The Hitch-Hiker is a 1953 film noir directed by Ida Lupino, about two fishing buddies who pick up a mysterious hitchhiker during a trip to Mexico. Inspired by the crime spree of the psychopathic murderer Billy Cook, the screenplay was written by Robert L. Joseph and her former husband Collier Young, based on a story by blacklisted Out of the Past screenwriter Daniel Mainwaring; the Hitch-Hiker is regarded as the first American mainstream film noir directed by a woman and was selected in 1998 for preservation in the United States National Film Registry as being "culturally or aesthetically significant." The film is in the public domain. Two men from El Centro, are driving toward a planned fishing trip at the Mexican town of San Felipe on the Gulf of California. Just south of Mexicali, they pick up a hitchhiker named Emmett Myers, whose stolen car has run out of gas. Myers turns out to be a psychopath who has committed multiple murders while hitch-hiking between Illinois and Southern California, has managed to slip into Mexico at Mexicali.
To evade the pursuing authorities, Myers forces the two men at gunpoint to journey deep into the heart of the Baja California Peninsula, toward the town of Santa Rosalía, where he plans to take a ferry across the Gulf of California. Meanwhile, the men try to plot their escape from the paranoid Myers, they try tactics such as leaving clues at various points on their journey. One man badly twists his ankle during an escape attempt; the sadistic Myers physically and mentally torments the men, forcing them to continue on foot and mocking their loyalty to each other by claiming that they could have escaped separately if they embraced Myers' each-man-for-himself ethos. Arriving at Santa Rosalía, Myers tries to conceal his identity by forcing one of the men to wear his clothes. Myers, upon discovering that the regular ferry to Guaymas has burned down, hires a fishing boat. However, while he is awaiting the fisherman, locals discover his status as a wanted murderer and contact authorities. Police surround the pier and, after some confusion over Myers' identity, take him into custody following a brief scuffle in which the boastful Myers is revealed to be a coward.
The film ends with the weary friends agreeing to give statements to police. Edmond O'Brien as Roy Collins Frank Lovejoy as Gilbert Bowen William Talman as Emmett Myers José Torvay as Captain Alvarado Wendell Niles as Himself Jean Del Val as Inspector General Clark Howat as Government Agent Natividad Vacío as Jose Rodney Bell as William JohnsonCollier Young, the husband of director Ida Lupino and the co-writer of the screenplay, makes an uncredited appearance in the film as a Mexican peasant; the inspiration for The Hitch-Hiker is the true-life story of Billy Cook, who in California in 1950, murdered a family of five and a traveling salesman kidnapped Deputy Sheriff Homer Waldrip from Blythe, California. Cook ordered his captive to drive into the desert, where he tied Deputy Waldrip up with blanket strips and took his police cruiser, leaving Waldrip to die. Waldrip got loose, walked to the main road, got a ride back to Blythe. Cook was tried and received the death penalty. On December 12, 1952, Cook was executed in the gas chamber at San Quentin State Prison in California.
The Hitch-Hiker wrapped in late July. The director of photography was RKO Pictures regular Nicholas Musuraca. Location shooting took place in the Alabama Hills near Big Pine, California. Working titles for the film were "The Difference" and "The Persuader". Lupino was a noted actress who began directing when Elmer Clifton got sick and couldn't finish the film he was directing for Filmakers Inc. the production company founded by Lupino and her husband Collier Young to make low-budget, issue-oriented movies. Lupino went on to direct her own projects; the Hitch-Hiker was her first hard-paced, fast-moving picture after four "women's" films about social issues. Lupino interviewed the two prospectors whom Billy Cook had held hostage, got releases from them and from Cook as well, so that she could integrate parts of Cook's life into the script. To appease the censors at the Hays Office, she reduced the number of deaths to three; the Hitch-Hiker premiered in Boston on March 20, 1953 and went into general release.
The film was marketed with the tagline: "When was the last time you invited death into your car?" A. H. Weiler, the film critic for The New York Times, gave The Hitch-Hiker a mixed review on its initial release; the acting and use of locations were praised, but the plot was deemed to be predictable. Critic John Krewson lauded the work of Ida Lupino, wrote, As a screenwriter and director, Lupino had an eye for the emotional truth hidden within the taboo or mundane, making a series of B-styled pictures which featured sympathetic, honest portrayals of such controversial subjects as unmarried mothers and rape... in The Hitch-Hiker, arguably Lupino's best film and the only true noir directed by a woman, two utterly average middle-class American men are held at gunpoint and psychologically broken by a serial killer. In addition to her critical but compassionate sensibility, Lupino had a great filmmaker's eye, using the starkly beautiful street scenes in Not Wanted and the gorgeous, ever-present loneliness of empty highways in The Hitch-Hiker to set her characters apart.
Time Out Film Guide wrote of the film, Absolutely assured in her creation of the bleak, noir atmosphere – whether in the claustrophobic confines of the car, or lost in the arid expan
Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes, it is known for its rocky coastline. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland; the capital is Augusta. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory, now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area; the first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons.
The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years; as Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States after the war following major defeats in New York and Louisiana, as part of a peace treaty, to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from on in official records; the state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine. Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine", he made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland established that she had no connection to the province.
A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester. The view held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini"; some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236. Today the village is known as Broadmayne, primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village; the first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine".
Mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine. A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, not by any other name or names whatsoever..." Maine is the only U. S. state whose name has one syllable. The original inhabitants of the territory, now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot and Kennebec. During the King Philip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the Wampanoag of Massachusetts & the Mahican of New York.
Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the tribes of Maine continued, until the American Revolution
Gang Busters was an American dramatic radio program heralded as "the only national program that brings you authentic police case histories." It premiered on January 15, 1936 and was broadcast over 21 years through November 27, 1957. So-called "true crime" magazines were popular in the 1930s and the movie G Men starring James Cagney, released in the spring of 1935, had proven to be a big hit. Producer-director Phillips H. Lord thought. To emphasize the authenticity of his dramatizations, Lord produced the initial radio show, G-Men, in close association with FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover. Hoover was not favorable to the notion of such a program, but U. S. Attorney General Homer Stille Cummings gave it his full support. G-Men dramatized FBI cases. Hoover demanded that he or a top-level aide review and approve every script. Hoover preferred that scripts downplay gunfights and car chases, spend more time on systematic investigation and legwork. Agents should be shown as intelligent, hard-working and faceless cogs in his technically savvy crime-fighting organization.
Those restrictions hampered Lord, who saw his creation as a public service, but one that had to entertain as well as inform. The first program dramatized the story of the notorious gangster John Dillinger, tracked down by FBI agents and shot to death outside the Biograph Theater on July 24, 1934; the second covered aka Baby Face Nelson. Although the shows were a hit with the general public, there were naysayers, some of whom deplored this sensational new style of radio show. Hyper-sensitive to any criticism, Hoover squelched the project and made life more and more difficult for Lord, it was just G-Men, subject to Hoover's whims and restrictions. Gang Busters featured interesting and dramatic crimes from the files of law enforcement organizations all over the country. G-Men was on NBC Radio from July 20 to October 1935, sponsored by Chevrolet; the "sequel," Gang Busters, debuted in mid-January, 1936. If anything, the opening sound effects became more elaborate and aggressive; the show opened with a barrage of blaring sound effects – a shrill police whistle, convicts marching in formation, police siren wailing, machine guns firing, tires squealing.
An authoritative voice would announce the title of that night's program: "Tonight, Gang Busters presents the Case of the —." The opening would end with more blasts from a police whistle. This intrusive introduction led to the popular catchphrase "came on like Gangbusters." To lend an extra air of authenticity to the presentation, Lord had Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr. former head of the New Jersey State Police give a short talk to lead into the actual dramatization. That authentic voice became more important after Lord ended his connection with the FBI. After about 1945, Lewis Joseph Valentine, crime-busting New York City Police Commissioner replaced Schwarzkopf as the authoritative opening speaker. Gang Busters aired on CBS from January 15, 1936 to June 15, 1940, sponsored by Colgate-Palmolive and Cue magazine. From October 11, 1940 to December 25, 1948, it was heard on the Blue Network, with various sponsors that included Sloan's Liniment, Waterman pens and Tide. Returning to CBS on January 8, 1949, it ran until June 25, 1955, sponsored by Grape-Nuts and Wrigley's chewing gum.
The final series was on the Mutual Broadcasting System from October 5, 1955 to November 27, 1957. Gang Busters featured prominent names in radio broadcasting, many of whom starred in movies and television. Two of the most famous were Art Carney. Widmark was typecast as a villain for many years, but managed to break that mold. Carney became famous for his role with Jackie Gleason on The Honeymooners, but he had a much broader career than that. Joan Banks, who played many TV roles, was a regular cast member, her husband, Frank Lovejoy appeared and went on to star in many movies and an ABC crime drama. Larry Haines was another regular on the show, he went on to an extensive career in TV soap operas. A lesser known actor on the show was Leon Janney, who played both juvenile roles and ones requiring an unusual accent; the popularity of the radio show prompted a spin-off comic book published by DC Comics, which ran for 67 issues between 1947 and 1958. Big Little Books based on the series were produced.
Universal Pictures made a popular Gang Busters movie serial in 1942, starring Kent Taylor, Irene Hervey, Ralph Morgan and Robert Armstrong. NBC aired a 30-minute television series version from March 20, 1952 to Oct. 23, 1952, hosted by Chester Morris. The series did well in the Nielsen ratings, finishing at #14 in the 1951-1952 season and at #8 in 1952-1953, it went off the air because it alternated weekly with Dragnet, when that series could produce enough episodes weekly, NBC had no more use for Gang Busters as a stop-gap show. Episodes of the show were reedited into two feature films, Gang Busters and Guns Don't Argue. Episodes were syndicated in 1953 by NBC Film Division, with the title changed to Captured. An ad for the program indicated. Vivi Janiss was cast in three television episodes, "The Blonde Tigress", "The Rocco Case", The Rocco Trapani Case". "Gang Busters" "Gang Busters" in the Old Time Radio Archive Radio Lovers: Gang Busters Gang Buste
Organized crime is a category of transnational, national, or local groupings of centralized enterprises run by criminals who intend to engage in illegal activity, most for profit. Some criminal organizations, such as terrorist groups, are politically motivated. Sometimes criminal organizations force people to do business with them, such as when a gang extorts money from shopkeepers for "protection". Gangs may become disciplined enough to be considered organized. A criminal organization or gang can be referred to as a mafia, mob, or crime syndicate. European sociologists define the mafia as a type of organized crime group that specializes in the supply of extra-legal protection and quasi law enforcement. Gambetta's classic work on the Sicilian Mafia generates an economic study of the mafia, which exerts great influence on studies of the Russian Mafia, the Chinese Mafia, Hong Kong Triads and the Japanese Yakuza. Other organizations—including states, militaries, police forces, corporations—may sometimes use organized-crime methods to conduct their activities, but their powers derive from their status as formal social institutions.
There is a tendency to distinguish organized crime from other forms of crime, such as white-collar crime, financial crimes, political crimes, war crime, state crimes, treason. This distinction is not always apparent and academics continue to debate the matter. For example, in failed states that can no longer perform basic functions such as education, security, or governance, organized crime and war sometimes complement each other; the term "Oligarchy" has been used to describe democratic countries whose political and economic institutions come under the control of a few families and business oligarchs. In the United States, the Organized Crime Control Act defines organized crime as "he unlawful activities of a organized, disciplined association ". Criminal activity as a structured process is referred to as racketeering. In the UK, police estimate that organized crime involves up to 38,000 people operating in 6,000 various groups. Due to the escalating violence of Mexico's drug war, a report issued by the United States Department of Justice characterizes the Mexican drug cartels as the "greatest organized crime threat to the United States".
Patron-client networks are defined by fluid interactions. They produce crime groups that operate as smaller units within the overall network, as such tend towards valuing significant others, familiarity of social and economic environments, or tradition; these networks are composed of: Hierarchies based on'naturally' forming family and cultural traditions. Bureaucratic/corporate organized crime groups are defined by the general rigidity of their internal structures, they focus more on how the operations works, sustains itself or avoids retribution, they are typified by: A complex authority structure. However, this model of operation has some flaws: The'top-down' communication strategy is susceptible to interception, more so further down the hierarchy being communicated to. While bureaucratic operations emphasize business processes and authoritarian hierarchies, these are based on enforcing power relationships rather than an overlying aim of protectionism, sustainability or growth. An estimate on youth street gangs nationwide provided by Hannigan, et al. marked an increase of 35% between 2002 and 2010.
A distinctive gang culture underpins many, but not organized groups. The term “street gang” is used interchangeably with “youth gang,” referring to neighborhood or street-based youth groups that meet “gang” criteria. Miller defines a street gang as “a self-formed association of peers, united by mutual interests, with identifiable leadership and internal organization, who act collectively or as individuals to achieve specific purposes, including the conduct of illegal activity and control of a particular territory, facility, or enterprise." Some reasons youth join gangs include to feel accepted, attain status, increase their self-esteem. A sense of unity brings together many of the youth gangs. "Zones of transition" are deteriorating neighborhoods with shifting populations. In such areas, co
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Goodbye, My Fancy
Goodbye, My Fancy is a 1951 American romantic comedy film starring Joan Crawford, Robert Young, Frank Lovejoy. The film was produced by Henry Blanke. Distributed by Warner Bros. the film was based on the 1948 play of same name by Fay Kanin and adapted for the screen by Ivan Goff and Ben Roberts. The plot follows an influential politician who returns to her former college to receive an honorary degree only to find her old flame as the university president. Goodbye, My Fancy was the third and last cinematic collaboration between Sherman and Crawford, the first two being Harriet Craig and The Damned Don't Cry in 1950. Powerful U. S. Representative Agatha Reed returns to her alma mater to receive an honorary degree. Unbeknownst to the college's board of trustees, Agatha was expelled from the school years earlier for participating in an all-night date with a young professor, Dr. James Merrill, now the university president; the romantic fires are rekindled. Matt Cole, a photographer from Life Magazine who loves Agatha, believes her feeling for Merrill is an unresolved holdover from her girlhood and follows her to the school.
Agatha becomes embroiled in a university matter over progressive teaching methods with Dr. Pitt, board trustee Claude Griswold and his wife Ellen Griswold. A film Agatha made about the dangers of restricting intellectual freedom is to be shown on campus to celebrate her legacy, but the reactionary Griswold forces Merrill to cancel the showing. Merrill will not stand up to Griswold, though Merrill consents to show the film if Agatha's expulsion is not revealed, he lies to his daughter about the reason why. After a series of misunderstandings, Agatha realizes she belongs with Cole and should forget the way she fancied Merrill. Director Vincent Sherman received a blistering memo from studio head Jack L. Warner about running over budget: "After talking to you on the telephone last night, Friday, I am depending on you to finish the picture by next Saturday, November 18th; as I told you, other companies are making the same type of picture in 21-28-36 days with important casts. As you know, MGM made Father's Little Dividend, with Spencer Tracy, Elizabeth Taylor and Joan Bennett in 21 days and I am sure the Director had the same problems you have had.
You will just have to do this. Otherwise, we can not delay in making a picture; those days are gone and no one is going to stay on the team unless they can carry the ball. Get in there and finish the picture by next Saturday or before and stop trying for perfection. No one is interested but yourself and I am sure you are not going to pay to see the picture." Large portions of the film were shot at the University of Redlands in California. The critics were mixed on the success of the film. Variety commented, "Performances are slick, under Vincent Sherman's direction. Miss Crawford...sustains the romantic, middle-aged congresswoman with a light touch, excellent." However, Bosley Crowther in The New York Times panned the film, writing, "Miss Crawford's errant congresswoman is as aloof and imposing as the capital dome" and "Joan Crawford is working extra hard to make romance and liberalism attractive in the Warner's film version. And when Miss Crawford makes a mighty effort to do what she regards as a significant piece of performing, the atmosphere is electrically charged.
At least, it is loaded with tension—or a reasonable facsimile thereof—when Miss Crawford herself is posing or parading within the camera's range. According to Warner Bros records the film earned $1,130,000 domestically and $228,000 foreign. Goodbye, My Fancy was released on Region 1 DVD on March 2009 from the online Warner Bros.. Archive Collection. Goodbye, My Fancy at the TCM Movie Database Goodbye, My Fancy at AllMovie Goodbye, My Fancy on IMDb Goodbye, My Fancy at the American Film Institute Catalog
Home of the Brave (1949 film)
Home of the Brave is a 1949 war film based on a 1946 play by Arthur Laurents. It was directed by Mark Robson, stars Douglas Dick, Jeff Corey, Lloyd Bridges, Frank Lovejoy, James Edwards, Steve Brodie; the original play featured the protagonist being Jewish, rather than black. The National Board of Review named the film the eighth best of 1949. Home of the Brave utilizes the recurrent theme of a diverse group of men being subjected to the horror of war and their individual reactions, in this case, to the hell of jungle combat against the Japanese in World War II. Undergoing psychoanalysis by an Army psychiatrist, paralyzed Black war veteran Private Peter Moss begins to walk again only when he confronts his fear of forever being an "outsider"; the film uses flashback techniques to show Moss, an Engineer topography specialist assigned to a reconnaissance patrol who are clandestinely landed from a PT boat on a Japanese-held island in the South Pacific to prepare the island for a major amphibious landing.
The patrol is led by a young major, includes Moss's lifelong white friend Finch, whose death leaves him racked with guilt. J.. When the patrol is discovered, Finch is left behind, captured by the Japanese, who force him to cry out to the patrol; the dying Finch escapes, dies in Moss's arms. In a firefight with the Japanese, Mingo is wounded in the arm, Moss is unable to walk. T. J. carries Moss to the returning PT boat. In the film's crucial scene, the doctor forces Moss to overcome his paralysis by yelling a racial slur. From this point on, Moss will never again kowtow to prejudice. Mingo and Moss decide to go into business together. Arthur Laurents spent World War II with the Army Pictorial Service based at the film studio in Astoria and rose to the rank of sergeant. After his discharge, he wrote a play called Home of the Brave in nine consecutive nights, inspired by a photograph of GIs in a South Pacific jungle; the drama about anti-Semitism in the military opened on Broadway on December 27, 1945, ran for 69 performances.
When Laurents sold the rights to Hollywood, he was told that the lead character would be turned from Jewish into black because "Jews have been done". Producer Stanley Kramer filmed in secrecy under the working title of High Noon; the film was completed in thirty days, for the cost of US$525,000, with Kramer using three different units at the same time. The majority of the film was made on indoor sets, except for the climax that took place on Malibu beach with a former navy PT boat. Associate Producer Robert Stillman financed the film with the help of his father, without the usual procedure of borrowing funds from banks. Home of the Brave managed to combine three of the top film genres of 1949: the war film, the psychological drama, the problems of African-Americans. Director Robson, who had begun his directing career with several Val Lewton RKO horror films, brings a frighting feeling to the claustrophobic jungle set, with Dimitri Tiomkin providing an eerie choral rendition of Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child performed by the Jester Hairston choir as the patrol escapes their Japanese pursuers.
In the movie's final scene, Sergeant Mingo recites Eve Merriam's 1943 poem The Coward to Private Moss in friendship: "Divided we fall, united we stand. The New York Herald Tribune reported that a man named Herbert Tweedy imitated the sound of twelve different birds native to the South Pacific for the film; the film gained the prize of the International Catholic Organization for Cinema at the Knokke Experimental Film Festival in 1949. According to this jury, this was a film "most capable of contributing to the revival of moral and spiritual values of humanity". "We all know the definition of this award "for the production that has made the greatest contribution to the moral and spiritual betterment of humanity". It differs from the other awards, when are given for artistic merit. Art for Art's sake is not the object, but rather art for the sake of man, the whole of man and soul. Pious dullness is not the aim. In a topical decision, President Truman's Executive Order 9981 had ordered the U. S. Armed Forces to be integrated in 1948.
Home of the Brave on IMDb The Coward http://thebestamericanpoetry.typepad.com/the_best_american_poetry/2008/07/the-coward-by-e.html 1952 Best Plays radio adaptation of original play at Internet Archive