Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota
The Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota is a political office in North Dakota. The Lieutenant Governor's duty is to preside as President of the Senate, is responsible for legislative relations, the state budget and agribusiness development. In the event the office of the Governor becomes vacant, the Lieutenant Governor assumes that office and appoints a replacement lieutenant; the current Lieutenant Governor is Brent Sanford. Before 1974, the Lieutenant Governor of North Dakota was elected separately from the Governor. To avoid hostile relations between a Lieutenant Governor and Governor from different parties, the process was changed to where the Governor and Lieutenant are elected together on a joint ballot and are of the same party. List of Lieutenant Governors of North Dakota Biography of the North Dakota Lieutenant Governor
Arthur A. Link
Arthur Albert "Art" Link was an American politician for the North Dakota Democratic Party, the Democratic-NPL. He served as a U. S. Representative from 1971 to 1973 and as the 27th Governor of North Dakota from 1973 to 1981. Link was born in North Dakota, he attended the McKenzie County schools, North Dakota Agricultural College. Link began a career as a farmer soon after his 1939 marriage, became active in politics as a member of the local chapters of the National Farmers' Union and Nonpartisan League, he was elected to the North Dakota House of Representatives in 1946 as a Democrat. Link served for 14 years as the house's minority leader, was speaker of the house from 1965 to 1967, he was a member of the Randolph Township Board, 1942–1972. In 1970, Link was persuaded to run for U. S. Congress from the western district of North Dakota to succeed Republican incumbent Thomas S. Kleppe, who ran unsuccessfully for the U. S. Senate, it was a job with little security as it appeared certain the state would be consolidated into a single congressional district after the census.
He was narrowly elected as a Dem-NPLer to the Ninety-second Congress in a mild surprise. Link was well respected as a governor; those of all political persuasions found common ground with him. Some considered him a social conservative, staunchly pro-life religious and willing to stand for principle when political wisdom dictated otherwise, vetoing a bill to lower the state minimum drinking age to 19 years and providing leadership against legalizing gambling in the state. Others viewed him as a moderate as he was astute fiscally, managing to avoid raising taxes of one of the poorer states in the nation. Still others saw him as a progressive, since he was still able to maintain and grow an excellent education system with affordable universities and students who achieve some of the top test scores in the United States, his political opponents could find little to criticize about his governing style. Some in his own party considered him too religious, too ethical, too colorless and too unwilling to compromise for the sake of political expediency.
He was nominated to run for a third term. He narrowly lost re-election in 1980 only due to a perfect storm of circumstances working against him, namely a tradition of turnover in the governor's office, continuous occupation of the governor's mansion since 1961 by Dem-NPLers in a solidly Republican state, a unpopular President Jimmy Carter running for re-election at the top of the ticket, a popular opponent Ronald Reagan running on the Republican side, a national feeling of pessimism brought about by the Iran hostage crisis and an unprecedented combination of double-digit unemployment and gas lines though North Dakota fared far better than most other places in the United States. After his defeat for re-election, Link remained active in public life, leading a successful fight against a state lottery in 1984, he remained a strong force for historical preservation and writing of local histories. He and his wife Grace lived in North Dakota, he is fondly remembered by North Dakotans and former North Dakotans, Dem-NPLers and Republicans alike as one of the best governors the state enjoyed.
Though the Democratic-NPL has been able to elect only one governor since Link vacated the office in 1981, they managed to occupy all the seats in the state's federal congressional delegation from 1987 until January 2011, with every member therein having served during the Link Administration. A movie was made of the Links' lives in 2008, entitled: "When the Landscape is Quiet Again". Link died at St. Alexius Hospital on June 1, 2010, in Bismarck, just eight days after his 96th birthday, he was survived by his wife of 71 years, former First Lady of North Dakota Grace Link, with whom he had six children. United States Congress. "Arthur A. Link". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. North Dakota Historical Society: Arthur Link
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Frank White (North Dakota politician)
Frank White was the eighth Governor of North Dakota from 1901 to 1905. A Republican, White served as Treasurer of the United States from 1921 to 1928. Colonel Frank White was born on December 12, 1856, in Stillman Valley, Illinois, to Joshua and Lucy Ann White, his father Joshua served in the first Wisconsin Constitutional Convention of 1846 and in the Illinois House of Representatives. White received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Civil Engineering from the University of Illinois in 1880. Soon after graduation, White worked for the Milwaukee & St. Paul Railroad. In 1882, he moved to the Dakota Territory. According to the book Barnes County History, White departed for North Dakota at his father's request to look after land he had acquired near Valley City. While White was in Valley City he met Elsie Hadley, a native of Indiana, a math teacher at Valley City State Normal School; the couple were married on September 1894, in Indianapolis. The couple had one son, Edwin Lee White, born in Valley City, North Dakota, on July 5, 1896.
White's interests soon turned toward politics, in 1890 he was elected to represent District 15 in the North Dakota House of Representatives. He served only one term before being elected to the State Senate in 1892, he was re-elected in 1896, but resigned from this post to become a commissioned major of the First North Dakota Volunteer Infantry, Spanish–American War. White arrived in the Philippines on July 30, 1898, participating in the capture of Manila on August 13. Throughout his service in the war, White participated in over twenty engagements, was a respected leader, was awarded the Silver Star for bravery during combat. White returned to the United States in 1899, purchased land near Litchville, North Dakota. In 1900, he opened a real insurance office; that same year, he received the Republican nomination for Governor, was victorious in the fall election. He was reelected in 1902, under White's two-term governorship, many needed reforms were implemented. A large amount of the school funds were not drawing interest, White decided to invest the money in bonds and farm loans, earning interest in the lump sum.
It was during his administration. In fact, through his sound financial maneuvering, a $223,000 state deficit was eliminated. In January 1905, White decided to retire from political office to return to private business, he organized the Middlewest Fire Insurance Company and served as its president until 1913, when the company merged with Twin City Fire Insurance Company. In 1914, White organized the Middlewest Loan & Trust Company and was its president until America's entry into World War I. With the advent of World War I, White was commissioned once more, this time at the rank of colonel, he commanded the Second North Dakota National Guard Regiment, which merged into the 41st Infantry Division. In 1918, he was sent to France, but due to his age; when the war ended, White returned to take up his position in Middlewest Trust Company. His career in politics was not finished, for in 1921 White was named United States Treasurer at the request of President Warren G. Harding; when Calvin Coolidge became President in 1924, he was asked to remain in the position.
Having served in the position of US Treasurer from 1921, he resigned in May 1928 to become president of Southern Mortgage Guaranty Corporation at Chattanooga, Tennessee. He implemented smaller dollar bills while in office. Elsie White died in 1925. Colonel Frank White died in Washington, D. C. on March 23, 1940. He was buried in Arlington National Cemetery, Virginia, with full military honors. Frank White Papers at The University of North Dakota Biography of Frank White at the State Historical Society of North Dakota website Frank White at Find a Grave National Governors Association The Political Graveyard
Frank A. Briggs
Frank A. Briggs was an American Republican elected official who served as the fifth Governor of North Dakota from January 6, 1897 until his death nineteen months later. Frank A. Briggs was born in the town of Minneapolis and was variously employed as a printer and journalist, he married Nannie Rachel Meek on July 12, 1877 and they had two daughters and Bessie. Twenty-three years old in 1881, he moved to the city of Mandan, the county seat of North Dakota's Morton County, where he dealt in real estate. Campaigning for public office, he was elected county treasurer, serving from 1885 to 1887, gained the statewide post of auditor in 1894 and in November 1896, prevailed in the gubernatorial election. An activist executive, he participated in discussions of laws being drafted by the state legislature, including passage of the revenue bill as well as a general railway law which regulated movement of freight and passengers. Having struggled with tuberculosis, Governor Briggs lost the battle in Bismarck five weeks before his 40th birthday.
Lieutenant Governor Joseph M. Devine served the remaining four-and-a-half months of the governor's two-year term, he was buried in Howard Lake Cemetery, Howard Lake, MN. Briggs was the first North Dakota Governor to die while in office. Governor of North Dakota List of Governors of North Dakota Frank A. Briggs Papers at the State Historical Society of North Dakota: scrapbook contains death notices and obituaries for the governor from various newspapers in North Dakota and the United States. Among the contents are eulogies, a description of Briggs' nomination for governor in 1896, copies of campaign speeches and details of his inaugural ceremony, as well as notices of the death of his daughter which occurred in Minnesota, buried at Howard Lake, MN, while he was in Bismarck, taking the oath of office. Included are newspaper clippings describing the Republican convention in 1894 when Briggs was nominated for State Auditor, followed by clippings about that campaign. There are letters of recommendation about Briggs' ability as a printer, a picture of the Briggs cemetery monument in Howard Lake, MN, Wright County, in the governor's native Minnesota, where he was buried.
Appended are social notes concerning Mrs. Briggs' life in Bismarck after the governor's death and a marriage announcement of her 1905 remarriage
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a public research university in Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System. Founded in 1867 as a land-grant institution, its campus is located in the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana; the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign is a member of the Association of American Universities and is classified as a R1 Doctoral Research University under the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education, which denotes the highest research activity. In fiscal year 2017, research expenditures at Illinois totaled $642 million; the campus library system possesses the second-largest university library in the United States by holdings after Harvard University. The university hosts the National Center for Supercomputing Applications and is home to the fastest supercomputer on a university campus; the university contains 16 schools and colleges and offers more than 150 undergraduate and over 100 graduate programs of study.
The university holds 651 buildings on 6,370 acres and its annual operating budget in 2016 was over $2 billion. The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign operates a Research Park home to innovation centers for over 90 start-up companies and multinational corporations, including Abbott, AbbVie, Capital One, State Farm, Yahoo, among others; as of October 2018, 30 Nobel laureates, 2 Turing Award winners, 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the university as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. The University of Illinois named "Illinois Industrial University", was one of the 37 universities created under the first Morrill Land-Grant Act, which provided public land for the creation of agricultural and industrial colleges and universities across the United States. Among several cities, Urbana was selected in 1867 as the site for the new school. From the beginning, President John Milton Gregory's desire to establish an institution grounded in the liberal arts tradition was at odds with many state residents and lawmakers who wanted the university to offer classes based around "industrial education".
The university opened for classes on March 2, 1868, had two faculty members and 77 students. The Library, which opened with the school in 1868, started with 1,039 volumes. Subsequently, President Edmund J. James, in a speech to the board of trustees in 1912, proposed to create a research library, it is now one of the world's largest public academic collections. In 1870, the Mumford House was constructed as a model farmhouse for the school's experimental farm; the Mumford House remains the oldest structure on campus. The original University Hall was the fourth building built. In 1885, the Illinois Industrial University changed its name to the "University of Illinois", reflecting its agricultural and liberal arts curriculum. During his presidency, Edmund J. James is credited for building the foundation for the large Chinese international student population on campus. James established ties with China through the Chinese Minister to the United States Wu Ting-Fang. In addition, during James's presidency, class rivalries and Bob Zuppke's winning football teams contributed to campus morale.
Alma Mater, a prominent statue on campus created by alumnus Lorado Taft, was unveiled on June 11, 1929. It was established from donations by the Alumni Fund and the classes of 1923–1929. Like many Universities, the economic depression slowed expansion on the campus; the university replaced the original university hall with the Illini Union. After World War II, the university experienced rapid growth; the enrollment doubled and the academic standing improved. This period was marked by large growth in the Graduate College and increased federal support of scientific and technological research. During the 1950s and 1960s the university experienced the turmoil common on many American campuses. Among these were the water fights of the fifties and sixties. By 1967 the University of Illinois system consisted of a main campus in Champaign-Urbana and two Chicago campuses, Chicago Circle and Medical Center, people began using "Urbana–Champaign" or the reverse to refer to the main campus specifically; the university name changed to the "University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign" around 1982, using the reverse of the used designation for the metropolitan area, "Champaign-Urbana".
The name change established a separate identity for the main campus within the University of Illinois system, which today includes campuses in Springfield and Chicago. In 1998, the Hallene Gateway Plaza was dedicated; the Plaza features the original sandstone portal of University Hall, the fourth building on campus. In recent years, state support has declined from 4.5% of the state's tax appropriations in 1980 to 2.28% in 2011, a nearly 50% decline. As a result, the university's budget has shifted away from relying on state support with nearly 84% of the budget now coming from other sources. On March 12, 2015, the Board of Trustees approved the creation of a medical school, being the first college created at Urbana–Champaign in over 60 years; the Carle-Illinois College of Medicine began classes in 2018. The main research and academic facilities are divided evenly between the twin cities of Urbana and Champaign, which form part of the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area; the College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences' research fields stretch south from Urbana and Champaign into Savoy and Champaign County.
Warren G. Harding
Warren Gamaliel Harding was the 29th president of the United States from 1921 until his death in 1923. A member of the Republican Party, he was one of the most popular U. S. presidents to that point. After his death a number of scandals, such as Teapot Dome, came to light, as did his extramarital affair with Nan Britton, he is rated as one of the worst presidents in historical rankings. Harding lived in rural Ohio all his life, except; as a young man, he built it into a successful newspaper. In 1899, he was elected to the Ohio State Senate, he was defeated for governor in 1910, but was elected to the United States Senate in 1914. He ran for the Republican nomination for president in 1920, he was considered a long shot until after the convention began; the leading candidates could not gain the needed majority, the convention deadlocked. Harding's support grew until he was nominated on the tenth ballot, he conducted a front porch campaign, remaining for the most part in Marion and allowing the people to come to him, running on a theme of a return to normalcy of the pre-World War I period.
He won in a landslide over Democrat James M. Cox and Socialist Party candidate Eugene Debs and became the first sitting senator to be elected president. Harding appointed a number of well-regarded figures to his cabinet, including Andrew Mellon at Treasury, Herbert Hoover at the Department of Commerce, Charles Evans Hughes at the State Department. A major foreign policy achievement came with the Washington Naval Conference of 1921–1922, in which the world's major naval powers agreed on a naval limitations program that lasted a decade, his cabinet members Albert Fall and Harry Daugherty were each tried for corruption in office. Harding died of a heart attack in San Francisco while on a western tour, succeeded by Vice President Calvin Coolidge. Harding was born on November 1865, in Blooming Grove, Ohio. Nicknamed "Winnie" as a small child, Harding was the eldest of eight children born to George Tryon Harding and Phoebe Elizabeth Harding. Phoebe was a state-licensed midwife. Tryon taught school near Mount Gilead, Ohio.
Through apprenticeship, study and a year of medical school, Tryon became a doctor and started a small practice. Some of Harding's mother's ancestors were Dutch, including the well-known Van Kirk family. Harding had ancestors from England and Scotland, it was rumored by a political opponent in Blooming Grove that one of Harding's great-grandmothers was African American. His great-great grandfather Amos Harding claimed that a thief, caught in the act by the family, started the rumor in an attempt at extortion or revenge. In 2015, genetic testing of Harding's descendants determined, with more than a 95% chance of accuracy, that he lacked sub-Saharan African forebears within four generations. In 1870, the Harding family, who were abolitionists, moved to Caledonia, where Tryon acquired The Argus, a local weekly newspaper. At The Argus, from the age of 11, learned the basics of the newspaper business. In late 1879, at the age of 14, Harding enrolled at his father's alma mater – Ohio Central College in Iberia – where he proved an adept student.
He and a friend put out a small newspaper, the Iberia Spectator, during their final year at Ohio Central, intended to appeal to both college and town. During his final year, the Harding family moved to Marion, about 6 miles from Caledonia, when he graduated in 1882, he joined them there. In Harding's youth, the majority of the population still lived in small towns, he would spend much of his life in Marion, a small city in rural Ohio, would become associated with it. When Harding rose to high office, he made clear his love of Marion and its way of life, telling of the many young Marionites who had left and enjoyed success elsewhere, while suggesting that the man, once the "pride of the school", who had remained behind and become a janitor, was "the happiest one of the lot". Upon graduating, Harding had stints as a teacher and as an insurance man, made a brief attempt at studying law, he raised $300 in partnership with others to purchase a failing newspaper, The Marion Star, weakest of the growing city's three papers, its only daily.
The 18-year-old Harding used the railroad pass that came with the paper to attend the 1884 Republican National Convention, where he hobnobbed with better-known journalists and supported the presidential nominee, former Secretary of State James G. Blaine. Harding returned from Chicago to find. During the election campaign, Harding worked for the Marion Democratic Mirror and was annoyed at having to praise the Democratic presidential nominee, New York Governor Grover Cleveland, who won the election. Afterward, with the financial aid of his father, the budding newspaperman redeemed the paper. Through the years of the 1880s, Harding built the Star; the city of Marion tended to vote Republican. Accordingly, Harding adopted a tempered editorial stance, declaring the daily Star nonpartisan and circulating a weekly edition, moderate Republican; this policy put the town's Republican weekly out of business. According to his biographer, Andrew Sinclair: The success of Harding with the Star was in the model of Horatio Alger.
He started with nothing, t