Kinzig Valley Railway (Hesse)
The Fulda–Hanau railway is a double track and electrified main line in the German state of Hesse. It runs south from Fulda along a ridge and through the valley of the Kinzig to Hanau; as a result, it is known as the Kinzig Valley Railway. The line was completed as part of the Frankfurt -- Bebra railway, it has been upgraded for high-speed traffic as part of an important line between Frankfurt and northern and eastern Germany. The construction of the Kinzig Valley Railway commenced as part of the Bebra–Hanau railway or Kurhessen State railway. After the Prussian annexation of the Electorate of Hesse-Kassel as a result of the Austro-Prussian War of 1866, it was completed to Frankfurt as the Frankfurt-Bebra railway in 1868; as a result of the division of Germany after World War II, the traditional traffic flows from Frankfurt to Leipzig and Berlin on the Kinzig Valley Railway were lost. However, traffic to and from Hamburg shifted from the Main–Weser Railway to the Kinzig Valley Railway; the route of the current connection of the new line south of Fulda to the Kinzig Valley Railway was determined during the course of discussions of various options for the route of the planned Hanover–Würzburg high-speed railway in the Fulda area in the first half of the 1970s.
There is a grade separated junction with the track from Kassel to Frankfurt passing under the high speed tracks between Fulda and Würzburg. Around 300 trains operate each day on the section between Hanau. In 2006, about 175 trains ran each day between Fulda each way. 23 percent of this traffic was attributable to long-distance passenger services, 18 percent to local passenger services and 59 percent to freight transport. A 16 km section near Hanau is equipped with the Linienzugbeeinflussung cab signalling and train protection system, constructed with three tracks and operated at speed of up to 200 km/h. Today the stretch is part of the Intercity-Express line from northern and eastern Germany to south western Germany via Frankfurt; the ICE trains are operated with ICE 1 and ICE T sets. Intercity services are hauled by a class 101 locomotive and have a control car; the most important services on the line are the Regional-Express services from Fulda and the Regionalbahn services from Wächtersbach to Frankfurt.
Most Regionalbahn and Regional-Express trains consist of a class 111 locomotive with 3-4 double-deck carriages and a double-deck driving trailer. In addition, there are services composed of a class 143 locomotive with modernised Silberling carriages and a control car. Several times a day and trains operate with a class 111 locomotive, 7 Silberling carriages and a Wittenberg control car. Along with the Main-Weser Railway it is one of the major freight lines in central Germany running north–south. Significant freight traffic operates on it from nearly every major German freight centre and from neighboring countries. Freight trains operated by private railway companies are often seen on the line, it is undisputed. Although this has been under discussion for decades, no decision has been taken on the form or timing of an upgrade. In the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan of 1973, the Flieden–Frankfurt section was one of eight planned rail corridors for upgrading. Although it was not included for development in the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan of 1980, it was again included in the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan of 1985.
Because of the high utilisation of the double-track line with long-distance and freight traffic, it was planned to establish in the long term a continuous high-speed line with speeds of over 160 km/h between Hanau and Fulda so that fast intercity trains were not slowed by other traffic and the sharp curves in the Kinzig Valley. The development of the track was included in 1983 as one of the most urgent needs in the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan; the traffic forecast for the Federal Transport Infrastructure Plan of 1992 forecast that an upgraded line would carry 36 passenger trains and 104 freight trains per day in each direction in 2010. Construction began in 1987; the most important project was the construction of the Schlüchtern Tunnel. The second tube was supposed to be completed in time for the full commissioning of the Hanover–Würzburg and the Mannheim–Stuttgart high-speed lines in 1991. There were delays due to delays in the project approval process in relation to the elimination of level crossings.
In early 1991, four of the 25 sections of the project were completed, 13 were under construction, five were still in the planning approval process and three were at the planning stage. Planning at the end of 1988 foresaw the Wolfgang–Gelnhausen section would be upgraded to three tracks for 200 km/h by 1991; the Neuhof–Fulda section was expected to follow by 1994. The official start of the upgrade was the symbolic driving of first pile by the Hessen Minister of Economics, Dieter Posch, on 27 September 1989 in Steinau. Under the plans of 1989, DM 610 million would be invested over six years, including DM 150 million for the elimination of level crossings. By a 37 kilometre section would permit speeds of 200 km / h. To accommodate the scheduled start of ICE operation, the high-speed section between Hailer-Meerholz and Hanau-Wolfgang was put into operation on 2 June 1991; the Bronzell–Flieden, the Ahl–Wächtersbach and the Wirtheim–Niedermittlau sections have since been scheduled to operate at up to 160 km / h.
On 22 May 1993, the 19 km long third track between Gelnhausen-Hailer was put in operation. It is, lik
Basel SBB railway station
Basel SBB railway station is the central railway station in the city of Basel, Switzerland. Opened in 1854, rebuilt in 1900–1907, it is Europe's busiest international border station; as its name suggests, Basel SBB is owned by the Swiss Federal Railways. The other major railway station in Basel is Basel Badischer Bahnhof, on the north side of the Rhine from the city centre. Trains operated by SBB CFF FFS use Basel SBB to link Basel with destinations within Switzerland and Italy, as do Deutsche Bahn Intercity-Express trains to and from Germany, Zürich and Interlaken, most SNCF TGV trains to and from Paris, some regional trains to and from Alsace. Additionally, the station is served by three lines of the Basel S-Bahn; the 1907 neo-baroque station building is a heritage site of national significance. It contains Bâle SNCF, located through a border crossing and is used by other trains to and from France. Directly outside the station building is the Centralbahnplatz, a major hub of the Basel tramway network, the Basel terminus of a direct bus service to the EuroAirport.
The station area is situated at the southern side of the city centre, in an elongated area between the Zoological Garden to the west and the Brüglinger Ebene to the east. The borders of four of Basel's districts come together at the station area. However, the area is, according to the Statistical Office, divided between only two districts: the station itself is located in Gundeldingen, while most of the tracks on the eastern side of the station, along with the Centralbahnplatz in front of the station, are attributed to the St. Alban quarter; the Elisabethenanlage in front of the Centralbahnplatz belongs to Vorstädte, while the Markthalle opposite Basel SNCF is part of the Am Ring district. The first railway to reach Basel, the Chemin de fer Strasbourg Bâle, arrived there in 1844; the following year, 1845, the Elsässerbahn built the first station in the Basel metropolitan area, within the city walls. Basel thereby became the first Swiss city to be connected to the new means of transport. After the arrival of the railway, there was a passionate debate in Basel about the pros and cons of the railway and its possible continuation into the Swiss Plateau and the Gotthard.
Meanwhile, the Rheintalbahn from Mannheim and Karlsruhe approached Basel from the north. In 1853, the Schweizerische Centralbahn railway company was founded in Basel, its purpose was the establishment of a link between the city of Basel and the economic centres of the Mittelland cantons, even the expansion of the transport corridor from Lucerne to the Gotthard. The Viaduktstrasse in Basel – including the Birsig Viaduct, adjacent to the Zoo Basel parking lot – was the formation of the Elsässerbahn until 1902. Today, the viaduct serves tram lines 1 and 8, as well as motor vehicle traffic, a plaque on the bridge railing recalls its earlier role as a rail bridge. In 1854, construction began on the future Hauenstein railway line. Right up until the opening of the first section of the route from Basel to Liestal, the controversial question of the site and design of the Basel railway station remained unresolved. However, to accommodate the commencement of railway operations on 19 December 1854, the Centralbahn built a simple temporary timber structure, according to plans developed by chief architect Ludwig Maring.
By the opening day, all of the temporary station buildings had been completed, including a timber train shed. This modest provisional station, equipped with makeshift facilities, was made up of individual detached buildings and was used only for just under six years; the station site consisted of the station building, a goods shed, a carriage and locomotive shed and a turntable at the railhead. As the station building stood on the northeastern side of the station, alongside the station yard, the station was not configured as a terminus; the provisional station served only as the starting point of the SCB lines, had no connection with either the French station or the Badischer Bahnhof, opened in 1855 as the terminus of the Rheintalbahn. On 29 June 1857, the Grand Council of Basel-Stadt agreed to the construction of a link between the French line and the Centralbahn and the erection of a through station in the field in front of the Elisabethen-Bollwerk; the city bore the cost of the land purchase.
At the start of 1859, the SCB began construction work on the site of the new station, to a design by Maring. In addition to a passenger station, the new station yard featured a goods station relocated to the Gundeldingen district, two new locomotive sheds, one of them for the SCB, the other for the Chemins de fer de l'Est, which had taken over the StB in 1854. On 4 June 1860, railway operations began at the new Basel Centralbahnhof. However, it was not until May 1861; the Centralbahnhof was a joint station, with the northern facade of its station building facing the newly created Centralbahnplatz. On each side of the station building were the boarding halls, each with two tracks – on the eastern side for the Swiss trains and on the western side and for the French trains. To the south of the station building were the goods shed and two large warehouses, with an access road from the Güterstrasse. In subsequent years, modifications were made to the Centralbahnhof to enable it to deal with its increasi
Kiel Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station in the northern German city of Kiel. It consists of eight rail tracks, all of which are electrified, is a hub for train services to nearby towns such as Plön and Eckernförde. With 25,000 daily passengers and visitors to Kiel Hauptbahnhof, it is the second busiest railway station in Schleswig-Holstein after Lübeck Hauptbahnhof; the area around the station is the busiest place in Kiel. More than 100,000 people daily use the railway station and the station forecourt; the station is the starting point of lines to Hamburg, Lübeck and Husum. It is located directly on Kieler Förde; the ferry terminal for Oslo and Gothenburg is a few hundred metres away. Kiel Hauptbahnhof is built as a railway terminus and has a three-aisled train shed, 121 metres long and 55 m wide. Kiel's first railway station was built between 1843 and 1846 at Ziegelteich, about 500 m north of the current location; this station was unable to cope with the growing traffic after the declaration of the Reichskriegshäfen in Kiel in 1871.
The current location was selected for its improved access to the port by road. Construction began in 1895; the western part of the six-track terminal station was completed and opened in 1899. Trains continued to run in the meantime to the old station through a gap in the east wing. After the opening of the new station, operations to the old station were abandoned and the east wing was completed in 1900; the old station was demolished in 1902. On the east side of the entrance building were the imperial steps, which together with a curved driveway provided the shortest possible route to the harbour basin where the imperial yacht was berthed; the final completion of the west wing and the platform hall lasted until 1911 because, among other things, the city monastery and a poorhouse on Sophienblatt, had to be demolished. In 1944, the station and the adjacent magnificent buildings were damaged by the Allies in a heavy air raid. Starting in 1950, the station was rebuilt in a simplified form; the restaurant was located in the eastern part of the entrance building, so that the imperial staircase was no longer available as an entrance.
In the 1950s, the station environment was transformed. In particular, the access street of Sophienblatt was broadened. In preparation for the 1972 Summer Olympics, an elevated parking deck was built on the north side of the station forecourt, covering the central bus station, at ground level; the pedestrian connection between the railway station and the bus station across the forecourt at the time was effected by means of a pedestrian walk covered by a light steel structure, leading out of the main entrance arch of the railway station and ending at the raised parking level. In the station, a level for shopping was inserted in the station concourse and around the north entrance, which halved the historical ceiling heights; the parking deck and the central bus station underneath it was demolished from 2009 to 2010, reducing it by nearly a third at its southern end closest to the station. A hotel of the "Atlantic" chain was built there, it cost around € 23 million to build. A pedestrian bridge, built to connect the Sophienhof shopping centre, built in 1988, the station building has affected the architecture of the building.
On the eastern side towards the harbour, the Erlebniszentrum CAP was rebuilt in 1994/1995 with several restaurants and a large cinema. It has direct access at platform height from the easternmost platform. In 2010, the CAP had its second renovation involving changes in its passageway and entrance areas while retaining some local businesses, including a bowling alley and a discotheque; the railway to Hamburg was electrified in 1995. Since Intercity-Express trains start and end here daily. In 1999, a comprehensive renovation of the station started. Among other things, it received a new lobby; the intermediate level of the historic hall was removed and thus the former ceiling height were restored. The pedestrian walkway to the bus station on the north side of the station was demolished without replacement and the pedestrian walkway to the Sophienhof shopping centre was replaced by a steel and glass structure; the redesigned station forecourt and the foyer with shops on the concourse were inaugurated for Kiel Week in June 2004.
The imperial steps on the east side have been restored. Due to financial and technical difficulties, the reconstruction was interrupted several times and only concluded in May 2006 with the completion of a new station hall, only the cross-walk at the end of the platforms is still in its original condition although it has been refurbished; the total cost of the conversion amounted to €60 million. The cost for the work in the station hall was estimated to cost around €30 million. From 2013, there will be a further renovation of the station with the creation of tracks 6a. Track 2a was built outside the train shed with a connection to the platform for tracks 1 and 2. Tracks 6a is built outside the train shed with a connection to the platform for tracks 5 and 6; these are needed to cope with the additional traffic on the Kiel-Rendsburg route and the Kiel–Schönberger Strand route from 2014. Regular services to the station operate on the following lines: Kiel–Eckernförde–Flensburg Kiel–Eutin–Lübeck Kiel–Rendsburg–Husum Kiel–Neumünster–Hamburg Kiel–Schönberg–Schönberger Strand railway.
On weekends in the summer months, special trains ran to Schoenberg beach. Since September 2013, daily school trains
The Main-Lahn railway called the Limburg railway, is a double-track, electrified main railway line in Germany. The 66.5-kilometer long line extends from Frankfurt Central Station to Eschhofen, a borough of Limburg an der Lahn. From Frankfurt to Niedernhausen, it operates as Rhine-Main S-Bahn S-2 and carries Deutsche Bahn route number 645.2. From Frankfurt Central Station to Frankfurt-Höchst, it carries S-Bahn S-1. From Niedernhausen to Eschhofen, it takes over Route number 627 from the Ländches Railway. From Eschhofen, the line leads into the Lahn Valley Railway. A middle route through the Taunus between the Main and Lahn River valleys had been considered since 1850. However, construction was only begun under Prussian rule on 25 March 1872; the concession was awarded to the Hessian Ludwig Railway. The construction began from Eschhofen and each finished section served to transport material to the construction further forward; the first section between Eschhofen and Niederselters was opened to traffic on 1 February 1875.
The entire track was completed on 15 October 1877. The line from Niedernhausen to Wiesbaden Central Station, called the Ländchesbahn Railway, was launched on 1 July 1879. Between 1911 and 1913, the single-track line was converted to double track. In 1971, the track was electrified between Frankfurt-Höchst and Niedernhausen, in 1986 between Niedernhausen and Limburg. Starting in 2009 the tunnel in Eppstein was replaced with a new tunnel because the old tunnel needed to be restored urgently and doing this with full operation of services would have led to years of disruption of rail services. In addition, a new tunnel would be cheaper in the long run, as a new concrete lining inside the tunnel would reduce the cross-section to the extent that it could no longer be operated as two tracks, therefore a new tunnel would have to be built for traffic in the opposite direction anyway; the line was rerouted through the new tunnel during the Easter of 2013 and the old tunnel was subsequently filled. In this context, Eppstein station is being rebuilt.
The old station, a heritage-listed building, is no longer used by the railway. It is now used as a government shopfront and a restaurant; the freight hall, a heritage-listed building, has been demolished. The operation of steam locomotives ended in 1972. In 1978, S-Bahn line S 2 opened between Frankfurt Niedernhausen; the S-Bahn line is operated with class 423 electric multiple units. Regionalbahn RB 22 and Regional-Express RE 20 services have been operated by DB Regio with class 143 locomotives since early 2006 and modern double-deck carriages since 2008. In addition RB 21 services run every two hours on the section from Limburg to Niedernhausen are operated with Siemens Desiro Classic sets by Hessische Landesbahn, continuing over the Ländches Railway to Wiesbaden. Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Hessen, ed.. Eisenbahn in Hessen. Kulturdenkmäler in Hessen. Denkmaltopographie Bundesrepublik Deutschland. 2.1. Stuttgart: Theiss Verlag. Pp. 501ff. ISBN 3-8062-1917-6. Heinz Hirt. 1877–2002 – 125 Jahre Main-Lahn-Bahn Höchst-Limburg.
Eppstein. ISBN 3-00-010714-2. Heinz Hirt, ed.. 130 Jahre Bahnhof Eppstein. Vom provisorischen Stationsgebäude 1877 zum modernen Stadtbahnhof 2007. Eppstein. ISBN 978-3-00-022577-2. Dieter Frey. Von der Dampflok zum ICE-Zeitalter. Über 130 Jahre Eisenbahn im Idsteiner Land. The Main-Lahn Railway on OpenStreetMap
Wiesbaden Hauptbahnhof is a railway station for the city of Wiesbaden, the state capital of the German state of Hesse. It is a terminal station at the southern edge of the city centre and is used by more than 40,000 travelers each day, so it is the second largest station in Hesse after Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof, it is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 2 station. The current station replaced three stations in the city centre, which were next to each other near the fairground and the Wiesbaden Museum; these were: The Taunusbahnhof, built in 1840 for the Taunus Railway (Wiesbaden–Castel–Höchst–Frankfurt. The Rheinbahnhof, built in 1857 for the East Rhine railway; the Ludwigsbahnhof, built in 1879 for the Ländches Railway. A fourth railway line was added in 1889, connecting to the Rheinbahnhof, with the opening Langenschwalbach Railway from the Rheinbahnhof in Wiesbaden to Bad Schwalbach and extended to Diez on the Lahn; the new station building became necessary to handle the growing number of passenger visiting the spa city at that time.
It was built from 1904 to 1906 according to the plans of Fritz Klingholz in a flamboyant neo-baroque style that corresponded to an international style of architecture adopted for spa towns. It was intended to welcome Kaiser Wilhelm II on his visit to the spa every May and a platform was established for him and other aristocrats; the first train ran into the new station on 15 November 1906 around 2:23 a.m. In the station building the relics of the former images of crowned heads, with the faces removed, can still be seen in many places; the new Hauptbahnhof was located outside the town at the time of its building at the south-eastern end of the newly constructed ring road, which runs in an arc to the west of the historic pentagon at the centre of Wiesbaden. During the period up to the First World War the town developed towards the new station. On 25 September 1983, the Hauptbahnhof was affected by the closure of a line. Passenger services were discontinued between Bad Schwalbach on the Aar Valley Railway.
One of the long-term consequences was the decommissioning and dismantling of station track 11 so that the station now has only 10 tracks. Wiesbaden Hauptbahnhof was extensively refurbished and modernised at a cost of €25 million between 2003 and 2004. A redesign of the forecourt, costing €1.5 million, was carried out between mid-2006 and March 2007. The modernisation should have been completed with the opening of the high-speed line to Cologne, but was postponed several times due to lack of funds. Next door is the Lilien-Carré shopping centre opened in March 2007 on the site of the former main post office; as part of the economic stimulus package, the train shed roofs have been renovated at a cost of €35 million since late 2010. Wiesbaden Hauptbahnhof is connected to the Cologne-Frankfurt high-speed line by the 13.0 km long Breckenheim–Wiesbaden line opened in 2002. This line had been subjected to extensive analysis and discussions by 1990. Three options were investigated: an alignment of the main route of the high-speed line through Wiesbaden station.
This option was premised on the route of the line running along the eastern bank of the Rhine, rejected after exhaustive investigations. It examined possible connection to the current station: by continuing to serve the terminal station, with the construction of a new underground station deep near the existing station area, running north–south, with the construction of a new underground station, running east-west. Possible station sites were tested in the Hainerberg district, near Wiesbaden Ost station and east of the Bierstadt district. Only in the case of Wiesbaden Ost was a link to the S-Bahn possible and in all three cases connections to public transport would have had to be changed. An alignment along the A3 to the east of Wiesbaden; the option of running under the Wiesbaden city area with a station on a north-south orientation was dismissed. Overall, this option required an ascending 10.2 km tunnel. Rejected was the east-west option as it would have required a tunnel, located 30 to 100 m below the water table.
The high pressure of ground water under parts of the city of Wiesbaden made this difficult. Test bores on the route of the postulated tunnel found material, penetrated by debris. In August 1991, the state of Hesse, the city of Wiesbaden and the Deutsche Bundesbahn agreed to a ground-level connection running from the Hauptbahnhof via a link to the east to the new line; the realised Wiesbadener Kreuz option was accessed as having the best cost-benefit ratio. A major argument put forward in the assessment report was that the best way by far of generating passenger traffic would be a connection to the existing station and that only at Wiesbaden Hauptbahnhof would it be possible to give comprehensive access to public transport. Furthermore, the option agreed with the route promoted by nature conservation and environmental groups. A proposed branch off the link along the A 66 and connecting to the high-speed line towards Frankfurt, which would be served only by regional services has not been realized.
As part of the connection to the new line, a platform in Wiesbaden station was extended to the length of long ICE trains. The cost of €1.7 million were funded by the federal gover
The Homburg Railway is an 18 km line from Frankfurt am Main to Bad Homburg in the German state of Hesse. It was opened in 1860 as one of the first railway lines in Germany, it is now part of the Rhine-Main S-Bahn line S5 to Friedrichsdorf. Early on, there was support in Homburg for an efficient transport connection from Frankfurt in order to increase patronage to its spa and casino. In 1850 a horse-drawn omnibus provided an hourly service from Frankfurt to Homburg, but this soon was not enough to meet the needs of travellers. Projects to build railways failed in 1836, 1845, 1851 and 1856, caused by funding problems and the number of small states that the line would have to run through: the line as built was only 18 km long but it ran across the territories of four independent countries: the Free City of Frankfurt, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau and the Landgraviate of Hesse-Homburg. Nassau had concerns; the Electorate of Hesse-Kassel's opposition forced the line to avoid Bockenheim, in Hesse-Kassel territory on the Main-Weser Railway, just outside Frankfurt.
The locals called the line with some exaggeration the "six nation railway". When, after tough negotiations, at the end of June 1859 an acceptable route was found and the Homburg casino agreed to finance it, all countries concerned granted a concession to the British railway entrepreneur, Sir Samuel Morton Peto and the Homburg Railway Company was founded. Construction under the direction of the famous railway engineer Edmund Heusinger von Waldegg was carried out quickly and on 10 September 1860 the first passenger trains ran, the first goods train on 6 October 1860. In Frankfurt it connected with the Main-Weser station on the Gallusanlage, ran along the Taunus Railway to the old vineyards west of Frankfurt, where it branched off to Rödelheim, it went ran via Weisskirchen and Oberursel to Homburg, where it ended at a terminal station in Louisenstraße. At its opening it had 28 first to third class carriages and luggage and freight wagons and four locomotives with a 1B wheel arrangement, supplied by Henschel with works numbers 46 to 49.
In 1870, a similar locomotive was procured from Henschel with the works number 290. The number of carriages had been increased to 36. Eight pairs of trains ran daily; the Prussian annexations after the War of 1866 simplified the situation for the railway. The whole route now ran except for one small piece at Weißkirchen station; the closing of the casino by the Prussian state in 1872 led to a significant fall in passenger numbers. In 1873 and 1874 the Kronberg Railway was built by a private railway company: it branched off after Rödelheim to Kronberg. On 1 January 1880 the railway was sold to Prussia because the company could not afford and did not want the changes to the line required for connection to the planned new Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof, it thus became part of the Prussian state railways. The line was diverted to connect at Bockenheim station, which had to be avoided in 1860, on the nationalised Main-Weser Railway; the diversion, opened on 10 May 1884, shortened the line to 15.6 km from Frankfurt West.
The old line through the vineyards was removed. In 1895, the Usingen line from Homburg via Friedrichsdorf to Usingen was opened and some years extended to Weilburg and Wetzlar on the Lahn Valley Railway. In Homburg a second terminal station was built in Louisenstraße, 200 to 300 metres from the first station, on the site of the current town hall. A link line between the two stations enabled shunting. Planning of a line to Friedberg began in 1868, although construction did not start until 1898 and the line was commissioned on 15 July 1901, it branched off the line to Usingen in Friedrichsdorf. In 1907, the old Homburg stations were replaced with the current station, creating a through line to Friedrichsdorf. In 1912, Homburg was renamed Bad Homburg. Between 1907 and 1912 the entire route from Frankfurt to Friedrichsdorf and Friedberg was duplicated. On 1 September 1905, a link was opened at the request of Emperor Wilhelm II through the Frankfurt vineyards only for freight and special trains, it branched off the Homburg line south of Rödelheim towards Höchst and was used from 1908 by passenger trains on the Bad Nauheim–Wiesbaden line between the spa towns of Wiesbaden, Bad Homburg and Bad Nauheim.
A link between this line and Frankfurt Hauptbahnhof was opened on 15 March 1927 and is still used by trains connecting to the Taunusbahn to the north of Bad Homburg. The curve from Homburg to Höchst was demolished in 1963 during motorway construction. After repairs to war damage the line recovered its importance for handling commuter traffic to Frankfurt. On 23 May 1954 a regular interval half-hourly timetable was introduced hauled by class 78 steam locomotives and class V 80 and V 100 diesel locomotives; the extension to Friedberg was downgraded to a single-track branch line due to war damage and a loss of profitability. Following the completion of electrification on 26 September 1970 services were operated by trains hauled by class 141 electric locomotives. From 25 September 1977 S-Bahn services were operated by electric multiple units of class 420 terminating in Friedrichsdorf. Since 2003 the newer class 423; the Homburg line is now used by S-Bahn S5 services between Frankfurt South and Friedrichsdorf, Hessische Landesbahn RB 15 services on the Taunusbahn between Frankfurt and Friedrichsdorf and Brandoberndorf.
S-Bahn line S3 and
Renaissance Revival architecture
Renaissance Revival architecture is a group of 19th century architectural revival styles which were neither Greek Revival nor Gothic Revival but which instead drew inspiration from a wide range of classicizing Italian modes. Under the broad designation "Renaissance architecture" nineteenth-century architects and critics went beyond the architectural style which began in Florence and central Italy in the early 15th century as an expression of Humanism. Self-applied style designations were rife in the mid- and nineteenth century: "Neo-Renaissance" might be applied by contemporaries to structures that others called "Italianate", or when many French Baroque features are present; the divergent forms of Renaissance architecture in different parts of Europe in France and Italy, has added to the difficulty of defining and recognizing Neo-Renaissance architecture. A comparison between the breadth of its source material, such as the English Wollaton Hall, Italian Palazzo Pitti, the French Château de Chambord, the Russian Palace of Facets—all deemed "Renaissance"—illustrates the variety of appearances the same architectural label can take.
The origin of Renaissance architecture is accredited to Filippo Brunelleschi Brunelleschi and his contemporaries wished to bring greater "order" to architecture, resulting in strong symmetry and careful proportion. The movement grew in particular human anatomy. Neo-Renaissance architecture is formed by not only the original Italian architecture but by the form in which Renaissance architecture developed in France during the 16th century. During the early years of the 16th century the French were involved in wars in northern Italy, bringing back to France not just the Renaissance art treasures as their war booty, but stylistic ideas. In the Loire valley a wave of chateau building was carried out using traditional French Gothic styles but with ornament in the forms of pediments, shallow pilasters and entablatures from the Italian Renaissance. In England the Renaissance tended to manifest itself in large square tall houses such as Longleat House; these buildings had symmetrical towers which hint at the evolution from medieval fortified architecture.
This is evident at Hatfield House built between 1607 and 1611, where medieval towers jostle with a large Italian cupola. This is why so many buildings of the early English Neo-Renaissance style have more of a "castle air" than their European contemporaries, which can add again to the confusion with the Gothic revival style; when in the 19th century Renaissance style architecture came into vogue, it materialized not just in its original form according to geography, but as a hybrid of all its earlier forms according to the whims of architects and patrons rather than geography and culture. If this were not confusing enough, the new Neo-Renaissance frequently borrowed architectural elements from the succeeding Mannerist period, in many cases the later Baroque period. Mannerism and Baroque being two opposing styles of architecture. Mannerism was exemplified by Baroque by the Wurzburg Residenz, thus Italian and Flemish Renaissance coupled with the amount of borrowing from these periods can cause great difficulty and argument in identifying various forms of 19th-century architecture.
Differentiating some forms of French Neo-Renaissance buildings from those of the Gothic revival can at times be tricky, as both styles were popular during the 19th century. John Ruskin's panegyrics to architectural wonders of Venice and Florence contributed to shifting "the attention of scholars and designers, with their awareness heightened by debate and restoration work" from Late Neoclassicism and Gothic Revival to the Italian Renaissance; as a consequence, a self-consciously "Neo-Renaissance" manner first began to appear circa 1840. By 1890 this movement was in decline; the Hague's Peace Palace completed in 1913, in a heavy French Neo-Renaissance manner was one of the last notable buildings in this style. Charles Barry introduced the Neo-Renaissance to England with his design of the Travellers Club, Pall Mall. Other early but typical, domestic examples of the Neo-Renaissance include Mentmore Towers and the Château de Ferrières, both designed in the 1850s by Joseph Paxton for members of the Rothschild banking family.
The style is characterized by original Renaissance motifs, taken from such Quattrocento architects as Alberti. These motifs included rusticated masonry and quoins, windows framed by architraves and doors crowned by pediments and entablatures. If a building were of several floors, the uppermost floor had small square windows representing the minor mezzanine floor of the original Renaissance designs. However, the Neo-renaissance style came to incorporate Romanesque and Baroque features not found in the original Renaissance architecture, more severe in its design. Like all architectural styles, the Neo-Renaissance did not appear overnight formed but evolved slowly. One of the first signs of its emergence was the Würzburg Women's Prison, erected in 1809 designed by Peter Speeth, it included a rusticated ground floor, alleviated by one semicircular arch, with a curious Egyptian style miniature portico above, high above this were a sequence of six tall arched windows and above these just beneath the projecting roof were the small windows of the upper floor.
This building foreshadows similar effects in the work of the American architect Henry Hobson Richardson whose work in the Neo-Renaissance style was popu