visible part of the Maryland State Police since it includes all troopers who regularly interact with the public, within the Bureau are commands, the Northern Command and Southern Command which together encompass the 22 barracks. The Northern Command is divided into the Central and Western troops and the Southern Command is divided into the Eastern, Southern, in addition to the traditional law enforcement services, each Barrack provides additional services to assist the public. These services include salvage inspections and car seat safety checks, the Field Operations Bureau is currently commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Woodrow W. Jones, Chief. The program complements the MSPs extensive efforts to improve highway safety and it is funded by the Maryland Department of Transportations Highway Safety Office. In 2013,152 people were killed in alcohol related crashes, Maryland state troopers will continue to collaborate with law enforcement partners in an effort to reduce the number of alcohol related crashes in Maryland.
The Criminal Investigation Bureau provides the functions for the Department in partnership with allied law enforcement agencies. It consists of the Criminal Investigation Command and the Drug Enforcement Command, the Criminal Investigation Command includes the Criminal Enforcement Division and the Forensic Sciences Division
Montgomery County, Pennsylvania
Montgomery County, locally referred to as Montco, is a county located in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Montgomery County is very diverse, ranging from farms and open land in Upper Hanover to densely populated streets in Cheltenham. Montgomery County is included in the Philadelphia-Camden-Wilmington, PA-NJ-DE-MD Metropolitan Statistical Area and it is a suburban county northwest of Philadelphia, and marks part of the regions northern border with the Lehigh Valley region of the state to the north. In 2010, it was the 51st wealthiest county in the country, in 2008, it was named the 9th Best Place to Raise a Family by Forbes. The county was created on September 10,1784, out of land originally part of Philadelphia County, the first courthouse was housed in the Barley Sheaf Inn. Early histories of the county indicate the origin of the name as uncertain. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 487 square miles. About 4. 3% of the population were Hispanic or Latino, as of the census of 2000,750,097 people,286,098 households, and 197,693 families resided in the county.
The population density was 1,553 people per square mile, the 297,434 housing units averaged 238 units/km². The racial makeup of the county was 86. 46% White,7. 46% Black or African American,0. 11% Native American,4. 02% Asian,0. 03% Pacific Islander,0. 75% from other races, and 1. 16% from two or more races. About 2. 04% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,17. 5% were of German,16. 7% Irish,14. 3% Italian,6. 5% English, and 5. 0% Polish ancestry according to 2000 United States Census. Around 90. 5% spoke English,2. 0% Spanish,1. 1% Korean, much of western Montgomery County is part of the Pennsylvania Dutch Country, with a great many descendants of German-speaking settlers from the 18th century. Montgomery County is home to large and growing African American, Korean American, Puerto-Rican American, Mexican American, the county has the second-largest foreign-born population in the region. About 25. 60% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.09.
In the county, the population was distributed as 24. 10% under the age of 18,7. 10% from 18 to 24,30. 50% from 25 to 44,23. 40% from 45 to 64, the median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.60 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $60,829, males had a median income of $48,698 versus $35,089 for females. The per capita income for the county was $30,898, about 2. 80% of families and 4. 40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4. 60% of those under age 18 and 5. 10% of those age 65 or over
Pennsylvania /ˌpɛnsᵻlˈveɪnjə/, officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle, Pennsylvania is the 33rd largest, the 5th most populous, and the 9th most densely populated of the 50 United States. The states five most populous cities are Philadelphia, Allentown, the state capital, and its ninth-largest city, is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of shoreline along Lake Erie and the Delaware Estuary. The state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States, it came into being in 1681 as a result of a land grant to William Penn. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden and it was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12,1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the states largest city of Philadelphia, during the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg, was fought in the south central region of the state.
Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washingtons headquarters during the winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west, of a total 46,055 square miles,44,817 square miles are land,490 square miles are inland waters, and 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie. It is the 33rd largest state in the United States, Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown, the northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining communities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre, Pittston City, and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest, the state has 5 regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the corner, has a humid continental climate. The largest city, has characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware.
Moving toward the interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increase. Western areas of the state, particularly locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, the Tuscarora Nation took up temporary residence in the central portion of Pennsylvania ca. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their lands in America
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U. S. Navy is the largest, most capable navy in the world, the U. S. Navy has the worlds largest aircraft carrier fleet, with ten in service, two in the reserve fleet, and three new carriers under construction. The service has 323,792 personnel on duty and 108,515 in the Navy Reserve. It has 274 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of October 2016, the U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, which was established during the American Revolutionary War and was effectively disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter. It played a role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy. It played the role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, which is headed by the Secretary of Defense.
The Chief of Naval Operations is an admiral and the senior naval officer of the Department of the Navy. The CNO may not be the highest ranking officer in the armed forces if the Chairman or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression, the United States Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States. The Navys three primary areas of responsibility, The preparation of naval forces necessary for the prosecution of war. The development of aircraft, tactics, organization, U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is to prepare and conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest, as part of that establishment, the U. S. Navys functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to sealift duties. It follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, the Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders.
In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia, the establishment of a national navy was an issue of debate among the members of the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy, the worlds preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships, and reported the captures to the Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States consisting of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the Capitol in Washington, D. C, both senators and representatives are chosen through direct election, though vacancies in the Senate may be filled by a gubernatorial appointment. Members are usually affiliated to the Republican Party or to the Democratic Party, Congress has 535 voting members,435 Representatives and 100 Senators. The House of Representatives has six non-voting members in addition to its 435 voting members and these members can, sit on congressional committees and introduce legislation. Puerto Rico, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, the members of the House of Representatives serve two-year terms representing the people of a single constituency, known as a district. Congressional districts are apportioned to states by using the United States Census results. Each state, regardless of population or size, has two senators, there are 100 senators representing the 50 states.
Each senator is elected at-large in their state for a term, with terms staggered. The House and Senate are equal partners in the legislative process—legislation cannot be enacted without the consent of both chambers, the Constitution grants each chamber some unique powers. The Senate ratifies treaties and approves presidential appointments while the House initiates revenue-raising bills, the House initiates impeachment cases, while the Senate decides impeachment cases. A two-thirds vote of the Senate is required before a person can be forcibly removed from office. The term Congress can refer to a meeting of the legislature. A Congress covers two years, the current one, the 115th Congress, began on January 3,2017, the Congress starts and ends on the third day of January of every odd-numbered year. Members of the Senate are referred to as senators, members of the House of Representatives are referred to as representatives, congressmen, or congresswomen. One analyst argues that it is not a solely reactive institution but has played a role in shaping government policy and is extraordinarily sensitive to public pressure.
Several academics described Congress, Congress reflects us in all our strengths, Congress is the governments most representative body. Congress is essentially charged with reconciling our many points of view on the public policy issues of the day. —Smith and Wielen Congress is constantly changing and is constantly in flux, most incumbents seek re-election, and their historical likelihood of winning subsequent elections exceeds 90 percent
United States Navy SEALs
The United States Navys Sea and Land Teams, commonly abbreviated as the Navy SEALs, are the U. S. Navys primary special operations force and a component of the Naval Special Warfare Command. Among the SEALs main functions are conducting small-unit maritime military operations that originate from, and return to, the SEALs are trained to operate in all environments for which they are named. As of 2016, all active SEALs are currently male and members of the U. S. Navy, the CIAs highly secretive and elite Special Operations Group recruits operators from SEAL Teams, with joint operations going back to the MACV-SOG during the Vietnam War. This cooperation still exists today, as evidenced by military operations in Iraq, the modern day U. S. Navy SEALs can trace their roots to World War II. The United States Navy recognized the need for the reconnaissance of landing beaches. As a result, the Amphibious Scout and Raider School was established in 1942 at Fort Pierce, Florida. The Scouts and Raiders were formed in September of that year, just nine months after the attack on Pearl Harbor, from the Observer Group, a joint U. S.
Army-Marine-Navy unit. The Scouts and Raiders mission was to identify and reconnoiter the objective beach, maintain a position on the designated beach prior to a landing, and guide the assault waves to the landing beach. The first group included Phil H. Bucklew, the Father of Naval Special Warfare, commissioned in October 1942, this group saw combat in November 1942 during Operation Torch on the North African coast. Scouts and Raiders supported landings in Sicily, Anzio, Normandy, a second group of Scouts and Raiders, code-named Special Service Unit No. 1, was established on 7 July 1943, as a joint, the first mission, in September 1943, was at Finschhafen in Papua New Guinea. Later operations were at Gasmata, Cape Gloucester, conflicts arose over operational matters, and all non-Navy personnel were reassigned. The 7th Amphibious Scouts conducted operations in the Pacific for the duration of the conflict, the third and final Scouts and Raiders organization operated in China. Scouts and Raiders were deployed to fight with the Sino-American Cooperative Organization, to help bolster the work of SACO, Admiral Ernest J.
King ordered that 120 officers and 900 men be trained for Amphibious Raider at the Scout and Raider school at Fort Pierce, Florida. They formed the core of what was envisioned as a guerrilla organization of Americans and Chinese operating from coastal waters and rivers employing small steamboats. While most Amphibious Raider forces remained at Camp Knox in Calcutta, in September 1942,17 Navy salvage personnel arrived at ATB Little Creek, VA for a week long course in demolitions, explosive cable cutting and commando raiding techniques. On November 10,1942, the first combat demolition unit successfully cut cable and this enabled the USS Dallas to traverse the water and insert U. S. Rangers who captured the Port Lyautey airdrome, on 6 June 1943, LCDR Kauffman established Naval Combat Demolition Unit training at Fort Pierce
Andrew B. Willison
Andrew Baker Drew Willison was the 39th Sergeant at Arms of the United States Senate from May 5,2014 until January 5,2015. Originally from the central Ohio area, Willison graduated from Greensville County High School in Emporia, Willison went on to receive his masters degree in Public Administration from The Ohio State University. Willison has a law degree from the George Washington University Law School, ohioan Keeps Senate Humming — and Safe