Death of Joseph Smith
The assassination of Joseph Smith on June 27,1844, marked a turning point for the Latter Day Saint movement, of which Smith was the founder and leader. When he was killed by a mob, Smith was the mayor of Nauvoo, Illinois and he was killed while jailed in Carthage, Illinois, on charges relating to his ordering the destruction of facilities producing the Nauvoo Expositor. The newspaper had reported that Smith was practicing polygamy and claimed that he intended to set himself up as a theocratic king, Smith voluntarily surrendered to the authorities at the county seat at Carthage to face the charges against him. While he was in jail awaiting trial, a mob of men with painted faces stormed the jail, they shot and killed him. Since then, Latter Day Saints generally view the two men as religious martyrs, five men were indicted for their murders but were acquitted at a jury trial. The Mormons began to move into Hancock County in 1839, at the time, after their people were expelled from Missouri, Joseph Smith went to Washington, DC and met with President Martin Van Buren, seeking intervention and compensation for lost property.
Van Buren said he could do nothing to help, after returning to Illinois, Smith vowed to join the Whig Party. Most of his supporters switched with him, adding political tensions to the suspicions in which this group were held. Several of Smiths disaffected associates at Nauvoo and Hancock County and its first and only issue was published June 7,1844. Based on allegations by some of associates, the newspaper reported that Smith practiced polygamy. It said that he tried to marry wives of some of his associates, about eight of Smiths wives had already been married to other men at the time they married Smith. Typically, these continued to live with their first husband. Some accounts say Smith may have had relations with one wife. The reliability of sources is disputed by some Latter Day Saints. DNA investigations performed to date have consistently shown that Smith was not the father of children thought to be his based on written and they reached this decision after lengthy discussion, including citation of William Blackstones legal canon, which defined a libelous press as a public nuisance.
Under the councils new ordinance, Smith, as Nauvoos mayor, in conjunction with the city council, ordered the city marshal to destroy the paper, by the city marshals account, the destruction of the press type was carried out orderly and peaceably. However, Charles A. Foster, a co-publisher of the Expositor, reported on June 12 that not only was the press destroyed. Smiths critics said that the action of destroying the press violated freedom of the press, some sought legal charges against Smith for the destruction of the press, including charges of treason and inciting riot
Peoria is a city in and the county seat of Peoria County, United States, and the largest city on the Illinois River. Established in 1691 by the French explorer Henri de Tonti, Peoria is the oldest European settlement in Illinois, as of the 2010 census, the city was the seventh-most populated in Illinois, with a population of 115,007. The Peoria Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 373,590 in 2011, Peoria had a population of 118,943 in 2010, when far northern Peoria was included. Around 12,000 jobs will still remain in the Peoria area, Peoria is one of the oldest settlements in Illinois, as explorers first ventured up the Illinois River from the Mississippi. The lands that eventually would become Peoria were first settled in 1680 and this fort would burn to the ground, and in 1813 Fort Clark, Illinois was built. When the County of Peoria was organized in 1825, Fort Clark was officially named Peoria, Peoria was named after the Peoria tribe, a member of the Illinois Confederation.
The original meaning of the word is uncertain, a 21st-century proposal suggests a derivation from a Proto-Algonquian word meaning to dream with the help of a manitou. Peoria was incorporated as a village on March 11,1835, the city did not have a mayor, though they had a village president, Rudolphus Rouse, who served from 1835 to 1836. The first Chief of Police, John B Lishk, was appointed in 1837, the city was incorporated on April 21,1845. This was the end of a president and the start of the mayoral system. Peoria, Arizona, a suburb of Phoenix, was named after Peoria and Deloss S. Brown − wished to name it after their hometown. Peoria is located at 40°43′15″N 89°36′34″W, according to the 2010 census, Peoria has a total area of 50.23 square miles, of which 48.01 square miles is land and 2.22 square miles is water. Peoria is bounded on the east by the Illinois River except for the enclave of Peoria Heights, four bridges run directly between the city and neighboring East Peoria. On the south end of Peorias western border are Bartonville and the established city of West Peoria.
Local municipal plans indicate that the city intends to continue its expansion northwest, into an area considered part of Dunlap. Peoria has a continental climate, with cold, snowy winters. Monthly daily mean temperatures range from 22.5 °F to 75.2 °F, snowfall is common in the winter, averaging 26.3 inches, but this figure varies considerably from year to year. Precipitation, averaging 36 inches, peaks in the spring and summer, extremes have ranged from −27 °F in January 1884 to 113 °F in July 1936
Miami is a town in Gila County, United States. Miami is a classic Western copper boom-town, miamis old downtown has been partly renovated, and the Bullion Plaza Museum features the cultural and ranching history of the Miami area. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the town was 1,837, Miami is located at 33°23. 8N 110°52. 3W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has an area of.9 square miles. Miami is adjacent to Globe, and near the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, Miami and the unincorporated areas nearby are commonly called Globe-Miami. The town is located on the slope of the Pinal Mountains. Routes 60 and 70, and is served by the Arizona Eastern Railway, as of the census of 2000, there were 1,936 people,754 households, and 493 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,008.0 people per square mile, there were 930 housing units at an average density of 964.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 74. 74% White,1. 03% Black or African American,1.
45% Native American,0. 10% Asian,20. 40% from other races,54. 44% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 31. 0% of all households were made up of individuals and 15. 8% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.21. In the town, the age distribution of the population shows 29. 7% under the age of 18,8. 3% from 18 to 24,24. 0% from 25 to 44,20. 9% from 45 to 64, the median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.1 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.6 males. Copper mining accounts for the largest number of jobs in Miami, according to the 2002 annual report of the Arizona State Mine Inspector, Freeport-McMorRan employed nearly 600 at its Miami operations, including 330 at the smelter and 187 at the mine. The median income for a household in the town was $27,196, males had a median income of $28,250 versus $18,026 for females. The per capita income for the town was $13,674, about 20. 5% of families and 23. 6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28. 7% of those under age 18 and 19. 7% of those age 65 or over.
According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Miami has a hot-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated Csa on climate maps
The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them. The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D. C. on May 4,1961, Boynton outlawed racial segregation in the restaurants and waiting rooms in terminals serving buses that crossed state lines. The ICC failed to enforce its ruling, and Jim Crow travel laws remained in force throughout the South, the Freedom Riders challenged this status quo by riding interstate buses in the South in mixed racial groups to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation in seating. The Freedom Rides, and the violent reactions they provoked, bolstered the credibility of the American Civil Rights Movement and they called national attention to the disregard for the federal law and the local violence used to enforce segregation in the southern United States. The Congress of Racial Equality sponsored most of the subsequent Freedom Rides, the Supreme Courts decision in Boynton supported the right of interstate travelers to disregard local segregation ordinances.
Southern local and state police considered the actions of the Freedom Riders to be criminal, in some localities, such as Birmingham, the police cooperated with Ku Klux Klan chapters and other white people opposing the actions and allowed mobs to attack the riders. Like the Freedom Rides of 1961, the Journey of Reconciliation was intended to test an earlier Supreme Court ruling that banned discrimination in interstate travel. The first Freedom Ride began on May 4,1961, led by CORE Director James Farmer,13 riders left Washington, DC, on Greyhound and Trailways buses. Their plan was to ride through Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia and Mississippi, ending in New Orleans, most of the Riders were from CORE, and two were from SNCC. Many were in their 40s and 50s, some were as young as 18. The rest of the team would sit scattered throughout the rest of the bus, one rider would abide by the Souths segregation rules in order to avoid arrest and to contact CORE and arrange bail for those who were arrested.
Only minor trouble was encountered in Virginia and North Carolina, but John Lewis was attacked in Rock Hill, some of the Riders were arrested in Charlotte, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Jackson, Mississippi. The Birmingham, Police Commissioner, Bull Connor, together with Police Sergeant Tom Cook, the pair made plans to bring the Ride to an end in Alabama. They assured Gary Thomas Rowe, an FBI informer and member of Eastview Klavern #13, the plan was to allow an initial assault in Anniston with a final assault taking place in Birmingham. On May 14, Mothers Day, in Anniston, a mob of Klansmen, some still in church attire, the driver tried to leave the station, but was blocked until KKK members slashed its tires. The mob forced the bus to stop several miles outside of town. As the bus burned, the mob held the doors shut, sources disagree, but either an exploding fuel tank or an undercover state investigator brandishing a revolver caused the mob to retreat, and the riders escaped the bus.
The mob beat the riders after they got out, Only warning shots fired into the air by highway patrolmen prevented the riders from being lynched
His belief that workers of all ethnicities should be united clashed with many unions. His preference for action over political tactics alienated him from the Socialist Party leadership. Never one to shy from violent conflicts, Haywood was frequently the target of prosecutors. His trial for the murder of Frank Steunenberg in 1907 drew national attention, in 1918, in 1921, while out of prison during an appeal of his conviction, Haywood fled to Bolshevik Russia, where he spent the remaining years of his life. William D. Haywood was born in 1869 in Salt Lake City and his father, a former Pony Express rider, died of pneumonia when Haywood was three years old. His maternal grandfather was an Afrikaner born in the Orange Free State in 1820, at age nine, he injured his right eye while whittling a slingshot with a knife, permanently blinding his right eye. Haywood never had his damaged eye replaced with a glass eye and that same year, he began working in the mines, never having received much formal education.
After brief stints as a cowboy and a homesteader, he returned to mining in 1896, high-profile events such as the gradual demise of the Molly Maguires, the Haymarket Massacre in 1886 and the Pullman Strike in 1894 fostered Haywoods interest in the labor movement. In 1896, Ed Boyce, president of the Western Federation of Miners, inspired by his speech, Haywood signed up as a WFM member, thus formally beginning his involvement in Americas labor movement. Haywood immediately became active in the WFM, and by 1900 he had become a member of the national unions General Executive Board, in 1902, he became secretary-treasurer of the WFM, the number two position after President Charles Moyer. The WFM initiated a series of strikes designed to extend the benefits of the union to other workers, the defeat of these strikes led to Haywoods belief in One Big Union organized along industrial lines to bring broader working class support for labour struggles. Late in 1904, several prominent labor radicals met in Chicago, a manifesto was written and sent around the country.
Unionists who agreed with the manifesto were invited to attend a convention to found the new union which was to become the Industrial Workers of the World, at 10 a. m. on June 27,1905, Haywood addressed the crowd assembled at Brands Hall in Chicago. In the audience were two hundred delegates from all over the country representing socialists, miners, industrial unionists. Haywood opened the First Convention of the Industrial Workers of the World with the speech, Fellow Workers. We are here to confederate the workers of this country into a movement that shall have for its purpose the emancipation of the working-class from the slave bondage of capitalism. Other speakers at the convention included Eugene Debs, leader of the Socialist Party of America, and Mary Harris Mother Jones, after its foundation, the IWW would become aggressively involved in the labor movement. On December 30,1905, Frank Steunenberg was killed by an explosion in front of his Caldwell, a former governor of Idaho, Steunenberg had clashed with the WFM in previous strikes
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
A strikebreaker is a person who works despite an ongoing strike. Strikebreakers are usually individuals who are not employed by the prior to the trade union dispute. Strikebreakers may refer to workers who cross picket lines to work, strikebreakers are employed worldwide, often occurring wherever workers go on strike or engage in related actions. However, strikebreakers are used far more frequently in the United States than in any industrialized country. The Mohawk Valley formula calls for the use of strikebreakers when dealing with striking employees, among human rights treaties, only the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights contains a clause protecting the right to strike. However, like the Social Charter of 1961, the Covenant permits each signatory country to abridge the right to strike, for example, the ILO has ruled that the right to strike is an intrinsic corollary of the right of association protected by Convention No.87. The ILO has concluded striker replacement, while not in contravention of ILO agreements, carries with it significant risks for abuse, the European Social Charter of 1961 was the first international agreement to expressly protect the right to strike.
However, the European Unions Community Charter of the Fundamental Social Rights of Workers permits EU member states to regulate the right to strike, japanese labor law significantly restricts the ability of both an employer and a union to engage in labor disputes. The law highly regulates labor relations to ensure peace and channel conflict into collective bargaining. It bans the use of strikebreakers, south Korea bans the use of strikebreakers, although the practice remains common. In most European countries, strikebreakers are rarely used, they are rarely if ever mentioned in most European national labor laws. As mentioned above, it is left to the European Union member states to determine their own policies, Germany has employment law that strongly protects worker rights, but trade unions and the right to strike are not regulated by statute. The Bundesarbeitsgericht and the Bundesverfassungsgericht have, issued a number of rulings which essentially regulate trade union activities such as strikes.
Work councils, for example, may not strike at all, the widespread use of work councils, channels most labor disputes and reduces the likelihood of strikes. Recent efforts to enact a federal labor relations law that regulates strikes, lockouts. United Kingdom laws permit strikebreaking, and courts have significantly restricted the right of unions to punish members who act as strikebreakers, canada has federal industrial relations laws that strongly regulate the use of strikebreakers. In Quebec, the use of strikebreakers is illegal, but companies may try remain open with only managerial personnel, mexico has a federal labor law that requires companies to cease operations during a legal strike, effectively preventing the use of strikebreakers. The U. S. Supreme Court held in NLRB v. Mackay Radio & Telegraph Co.304 U. S.333 that an employer may not discriminate on the basis of union activity in reinstating employees at the end of a strike
Butte /ˈbjuːt/ is a city in, and the county seat of Silver Bow County, United States. In 1977, the city and county governments consolidated to form the entity of Butte-Silver Bow. As of the 2010 census, Buttes population was approximately 34,200, Butte is Montanas fifth largest city. In the 19th and 20th centuries, Butte experienced every stage of development of a town, from camp to boomtown to mature city to center for historic preservation. Unlike most such towns, Buttes urban landscape includes mining operations set within residential areas, despite the dominance of the Anaconda Company, Butte was never a company town. It prided itself on architectural diversity and an ethos of rough-and-tumble individualism. In the 21st century, efforts at interpreting and preserving Buttes heritage are addressing both the historical significance and the continuing importance of mining to its economy and culture. Butte was one of the largest cities in the Rocky Mountains in the late 1800s, Silver Bow County had 24,000 people in 1890, and peaked at 100,000 in 1920.
The population steadily declined with falling copper prices after World War I, eventually dropping to 34,000 in 1990, in 2013, the population remains at 34,200. The documentary Butte, depicts its history as a producer and the issues of labor unionism, economic rise and decline. The city is served by Bert Mooney Airport with airport code BTM, Butte began as a mining town in the late 19th century in the Silver Bow Creek Valley, a natural bowl sitting high in the Rockies straddling the Continental Divide. At first only gold and silver were mined in the area, but the advent of electricity caused a demand for copper. The small town was called the Richest Hill on Earth. It was the largest city for hundreds of miles in all directions. Among the migrants, many Chinese workers moved in, and amongst them set up businesses that led to the creation of a Chinatown in Butte, the Chinese migrations stopped in 1882 with the passage of the Chinese Exclusion Act. The business owners fought back by suing the unions and winning, the history of the Chinese migrants in Butte is documented in the Mai Wah Museum.
The influx of miners gave Butte a reputation as a town where any vice was obtainable. The citys famous saloon and red-light district, called the Line or The Copper Block, was centered on Mercury Street, behind the brothel was the equally famous Venus Alley, where women plied their trade in small cubicles called cribs
Elijah Parish Lovejoy
Elijah Parish Lovejoy was an American Presbyterian minister, newspaper editor and abolitionist. He was murdered by a mob in Alton, during their attack on Godfrey and Gillmans warehouse to destroy his press. He attended Waterville College in his state of Maine. From 1824 until his 1826 graduation, while still an undergraduate, he served as headmaster of Colby’s associated high school. He traveled west and in 1827 settled in St. Louis and he worked as an editor of an anti-Jacksonian newspaper, the St. Louis Observer and ran a school. Five years later, he studied at the Princeton Theological Seminary in New Jersey, returning to St. Louis, he set up a church and resumed work as editor of the Observer. His editorials criticized slavery and other church denominations, in May 1836, after anti-abolitionist opponents in St. Louis destroyed his printing press for the third time, Lovejoy left the city and moved across the river to Alton in the free state of Illinois. In 1837 he started the Alton Observer, an abolitionist paper, on November 7,1837, a pro-slavery mob attacked the warehouse where Lovejoy had his fourth printing press.
Lovejoy and his supporters exchanged gunfire with the mob, which shot him. He died on the spot and was hailed as a martyr by abolitionists across the country. After his death, his brother Owen Lovejoy entered politics and became the leader of the Illinois abolitionists, Lovejoy was born at his grandfathers frontier farmhouse near Albion, Maine, as the first of the nine children of Elizabeth Lovejoy and Daniel Lovejoy. Lovejoys father was a Congregational preacher and farmer and his mother, Daniel Lovejoy named his son Elijah Parish in honor of his close friend and mentor, Elijah Parish, a minister who was involved in politics. Due to his own lack of an education, he encouraged his sons—Daniel, Joseph Cammett, John, as a result, Elijah was taught to read the Bible and other theological texts at an early age. After completing his studies in public schools, Lovejoy attended the Academy at Monmouth. After becoming proficient enough in Latin and mathematics, he enrolled at Waterville College in Waterville, Maine and he excelled in his studies, and upon faculty recommendation, he became a teacher in the colleges preparatory division.
Lovejoy received financial support from minister Benjamin Tappan to continue his attendance at Waterville College and his cousin Nathan A. Farwell served as a U. S. In September 1826, Lovejoy graduated from Waterville College with first-class honors at the top of his class, during the winter and spring, he taught at China Academy. Dissatisfied with daily teaching, Lovejoy thought about moving to the South or Western United States and his former teachers at Waterville College advised him that he would best serve God in the West
Cesar Chavez was an American labor leader and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association in 1962. His public-relations approach to unionism and aggressive but nonviolent tactics made the workers struggle a moral cause with nationwide support. By the late 1970s, his tactics had forced growers to recognize the UFW as the agent for 50,000 field workers in California. However, by the membership in the UFW had dwindled to around 15,000. He has since become an icon for organized labor and leftist politics, symbolizing support for workers and he is famous for popularizing the slogan Sí, se puede, which was adopted as the 2008 campaign slogan of Barack Obama. His supporters say his work led to improvements for union laborers. Although the UFW faltered a few years after Chavez died in 1993 and his birthday, March 31, has become Cesar Chavez Day, a state holiday in California and Texas. Chavez was born on March 31,1927, in Yuma, Arizona and he was the son of Juana Estrada and Librado Chávez.
He had two brothers and Librado, and two sisters and Vicki and he was named after his grandfather, Cesario. Chavez grew up in an adobe home, the same home in which he was born. His family owned a store and a ranch, but their land was lost during the Great Depression. The familys home was taken away after his father had agreed to clear eighty acres of land in exchange for the deed to the house, an agreement which was subsequently broken. Later, when Chavezs father attempted to purchase the house, he could not pay the interest on the loan and his family moved to California to become migrant farm workers. The Chavez family faced many hardships in California, the family would pick peas and lettuce in the winter and beans in the spring and grapes in the summer, and cotton in the fall. When Chavez was a teenager, he and his older sister Rita would help other farm workers and neighbors by driving those unable to drive to the hospital to see a doctor, in 1942, Chavez quit school in the seventh grade.
It would be his year of formal schooling, because he did not want his mother to have to work in the fields. Chavez dropped out to become a migrant farm worker. In 1946 he joined the United States Navy and served for two years, Chavez had hoped that he would learn skills in the Navy that would help him when he returned to civilian life
Lynching in the United States
Lynching is the practice of murder by extrajudicial action. Lynchings in the United States rose in number after the American Civil War in the late 1800s, following the emancipation of slaves, Lynchings most frequently targeted African American men and women in the South. They were most frequent from 1890 to the 1920s, with a peak in 1892, starting with large mob actions attended by hundreds or thousands of watchers, lynchings in the 20th century began to be conducted secretly by small groups of people. Lynchings were common in the Old West, where Native Americans, Mexican Americans, after the Reconstruction era, most of the South was dominated politically by Democrats. Lynchings enforced white supremacy and intimidated blacks by racial terrorism, the rate of lynchings in the South has been strongly associated with economic strains, although the causal nature of this link is unclear. Low cotton prices and economic stress are associated with higher frequencies of lynching, constitutional rights to freedmen after the American Civil War was resisted by many white Southerners.
Some blamed the freedmen for their own wartime hardships, and post-war economic losses, during Reconstruction and whites working for civil rights were attacked and sometimes lynched. Black voting was suppressed by violence, White Democrats regained control of state legislatures in 1876, and a national compromise resulted in the removal of federal troops from the South in 1877. In decades, violence continued around elections until blacks were disenfranchised by the states across the South from 1890 to 1908, Whites enacted segregation and Jim Crow laws to enforce blacks second-class status. During this period of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Florida led the nation in lynchings per capita from 1900-1930. Georgia led the nation in lynchings from 1900-1931 with 302 incidents, Lynchings peaked in many areas when it was time for landowners to settle accounts with sharecroppers. There is no count of recorded lynchings which claims to be precise, and numbers vary depending on the source, years considered, and definition used in defining an incident.
A five-year study published in 2015 by the Equal Justice Initiative found that nearly 3,959 black men, over this period Georgias 586 lynchings led all states. African Americans mounted resistance to lynchings in numerous ways and journalists encouraged public education, actively protesting and lobbying against lynch mob violence and government complicity. Anti-lynching plays and literary works were produced, African-American womens clubs raised funds and conducted petition drives, letter campaigns and demonstrations to highlight the issues and combat lynching. From 1910 to 1930 particularly, more blacks migrated from counties with high numbers of lynchings, from 1882 to 1968, nearly 200 anti-lynching bills were introduced in Congress, and three passed the House. Seven presidents between 1890 and 1952 petitioned Congress to pass a federal law, none succeeded in gaining passage, blocked by the Solid South - the delegation of white Southerners in the Senate. During the 1950s and 1960s Civil Rights Movement, black activists were attacked and murdered throughout the South, in 1964 three Mississippi civil rights workers were murdered, galvanizing public support for passage of civil rights legislation that year and the next