Motion Picture Association of America
The Motion Picture Association of America is an American trade association representing the five major film studios of Hollywood, streaming service giant, Netflix. Founded in 1922 as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America, its original goal was to ensure the viability of the American film industry. In addition, the MPAA established guidelines for film content which resulted in the creation of the Production Code in 1930; this code known as the Hays Code, was replaced by a voluntary film rating system in 1968, managed by the Classification and Rating Administration. More the MPAA has advocated for the motion picture and television industry, with the goals of promoting effective copyright protection, reducing piracy, expanding market access, it has long worked to curb copyright infringement, including recent attempts to limit the sharing of copyrighted works via peer-to-peer file-sharing networks and by streaming from pirate sites. Former United States Ambassador to France Charles Rivkin is the current chairman and CEO of the MPAA.
The MPAA was founded as the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America in 1922 as a trade association of member motion picture companies. At its founding, MPPDA member companies produced 70 to 80 percent of the films made in the United States. Former Postmaster General Will H. Hays was named the association's first president; the main focus of the MPPDA in its early years was on producing a strong public relations campaign to ensure that Hollywood remained financially stable and able to attract investment from Wall Street, while ensuring that American films had a "clean moral tone". The MPPDA instituted a code of conduct for Hollywood's actors in an attempt to govern their behavior offscreen; the code sought to protect American film interests abroad by encouraging film studios to avoid racist portrayals of foreigners. From the early days of the association, Hays spoke out against public censorship, the MPPDA worked to raise support from the general public for the film industry's efforts against such censorship.
Large portions of the public opposed censorship, but decried the lack of morals in movies. At the time of the MPPDA's founding, there was no national censorship, but some state and municipal laws required movies to be censored, a process oveseen by a local censorship board. Thus, in certain locations in the U. S. films were edited to comply with local laws regarding the onscreen portrayal of violence and sexuality, among other topics. This resulted in negative publicity for the studios and decreasing numbers of theater goers, who were uninterested in films that were sometimes so edited that they were incoherent. In 1929, more than 50 percent of American moviegoers lived in a location overseen by such a board. In 1924, Hays instituted "The Formula", a loose set of guidelines for filmmakers, in an effort to get the movie industry to self-regulate the issues that the censorship boards had been created to address. "The Formula" requested that studios send synopses of films being considered to the MPPDA for review.
This effort failed, however, as studios were under no obligation to send their scripts to Hays's office, nor to follow his recommendations. In 1927, Hays oversaw the creation of a code of "Be Carefuls" for the industry; this list outlined the issues. Hays created a Studio Relations Department with staff available to the studios for script reviews and advice regarding potential problems. Again, despite Hays' efforts, studios ignored the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls," and by the end of 1929, the MPPDA received only about 20 percent of Hollywood scripts prior to production, the number of regional and local censorship boards continued to increase. In 1930, the MPPDA introduced the Production Code, sometimes called the "Hays Code"; the Code consisted of moral guidelines regarding. Unlike the "Dont's and Be Carefuls", which the studios had ignored, the Production Code was endorsed by studio executives; the Code incorporated many of the "Don'ts and Be Carefuls" as specific examples of what could not be portrayed.
Among other rules, the code prohibited inclusion of "scenes of passion" unless they were essential to a film's plot. Because studio executives had been involved in the decision to adopt the code, MPPDA-member studios were more willing to submit scripts for consideration. However, the growing economic impacts of the Great Depression of the early 1930s increased pressure on studios to make films that would draw the largest possible audiences if it meant taking their chances with local censorship boards by disobeying the Code. In 1933 and 1934 the Catholic Legion of Decency, along with a number of Protestant and women's groups, launched plans to boycott films that they deemed immoral. In order to avert boycotts which might further harm the profitability of the film industry, the MPPDA created a new department, the Production Code Administration, with Joseph Breen as its head. Unlike previous attempts at self-censorship, PCA decisions were binding—no film could be exhibited in an American theater without a stamp of approval from the PCA, any producer attempting to do so faced a fine of $25,000.
After ten years of unsuccessful voluntary codes and expanding local censorship boards, the studio approved and agreed to enforce the codes, the nationwide "Production Code" was enforced starting on July 1, 1934. In the years that followed the
Alfonso Williamson was an American cartoonist, comic book artist and illustrator specializing in adventure and science-fiction/fantasy. Born in New York City, he spent much of his early childhood in Bogotá, Colombia before moving back to the United States at the age of 12. In his youth, Williamson developed an interest in comic strips Alex Raymond's Flash Gordon, he took art classes at Burne Hogarth's Cartoonists and Illustrators School, there befriending future cartoonists Wally Wood and Roy Krenkel, who introduced him to the work of illustrators who had influenced adventure strips. Before long, he was working professionally in the comics industry, his most notable works include his science-fiction/heroic fantasy art for EC Comics in the 1950s, on titles including Weird Science and Weird Fantasy. In the 1960s, he gained recognition for continuing Raymond's illustrative tradition with his work on the Flash Gordon comic-book series, was a seminal contributor to the Warren Publishing's black-and-white horror comics magazines Creepy and Eerie.
Williamson spent most of the 1970s working on his own credited strip, another Raymond creation, Secret Agent X-9. The following decade, he became known for his work adapting Star Wars films to comic books and newspaper strips. From the mid-1980s to 2003, he was active as an inker on Marvel Comics superhero titles starring such characters as Daredevil, Spider-Man, Spider-Girl. Williamson is known for his collaborations with a group of artists including Frank Frazetta, Roy Krenkel, Angelo Torres, George Woodbridge, affectionately known as the "Fleagle Gang". Williamson has been cited as a stylistic influence on a number of younger artists, encouraged many, helping such newcomers as Bernie Wrightson and Michael Kaluta enter the profession, he has won several industry awards, six career-retrospective books about him have been published since 1998. Living in Pennsylvania with his wife Corina, Williamson retired in his seventies. Williamson was inducted into the Will Eisner Comic Book Hall of Fame in 2000.
Al Williamson was born in Manhattan, New York City, New York, one of two children of Sally and Alfonso Williamson, of Scottish descent and a Colombian citizen. The family relocated to Bogotá, when Al was two years old. "My father was Colombian and my mother was American," Williamson said in 1997. "They got married and went down there. I grew up down there so I learned both Spanish at the same time, it was comic books that taught me to read both languages." At age nine, Williamson took an interest in comic strips via the Mexican magazine Paquin, which featured American strips as well as Underwater Empire by Argentine cartoonist Carlos Clemen. Williamson was attracted to Alex Raymond's Flash Gordon strip after his mother took him to see the Flash Gordon Conquers the Universe movie serial. While living in Bogotá he met future cartoonist Adolfo Buylla, who befriended him and gave him artistic advice. At age 12, in 1943, Williamson moved with his mother to California. In the mid-1940s Williamson continued to pursue his interest in cartooning and began to take art classes with Tarzan cartoonist Burne Hogarth, at Hogarth's Cartoonists and Illustrators School.
There he met future cartoonists Roy Krenkel. According to Williamson, "Roy broadened my collecting horizons, he became my guide to all the great illustrators — the artists who directly influenced adventure cartoonists like Raymond and Foster, he showed me J. C. Coll, Franklin Booth, Joseph Franke, Dan Smith, Norman Lindsay, Fortunino Matania, the great Blue Book illustrators like Herbert Morton Stoops and Frank Hoban." As he continued to learn about the cartooning field, he would visit the comic-book publisher Fiction House, meeting such artists as George Evans, Bob Lubbers, John Celardo, Mort Meskin. Williamson's first professional work may have been helping Hogarth pencil some Tarzan Sunday pages in 1948, although Williamson, who had believed so, reconsidered in a 1983 interview and recalled that his Tarzan work had come after his first two pieces of comic-book art: providing spot illustrations for the story "The World's Ugliest Horse" in Eastern Color's seminal series Famous Funnies #166, a two-page Boy Scouts story, his first comics narrative, in New Heroic Comics #51.
Williamson explained that while Hogarth had offered him Tarzan work, Williamson "just couldn't do it.... I couldn't get it into my little brain that he wanted me to do it the way that he did it," and instead recommended Celardo, artist of the Tarzan-like feature "Ka'a'nga" in Fiction House's Jungle Comics; as Williamson recalled:... Hogarth got in touch with, the next thing you knew, he was penciling the Sunday page for him, he did it for quite some time and something must have happened... but at that point I was going to the Hogarth school again in the evenings... and he asked me again if I would like to give it a try, so I said OK. He gave me a page and he had laid it out, so I just tightened it up, he gave me another page that I tightened up and he inked it. I said I'd like to try laying it out myself and asked if I could do that, he said,'Go ahead, Al,' and handed me the script. So I laid that page out on a sketchpad, he said fine and just made a couple of suggestions as to.
The X-Files is an American science fiction drama television series created by Chris Carter. The original television series aired from September 1993 to May 19, 2002 on Fox; the program spanned nine seasons, with 202 episodes. A short tenth season consisting of six episodes premiered on January 24, 2016, concluded on February 22, 2016. Following the ratings success of this revival, Fox announced in April 2017 that The X-Files would be returning for an eleventh season of ten episodes; the season premiered on January 3, 2018, concluding on March 21, 2018. In addition to the television series, two feature films have been released: The 1998 film The X-Files, which took place as part of the TV series continuity, the stand-alone film The X-Files: I Want to Believe, released in 2008, six years after the original television run had ended; the series revolves around Federal Bureau of Investigation special agents Fox Mulder, Dana Scully who investigate X-Files: marginalized, unsolved cases involving paranormal phenomena.
Mulder believes in the existence of aliens and the paranormal while Scully, a medical doctor and a skeptic, is assigned to make scientific analyses of Mulder's discoveries to debunk his work and thus return him to mainstream cases. Early in the series, both agents become pawns in a larger conflict and come to trust only each other and a few select people; the agents discover an agenda of the government to keep the existence of extraterrestrial life a secret. They develop a close relationship which begins as a platonic friendship, but becomes a romance by the end of the series. In addition to the series-spanning story arc, "monster of the week" episodes form two-thirds of all episodes; the X-Files was inspired by earlier television series which featured elements of suspense and speculative fiction, including The Twilight Zone, Night Gallery, Tales from the Darkside, Twin Peaks, Kolchak: The Night Stalker. When creating the main characters, Carter sought to reverse gender stereotypes by making Mulder a believer and Scully a skeptic.
The first seven seasons featured Anderson equally. In the eighth and ninth seasons, Anderson took precedence. New main characters were introduced: FBI agents John Doggett and Monica Reyes. Mulder and Scully's boss, Assistant Director Walter Skinner became a main character; the first five seasons of The X-Files were filmed and produced in Vancouver, British Columbia, before moving to Los Angeles to accommodate Duchovny. The series returned to Vancouver to film The X-Files: I Want to Believe as well as the tenth and eleventh seasons of the series; the X-Files was a hit for the Fox network and received positive reviews, although its long-term story arc was criticized near the conclusion. Considered a cult series, it turned into a pop culture touchstone that tapped into public mistrust of governments and large institutions and embraced conspiracy theories and spirituality. Both the series itself and lead actors Duchovny and Anderson received multiple awards and nominations, by its conclusion the show was the longest-running science fiction series in U.
S. television history. The series spawned a franchise which includes Millennium and The Lone Gunmen spin-offs, two theatrical films and accompanying merchandise; the X-Files follows personal lives of FBI Special Agents Fox Mulder and Dana Scully. Mulder is a talented profiler and strong believer in the supernatural, he is adamant about the existence of intelligent extraterrestrial life and its presence on Earth. This set of beliefs earns him the nickname "Spooky Mulder" and an assignment to a little-known department that deals with unsolved cases, known as the X-Files, his belief in the paranormal springs from the claimed abduction of his sister Samantha Mulder by extraterrestrials when Mulder was 12. Her abduction drives Mulder throughout most of the series; because of this, as well as more nebulous desires for vindication and the revelation of truths kept hidden by human authorities, Mulder struggles to maintain objectivity in his investigations. Agent Scully is a foil for Mulder in this regard.
As a medical doctor and natural skeptic, Scully approaches cases with complete detachment when Mulder, despite his considerable training, loses his objectivity. She is partnered with Mulder so that she can debunk Mulder's nonconforming theories supplying logical, scientific explanations for the cases' unexplainable phenomena. Although she is able to offer scientific alternatives to Mulder's deductions, she is able to refute them completely. Over the course of the series, she becomes dissatisfied with her own ability to approach the cases scientifically. After Mulder's abduction at the hands of aliens in the seventh season finale "Requiem", Scully becomes a "reluctant believer" who manages to explain the paranormal with science. Various episodes deal with the relationship between Mulder and Scully platonic, but that develops romantically. Mulder and Scully are joined by John Doggett and Monica Reyes late in the series, after Mulder is abducted. Doggett replaces him as Scully's partner and helps her search for him involving Reyes, of whom Doggett had professional knowledge.
The initial run of The X-Files ends when Mulder is secretly subjected to a military tribunal for breaking into a top secret military facility and viewing plans for alien invasion and colonization of Earth. He is found guilty, but he escapes punishment with the help of the other agents and he and Scully become fugitives; as the show progress
Long Island is a densely populated island off the East Coast of the United States, beginning at New York Harbor 0.35 miles from Manhattan Island and extending eastward into the Atlantic Ocean. The island comprises four counties in the U. S. state of New York. Kings and Queens Counties and Nassau County share the western third of the island, while Suffolk County occupies the eastern two-thirds. More than half of New York City's residents now live in Brooklyn and Queens. However, many people in the New York metropolitan area colloquially use the term Long Island to refer to Nassau and Suffolk Counties, which are suburban in character, conversely employing the term the City to mean Manhattan alone. Broadly speaking, "Long Island" may refer both to the main island and the surrounding outer barrier islands. North of the island is Long Island Sound, across which lie Westchester County, New York, the state of Connecticut. Across the Block Island Sound to the northeast is the state of Rhode Island. To the west, Long Island is separated from the island of Manhattan by the East River.
To the extreme southwest, it is separated from Staten Island and the state of New Jersey by Upper New York Bay, the Narrows, Lower New York Bay. To the east lie Block Island—which belongs to the State of Rhode Island—and numerous smaller islands. Both the longest and the largest island in the contiguous United States, Long Island extends 118 miles eastward from New York Harbor to Montauk Point, with a maximum north-to-south distance of 23 miles between Long Island Sound and the Atlantic coast. With a land area of 1,401 square miles, Long Island is the 11th-largest island in the United States and the 149th-largest island in the world—larger than the 1,214 square miles of the smallest U. S. state, Rhode Island. With a Census-estimated population of 7,869,820 in 2017, constituting nearly 40% of New York State's population, Long Island is the most populated island in any U. S. state or territory, the 18th-most populous island in the world. Its population density is 5,595.1 inhabitants per square mile.
If Long Island geographically constituted an independent metropolitan statistical area, it would rank fourth most populous in the United States. S. state, Long Island would rank 13th in population and first in population density. Long Island is culturally and ethnically diverse, featuring some of the wealthiest and most expensive neighborhoods in the Western Hemisphere near the shorelines as well as working-class areas in all four counties; as a hub of commercial aviation, Long Island contains two of the New York City metropolitan area's three busiest airports, JFK International Airport and LaGuardia Airport, in addition to Islip MacArthur Airport. Nine bridges and 13 tunnels connect Brooklyn and Queens to the three other boroughs of New York City. Ferries connect Suffolk County northward across Long Island Sound to the state of Connecticut; the Long Island Rail Road is the busiest commuter railroad in North America and operates 24/7. Nassau County high school students feature prominently as winners of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair and similar STEM-based academic awards.
Biotechnology companies and scientific research play a significant role in Long Island's economy, including research facilities at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Plum Island Animal Disease Center, State University of New York at Stony Brook, the New York University Tandon School of Engineering, the City University of New York, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine. Prior to European contact, the Lenape people inhabited the western end of Long Island, spoke the Munsee dialect of Lenape, one of the Algonquian language family. Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to record an encounter with the Lenapes, after entering what is now New York Bay in 1524; the eastern portion of the island was inhabited by speakers of the Mohegan-Montauk-Narragansett language group of Algonquian languages. In 1609, the English navigator Henry Hudson explored the harbor and purportedly landed at Coney Island. Adriaen Block followed in 1615, is credited as the first European to determine that both Manhattan and Long Island are islands.
Native American land deeds recorded by the Dutch from 1636 state that the Indians referred to Long Island as Sewanhaka. Sewan was one of the terms for wampum, is translated as "loose" or "scattered", which may refer either to the wampum or to Long Island; the name "'t Lange Eylandt alias Matouwacs" appears in Dutch maps from the 1650s. The English referred to the land as "Nassau Island", after the Dutch Prince William of Nassau, Prince of Orange, it is unclear. Another indigenous name from colonial time, comes from the Native American name for Long Island and means "the island that pays tribute." The first settlements on Long Island were by settlers from England and its colonies in present-day New England. Lion Gardiner settled nearby Gardiners Island. T
Los Angeles Times
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper, published in Los Angeles, since 1881. It has the fourth-largest circulation among United States newspapers, is the largest U. S. newspaper not headquartered on the East Coast. The paper is known for its coverage of issues salient to the U. S. West Coast, such as immigration trends and natural disasters, it has won more than 40 Pulitzer Prizes for its coverage of other issues. As of June 18, 2018, ownership of the paper is controlled by Patrick Soon-Shiong, the executive editor is Norman Pearlstine. In the nineteenth century, the paper was known for its civic boosterism and opposition to unions, the latter of which led to the bombing of its headquarters in 1910; the paper's profile grew in the 1960s under publisher Otis Chandler, who adopted a more national focus. In recent decades, the paper's readership has declined and it has been beset by a series of ownership changes, staff reductions, other controversies. In January 2018, the paper's staff voted to unionize, in July 2018 the paper moved out of its historic downtown headquarters to a facility near Los Angeles International Airport.
The Times was first published on December 4, 1881, as the Los Angeles Daily Times under the direction of Nathan Cole Jr. and Thomas Gardiner. It was first printed at the Mirror printing plant, owned by Jesse Yarnell and T. J. Caystile. Unable to pay the printing bill and Gardiner turned the paper over to the Mirror Company. In the meantime, S. J. Mathes had joined the firm, it was at his insistence that the Times continued publication. In July 1882, Harrison Gray Otis moved from Santa Barbara to become the paper's editor. Otis made the Times a financial success. Historian Kevin Starr wrote that Otis was a businessman "capable of manipulating the entire apparatus of politics and public opinion for his own enrichment". Otis's editorial policy was based on civic boosterism, extolling the virtues of Los Angeles and promoting its growth. Toward those ends, the paper supported efforts to expand the city's water supply by acquiring the rights to the water supply of the distant Owens Valley; the efforts of the Times to fight local unions led to the October 1, 1910 bombing of its headquarters, killing twenty-one people.
Two union leaders and Joseph McNamara, were charged. The American Federation of Labor hired noted trial attorney Clarence Darrow to represent the brothers, who pleaded guilty. Otis fastened a bronze eagle on top of a high frieze of the new Times headquarters building designed by Gordon Kaufmann, proclaiming anew the credo written by his wife, Eliza: "Stand Fast, Stand Firm, Stand Sure, Stand True." Upon Otis's death in 1917, his son-in-law, Harry Chandler, took control as publisher of the Times. Harry Chandler was succeeded in 1944 by his son, Norman Chandler, who ran the paper during the rapid growth of post-war Los Angeles. Norman's wife, Dorothy Buffum Chandler, became active in civic affairs and led the effort to build the Los Angeles Music Center, whose main concert hall was named the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in her honor. Family members are buried at the Hollywood Forever Cemetery near Paramount Studios; the site includes a memorial to the Times Building bombing victims. The fourth generation of family publishers, Otis Chandler, held that position from 1960 to 1980.
Otis Chandler sought legitimacy and recognition for his family's paper forgotten in the power centers of the Northeastern United States due to its geographic and cultural distance. He sought to remake the paper in the model of the nation's most respected newspapers, notably The New York Times and The Washington Post. Believing that the newsroom was "the heartbeat of the business", Otis Chandler increased the size and pay of the reporting staff and expanded its national and international reporting. In 1962, the paper joined with The Washington Post to form the Los Angeles Times–Washington Post News Service to syndicate articles from both papers for other news organizations, he toned down the unyielding conservatism that had characterized the paper over the years, adopting a much more centrist editorial stance. During the 1960s, the paper won four Pulitzer Prizes, more than its previous nine decades combined. Writing in 2013 about the pattern of newspaper ownership by founding families, Times reporter Michael Hiltzik said that: The first generations bought or founded their local paper for profits and social and political influence.
Their children enjoyed both profits and influence, but as the families grew larger, the generations found that only one or two branches got the power, everyone else got a share of the money. The coupon-clipping branches realized that they could make more money investing in something other than newspapers. Under their pressure the companies split apart, or disappeared. That's the pattern followed over more than a century by the Los Angeles Times under the Chandler family; the paper's early history and subsequent transformation was chronicled in an unauthorized history Thinking Big, was one of four organizations profiled by David Halberstam in The Powers That Be. It has been the whole or partial subject of nearly thirty dissertations in communications or social science in the past four decades; the Los Angeles Times began a decline with Los Angeles itself with the decline in military production at the end of the Cold War. It faced hiring freezes in 1991-1992. Another major decision at the same time was to cut the range of circulation.
They cut circulation in California's Central Valley, Nevada and the San Diego ed
Mighty Morphin Power Rangers
Mighty Morphin Power Rangers is an American live-action superhero children's television series that premiered on August 28, 1993, on the Fox Kids Network on weekday afternoons and Saturday mornings. It is the first entry of the Power Rangers franchise, became a 1990s pop culture phenomenon alongside a large line of action figures and other merchandise; the show adapted stock footage from the Japanese TV series Kyōryū Sentai Zyuranger, the 16th installment of Toei's Super Sentai franchise. The second and third seasons of the show drew elements and stock footage from Gosei Sentai Dairanger and Ninja Sentai Kakuranger though the Zyuranger costumes were still used for the lead cast in these last two seasons. Only the mecha and the Kiba Ranger costume from Dairanger were featured in the second season, while only the mecha from Kakuranger was featured in the third season; the series was distributed by Saban Entertainment. The show's merchandise was distributed by Bandai Entertainment; the show was well-known for its deliberately campy tone.
In 2010, a re-version of Mighty Morphin Power Rangers, with a new logo, comic book-referenced graphics, extra alternative special effects, was broadcast on ABC Kids, Bandai produced brand new toys to coincide with the series. The first 32 of season one's 60 episodes were remade with the re-version graphics in z, it was the final Power Rangers season to air on ABC Kids as Haim Saban re-acquired the series from Disney. With the beginning of Power Rangers Samurai, the series had moved to Nickelodeon; the original series spawned the feature film Mighty Morphin Power Rangers: The Movie, released by 20th Century Fox on June 30, 1995. A new film distributed by Lionsgate titled Power Rangers, was released at Regency Village Theater in Los Angeles on March 22, 2017 and was released nationwide on March 24, 2017; the series takes place in the fictional town of California. On an exploratory mission, two astronauts discover an extraterrestrial container and breach the unit, inadvertently releasing the evil alien sorceress Rita Repulsa from 10,000 years of confinement.
Upon her release and her army of evil space aliens set their sights on conquering the nearest planet — Earth. The wise sage Zordon, responsible for capturing Rita becomes aware of her release and orders his robotic assistant Alpha 5 to select five "teenagers with attitude" to defend the Earth from Rita's attacks; the five teens chosen are Jason Lee Scott, Kimberly Hart, Zack Taylor, Trini Kwan and Billy Cranston. Zordon gives them the ability to transform into a fighting force known as the Power Rangers; the series begins with five teenagers combating Rita and her endless array of monsters, while dealing with typical teenage problems and clashing with local bullies Bulk and Skull. However, consecutive failures lead Rita to adopt a new method for conquering Earth and destroying the Power Rangers — by attacking them with one of their own. Using her magic, Rita kidnaps and brainwashes a local teen whose fighting skills prove to equal that of Jason's in a martial-arts contest held in Angel Grove.
The new teen, Tommy Oliver, passes Rita's tests. Entrusted with Rita's Sword of Darkness, the source for the continuance of the evil spell he has fallen victim to, Tommy comes dangerously close to defeating the Power Rangers when Rita causes a solar eclipse that temporarily drains the Megazord's power. However, the Green Ranger is defeated, the Sword of Darkness is destroyed by Jason. Now free from Rita's spell, Tommy chooses to use his Green Ranger powers to assist the other Rangers in defeating the evil that gave them to him in the first place, his Zord, the Dragonzord, is reconfigured to enable it to help form more powerful Zord combinations alongside the other Dinozords. As time goes on, Rita focuses on eliminating Tommy in order to regain the powers that she believes belong to her. Using a special wax, touched by Tommy when he was evil, Rita uses a magic Green Candle to remove his powers, returning them to her. In the end, Tommy loses his powers, but he prevents Rita from reclaiming them by transferring them to Jason who, feeling guilt for failing to protect Tommy's powers, accepts them.
However, Tommy returns to the team when the other Rangers' Power Coins are handed over to Rita in exchange for their kidnapped parents. With Zordon's help, Tommy regains his powers and retrieves the other Rangers' Power Coins. However, Tommy's regained powers are only temporary and must be re-charged by Zordon, who warns that the Green Ranger's powers will fail. Despite this, Tommy remains determined to continue assisting the other Rangers as long as possible. Lord Zedd, Rita's superior, arrives at Rita's Moon Palace, where he takes her place and throws her into a space dumpster again, he begins his own campaign to conquer Earth. In order for the Power Rangers to compete with Zedd's monsters, which are superior to the ones Finster made for Rita and Alpha upgrade the Dinozords into the more powerful Thunderzords. However, Tommy is forced to retain use of the Dragonzord, due to his powers being too weak to support a new Zord. After several defeats, Zedd's attack on the Rangers progressively becomes more