In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individuals of the appropriate sexes or mating types can produce fertile offspring by sexual reproduction. Other ways of defining species include their karyotype, DNA sequence, behaviour or ecological niche. In addition, paleontologists use the concept of the chronospecies since fossil reproduction cannot be examined. While these definitions may seem adequate, when looked at more they represent problematic species concepts. For example, the boundaries between related species become unclear with hybridisation, in a species complex of hundreds of similar microspecies, in a ring species. Among organisms that reproduce only asexually, the concept of a reproductive species breaks down, each clone is a microspecies. All species are given a two-part name, a "binomial"; the first part of a binomial is the genus.
The second part is called the specific epithet. For example, Boa constrictor is one of four species of the genus Boa. None of these is satisfactory definitions, but scientists and conservationists need a species definition which allows them to work, regardless of the theoretical difficulties. If species were fixed and distinct from one another, there would be no problem, but evolutionary processes cause species to change continually, to grade into one another. Species were seen from the time of Aristotle until the 18th century as fixed kinds that could be arranged in a hierarchy, the great chain of being. In the 19th century, biologists grasped. Charles Darwin's 1859 book The Origin of Species explained how species could arise by natural selection; that understanding was extended in the 20th century through genetics and population ecology. Genetic variability arises from mutations and recombination, while organisms themselves are mobile, leading to geographical isolation and genetic drift with varying selection pressures.
Genes can sometimes be exchanged between species by horizontal gene transfer. Viruses are a special case, driven by a balance of mutation and selection, can be treated as quasispecies. Biologists and taxonomists have made many attempts to define species, beginning from morphology and moving towards genetics. Early taxonomists such as Linnaeus had no option but to describe what they saw: this was formalised as the typological or morphological species concept. Ernst Mayr emphasised reproductive isolation, but this, like other species concepts, is hard or impossible to test. Biologists have tried to refine Mayr's definition with the recognition and cohesion concepts, among others. Many of the concepts are quite similar or overlap, so they are not easy to count: the biologist R. L. Mayden recorded about 24 concepts, the philosopher of science John Wilkins counted 26. Wilkins further grouped the species concepts into seven basic kinds of concepts: agamospecies for asexual organisms biospecies for reproductively isolated sexual organisms ecospecies based on ecological niches evolutionary species based on lineage genetic species based on gene pool morphospecies based on form or phenotype and taxonomic species, a species as determined by a taxonomist.
A typological species is a group of organisms in which individuals conform to certain fixed properties, so that pre-literate people recognise the same taxon as do modern taxonomists. The clusters of variations or phenotypes within specimens would differentiate the species; this method was used as a "classical" method of determining species, such as with Linnaeus early in evolutionary theory. However, different phenotypes are not different species. Species named in this manner are called morphospecies. In the 1970s, Robert R. Sokal, Theodore J. Crovello and Peter Sneath proposed a variation on this, a phenetic species, defined as a set of organisms with a similar phenotype to each other, but a different phenotype from other sets of organisms, it differs from the morphological species concept in including a numerical measure of distance or similarity to cluster entities based on multivariate comparisons of a reasonably large number of phenotypic traits. A mate-recognition species is a group of sexually reproducing organisms that recognize one another as potential mates.
Expanding on this to allow for post-mating isolation, a cohesion species is the most inclusive population of individuals having the potential for phenotypic cohesion through intrinsic cohesion mechanisms. A further development of the recognition concept is provided by the biosemiotic concept of species. In microbiology, genes can move even between distantly related bacteria extending to the whole bacterial domain; as a rule of thumb, microbiologists have assumed that kinds of Bacteria or Archaea with 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences more similar than 97% to each other need to be checked by DNA-DNA hybridisation to decide if they belong to the same species or not. This concept was narrowed in 2006 to a similarity of 98.7%. DNA-DNA hybri
Berlin Zoological Garden
The Berlin Zoological Garden is the oldest and best-known zoo in Germany. Opened in 1844 it is located in Berlin's Tiergarten. With about 1,380 different species and over 20,200 animals the zoo presents one of the most comprehensive collection of species in the world; the zoo and its aquarium had more than 3.5 million visitors in 2017. It is one of the most popular worldwide. Regular animal feedings are among its most famous attractions. Globally known animals like Knut, the polar bear, Bao Bao, the giant panda have contributed to the zoo's public image; the zoo collaborates with many universities, research institutes, other zoos around the world. It maintains and promotes European breeding programmes, helps safeguard several endangered species, participates in several species reintroduction programs. Opened on 1 August 1844, the Zoologischer Garten Berlin was the first zoo in Germany; the aquarium opened in 1913. The first animals were donated by Frederick William IV, King of Prussia, from the menagerie and pheasantry of the Tiergarten.
The nearby U-Bahn station was opened the same year. In 1938, the Berlin Zoo got rid of Jewish board members and forced Jewish shareholders to sell their stocks at a loss, before re-selling the stocks in an effort to "Aryanize" the institution; the zoo has now commissioned a historian to identify these past shareholders and track down their descendants, according to a report by AFP. Zoo director Lutz Heck was named chief of the Oberste Naturschütz Behörde im Reichsforstamt by his friend Hermann Göring in the summer of 1938 and in this capacity he was the senior responsible person for the entire nature management. During World War II, the zoo area was hit by Allied bombs for the first time on 8 September 1941. Most damage was done during the bombardments on 22 and 23 November 1943. In less than 15 minutes, 30% of the zoo population was killed on the first day. On the second day the aquarium building was destroyed by a direct hit. Of the eight elephants only one survived, the bull Siam. 2-year-old hippo bull Knautschke was saved from the fire in his animal house.
Most damage was done during the Battle of Berlin. From 22 April 1945 onwards, the zoo was under constant artillery fire of the Red Army. Heavy fighting took place on the zoo area till 30 April; because of safety measures, some predators and other dangerous animals were killed by the zoo keepers. By the end of the war, the zoo was fortified with the Zoo Tower, a huge flak tower, one of the last remaining areas of Nazi German resistance against the Red Army, with its bunkers and anti-aircraft weapons defending against Allied air forces. At the entrance of the zoo, there was a small underground shelter for zoo keepers. During the battle, wounded German soldiers were taken care for here by female personnel and the wives of zookeepers. On 30 April, the zoo flak bunker surrendered. A count on May 31, 1945, revealed only 91 of 3,715 animals had survived, including two lion cubs, two hyenas, Asian bull elephant Siam, hippo bull Knautschke, ten hamadryas baboons, a chimpanzee, a black stork. After the battle, some animals were eaten by Red Army soldiers.
Following the zoo's destruction, it and the associated aquarium was reconstructed on modern principles so as to display the animals in as close to their natural environment as feasible. The success in breeding animals, including some rare species, demonstrates the efficacy of these new methods; the zoo came to be located in West Berlin, hence a second zoo – Tierpark Berlin – was built in the East. The Berlin Zoo is the most visited zoo in Europe, with more than 3.3 million visitors per year from all over the world. It is open all year long and can be reached by public transportation; the Berlin Zoologischer Garten railway station is one of Berlin's most important stations. Several modes of transport such as U-Bahn, S-Bahn and buses are interlinked here. Visitors can either enter the zoo through the exotically designed Elephant Gate beside the aquarium on Budapester Straße or through the Lion Gate on Hardenbergplatz; the zoo gaurs. The populations of rare deer and pigs are part of several captive breeding projects.
Berlin Zoo supports conservationists in other countries and as a partner of the Stiftung Artenschutz, a species protection foundation. Most of the animals are housed in enclosures designed to recreate their natural habitat; the zoo houses four types of great ape: orangutans, gorillas and bonobos. The carnivore house displays all big cats and many rare small predators, such as ring-tailed mongooses and narrow-striped mongooses from Madagascar. In the basement, visitors are invited to a view into the world of nocturnal animals; the bird house presents a walk-through aviary and offers a broad variety of forms, including several breeding species of hornbills and many parrots. Numerous big aviaries show waders and many other species; the Berlin Zoo is one of the few zoos to exhibit Luzon tarictic hornbills. The aquarium was built in 1913 as part of the Zoologischer Garten complex. In addition to fish and other aquatic life, it is home to most of the zoo's reptiles and invertebrates. Polar bear Knut was born in captivity at the zoo on 5 December 2006.
He and his twin brother or sister were directly rejected by their mother at day of birth. He was subsequently raised by zookeeper Thomas Dörflein and became the center of a mass media phenomenon that spanned the globe spawning numerous toys, media specials, DVDs, a
A zoo is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, in which they may breed. The term "zoological garden" refers to zoology, the study of animals, a term deriving from the Greek'zoion, "animal," and logia, "study.". The abbreviation "zoo" was first used of the London Zoological Gardens, opened for scientific study in 1828 and to the public in 1857. In the United States alone, zoos are visited by over 180 million people annually; the London Zoo, which opened in 1826, was known as the "Gardens and Menagerie of the Zoological Society of London", it described itself as a menagerie or "zoological forest". The abbreviation "zoo" first appeared in print in the United Kingdom around 1847, when it was used for the Clifton Zoo, but it was not until some 20 years that the shortened form became popular in the song "Walking in the Zoo" by music-hall artist Alfred Vance; the term "zoological park" was used for more expansive facilities in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Washington, D.
C. and the Bronx in New York, which opened in 1847, 1891 and 1899 respectively. New terms for zoos coined in the late 20th century are "conservation park" or "biopark". Adopting a new name is a strategy used by some zoo professionals to distance their institutions from the stereotypical and nowadays criticized zoo concept of the 19th century; the term "biopark" was first coined and developed by the National Zoo in Washington D. C. in the late 1980s. In 1993, the New York Zoological Society changed its name to the Wildlife Conservation Society and rebranded the zoos under its jurisdiction as "wildlife conservation parks"; the predecessor of the zoological garden is the menagerie, which has a long history from the ancient world to modern times. The oldest known zoological collection was revealed during excavations at Hierakonpolis, Egypt in 2009, of a ca. 3500 BCE menagerie. The exotic animals included hippopotami, elephants and wildcats. King Ashur-bel-kala of the Middle Assyrian Empire created zoological and botanical gardens in the 11th century BCE.
In the 2nd century BCE, the Chinese Empress Tanki had a "house of deer" built, King Wen of Zhou kept a 1,500-acre zoo called Ling-Yu, or the Garden of Intelligence. Other well-known collectors of animals included King Solomon of the Kingdom of Israel and Judah, queen Semiramis and King Ashurbanipal of Assyria, King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia. By the 4th century BCE, zoos existed in most of the Greek city states; the Roman emperors kept private collections of animals for study or for use in the arena, the latter faring notoriously poorly. The 19th-century historian W. E. H. Lecky wrote of the Roman games, first held in 366 BCE: At one time, bear and a bull, chained together, rolled in fierce combat across the sand... Four hundred bears were killed in a single day under Caligula... Under Nero, four hundred tigers fought with elephants. In a single day, at the dedication of the Colosseum by Titus, five thousand animals perished. Under Trajan... lions, elephants, hippopotami, bulls, stags crocodiles and serpents were employed to give novelty to the spectacle.
Charlemagne had an elephant named Abul-Abbas, given to him by the Abbasid Caliph. Henry I of England kept a collection of animals at his palace in Woodstock which included lions and camels; the most prominent collection in medieval England was in the Tower of London, created as early as 1204 by King John I. Henry III received a wedding gift in 1235 of three leopards from Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, in 1264, the animals were moved to the Bulwark, renamed the Lion Tower, near the main western entrance of the Tower, it was opened to the public during the reign of Elizabeth I in the 16th century. During the 18th century, the price of admission was three half-pence, or the supply of a cat or dog for feeding to the lions; the animals were moved to the London Zoo. Aztec emperor Moctezuma had in his capital city of Tenochtitlan a "house of animals" with a large collection of birds and reptiles in a garden tended by more than 600 employees; the garden was described by several Spanish conquerors, including Hernán Cortés in 1520.
After the Aztec revolt against the Spanish rule, during the subsequent battle for the city, Cortés reluctantly ordered the zoo to be destroyed. The oldest zoo in the world still in existence is the Tiergarten Schönbrunn in Austria, it was constructed by Adrian van Stekhoven in 1752 at the order of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I, husband of Maria Theresa of Austria, to serve as an imperial menagerie as part of Schönbrunn Palace. The menagerie was reserved for the viewing pleasure of the imperial family and the court, but was made accessible to the public in 1765. In 1775, a zoo was founded in Madrid, in 1795, the zoo inside the Jardin des Plantes in Paris was founded by Jacques-Henri Bernardin, with animals from the royal menagerie at Versailles for scientific research and education; the Kazan Zoo, the first zoo in Russia was founded in 1806 by the Professor of Kazan State University Karl Fuchs. Until the early 19th century, the function of the zoo was to symbolize royal power, like King Louis XIV's menagerie at Versailles.
The modern zoo that emerged in the early 19th century at Halifax, London and Dublin, was focused on providing educational exhibits to the public for entertainment and inspiration. A growing fascination for natural history and zoology, coupled with the tremendous expansion in the urbanization of London, led to a heightened demand for a greater variety of publ
Trams in Frankfurt am Main
The Frankfurt am Main tramway network is a network of tramways forming a major part of the public transport system in Frankfurt am Main, a city in the federal state of Hesse, Germany. As of 2012, there were 10 tram lines, along with two special lines and one heritage tourist tramline; the network was heavily integrated into the Frankfurt U-Bahn, with the systems sharing both street running and reserved track. In 2012, the network had 136 stations, a total route length of 67.25 kilometres. In the same year, the network carried 49.9 million passengers, about 30% of total public transport ridership in Frankfurt. The network is the oldest light rail system in the city, the first horse tram lines having started operations in 19 May 1872, it includes one of the first electric tramways in the world, with the first electrified tram line starting in 1884. The Frankfurt Trambahn-Gesellschaft, founded in 1872 as a subsidiary of the Brussels-based company F. de la Hault & Cie, introduced tram traffic with horse trams in Frankfurt.
On May 19, 1872, she opened the first line with horses as draft animals from Schönhof in the northwestern neighboring town of Bockenheim on the Bockenheimer Warte, through the Westend on the Bockenheimer highway and today's Opernplatz to the Hauptwache. The FTG opted for tracks in a gauge of 1435 mm, as it was also common in the railway, the so-called standard gauge; the decision made at that time is still valid until today, all Frankfurt street and subway lines have this track if the draft horses were long ago displaced by electric railcars. The first line was extended a short time on the Zeil towards the east and reached in 1875 the Hanau station. From 1879, a second line from Bornheim, incorporated two years before, led over the Sandweg to Friedberger Anlage, a year to the Westbahnhof; this line was extended on 24 October 1881 to the Kirchner school at the Hohen Brunnen. In 1881 the first time horse trolleys drove across the river Main to Sachsenhausen, since 1882 trains have been going to the Nordend.
The city of Rödelheim, located northwest of Frankfurt, was connected to the horse tramway in 1889. However, the line led only to the Schönhof, a connection to the beginning there original line was not, since the route of the Main-Weser-Bahn was running, the passenger-occupied horse-drawn carriages were not allowed to cross at ground level. Only with the construction of the Breitenbach Bridge in 1915 was a continuous line from Rödelheim to the city center created. In the 1890s more routes followed through the city center and the fast-growing Wilhelminian era belt. From 1892, horse-drawn trams ran from 1895 to the Galluswarte. In 1898, FTG had 16 tram lines in total. In 1882, an Offenbach consortium applied for permission to build an electric tram from Sachsenhausen to Offenbach, it was a real pioneer project. Only a year earlier, on May 16, 1881, the world's first electrically operated test track in Lichterfelde near Berlin had opened the traffic and on May 1, 1882, the second from Charlottenburg to the restaurant Spandauer Bock.
Now, as in Berlin with the participation of Siemens & Halske, an electric tram under commercial conditions should prove its suitability commercially and transport passengers between Frankfurt and Offenbach. At the end of 1883, the concession was granted and soon after started construction and founded an operating company, the Frankfurt-Offenbach Tramway Society. On February 18 and April 10, 1884, the 6.7 km long route was opened. The route began at the Sachsenhaus side of the Old Bridge and ran on the Offenbacher road and through the community Oberrad to the Prussian-Hessian border. From there, the tram went through Offenbach, over Frankfurter Straße and the marketplace to Mathildenplatz; the depot with its own power plant and company office was located in Oberrad at the Buchrainplatz. The FOTG was the only tram operator in the Frankfurt area to opt for the narrower gauge of 1000 mm, the so-called meter gauge; the railways reached a respectable for that time conditions speed of about 20 km/h.
Since there was still no public power supply, the operation of the railway, the construction of its own coal-fired power plant was necessary, which delivered electricity for the first time to businesses and private households in Oberrad. The power plant was in operation during the entire period of operation of the FOTG from 1884 to 1906. On May 12, 1888, the Frankfurter Lokalbahn AG opened a horse tram line from Frankfurt city center to Eschersheim; the route led from the Eschenheimer Tor on the northern edge of the city center on the Eschersheimer road to the neighboring village about 5 km north. The single-track line ended at the former level crossing of the Main-Weser-Bahn, nearby was in the street Im Wörth the depot of the new operator; the FLAG decided on a gauge of 1435 mm, although there was no track connection to the horse trams of the FTG. In the same year, the FLAG replaced the horses by more efficient steam locomotives, the Eschersheimer Lokalbahn was thus the first steam tram in Frankfurt.
Another private company, Hostmann & Cie. from Hanover, received in 1887 the concession to build railway lines in the south of the city and to operate them for a period of 35 years. On February 5 and April 18, 1889 she opened her tracks, it began at two starting points in Sachsenhausen, the Untermain Bridge and the Lokalbahnhof, led over the Mörfelder highway to the southwest and split into three branches that led to the suburbs Niederrad, Neu-Isenburg and Schwanheim. The Waldbahn set from the beginning on steam drive; the loud and flammable tramway locomotives caused displeasure among the residents of the str
Rostock Zoo is a zoo in the city of Rostock, founded in 1899. It covers 56 hectares and with 4,500 animals from 320 species, Rostock Zoo is the largest zoo on the German east coast. Rostock Zoo is studbook keeper of Polar bears within the European Endangered Species Programme; the director of Rostock Zoo is Udo Nagel. Around 1864, previous military grounds were transferred into a garden, by 1866 completed and named Trotzenburg. In 1898, the first fenced animals were introduced, as wild boar and different kind of deer; the next year was the official opening for the Hirschgarten an der Trotzenburg, the first zookeeper, Carl Lange, was employed to take care of the different animals. The air bombings during World War II on the city of Rostock were heavy. All buildings and enclosures in Rostock Zoo were destroyed; the garden architect, Arno Lehmann, started in 1951 the rebuilding of the zoo. Many people from the town volunteered in this work, with direct manual work, as well as with their support; the zoo was re-opened for the public in 1952, was enlarged in 1956, renamed and refounded 16 January 1956 as Zoologischen Garten Rostocks In 1960, the two first Asian elephants arrived to the new built elephant enclosure, Rostock Zoo took over the breeding of Arabian horse and became the largest breeder of the horse in the entire East Germany.
In 1963, the first polar bear was born in the zoo, it was given the name Katja. In 1973, the zoo was once again enlarged with an added 56 Hectares, coordinated with a new master plan. Since 1980, Rostock Zoo is studbook keeper of Polar bears within the European Endangered Species Programme. In 1992, Gemeinnützige GmbH Zoologischer Garten Rostock was founded and chaired by Rostock Zoo director, Udo Nagel, from 1992 until 1998, several new animal enclosures were established, among them painted dogs, eared seals and Hussar monkey, since more enclosures has been created or renovated. In 1999, the zoo celebrated the Jubileum named 100 Jahre Tiergärtnerei, after being a garden for a hundred years; the female African elephant, the oldest in a European zoo, died 2013, ended the Zoo's keeping of elephants, the elephant enclosure was replaced with Pygmy hippopotamus. Named after the originator of the theory of biological evolution by natural selection, Charles Darwin, Darwineum was opened on 8 September 2012.
This living museum, which covers 20,000 m², contains over 80 species of animals, was the largest building project throughout Rostock Zoo history, at a cost of more than 28 million Euro. In two interactive expositions is biological diversity on earth exposed, as well as the evolution behind it, starting with the Big Bang Theory and the creation of the Observable Universe. Theme Boxes with living fossils, aquarium with corals and Germany's largest circular tank for jellyfish; the center of the exhibition is the Tropenhalle, a 4,000 m² tropical exhibition with gibbons, orangutans and De Brazza's monkey. Next to the Tropenhalle is an exhibition. Much of the content of this article comes from the equivalent German-language Wikipedia article. Retrieved on 16 January 2014; some of the following references are cited by that German-language article: Official website Media related to Rostock Zoo at Wikimedia CommonsDarwineum im Zoo Rostock
The Serengeti Park in Hodenhagen, Lower Saxony, is a zoo and leisure park in North Germany. In 1972, the Duke of Bedford had the idea of building the largest safari park in Europe with partners from America. In 1974, this plan was realised and, since the Sepe family has run the park; when it opened the investors had spent about 20 million deutschmarks. In 1983, the park was extensively renovated. Over time, in addition to Animal World, it has created new zones known as Monkey World, Water World, Leisure World. In 1996, Serengeti Park was the first to release into the wild white rhinos bred in Europe. In 1999, the first baby monkey jungle in the world was opened where children up to 8 years old enter a height-limited area directly to see different small species of monkey. Adults may only use the walkway running parallel to it. In 2003, Serengeti Park admitted its first white tiger. In 2004, Serengeti Park received permanent recognition as a zoological garden in accordance with current EU guideline 99/22/EG and §45 of the north German nature reserve law and on the basis of a LANA inspection.
23 March 2006 saw the first African elephant calf to be born in north Germany for 30 years. Serengeti Park is divided into four zones: Animal World, Water World, Monkey World, Leisure World. Animal World covers an area of 110 hectares, has around 1,500 animals living in the open and can be visited by car. Alternatively visitors can use a Serengeti Bus; the zone is divided into 13 sections. Section 1 known as Afrika 1: contains eland, blue wildebeest, oryx, sable antelope and nyala and enclosures for spider monkeys and siamang. Section 2, Scandinavia: reindeer and moose may be seen. Section 3, Europa: fallow deer, goats, sheep and geese, dwarf donkeys, mini ponies. Here visitors may feed and stroke the animals. Common seals can be observed here in a natural lake. Section 4, Amerika: greater rhea, elk and guanacos Section 5, Russland: sika deer and alpaca and Amur leopards may be seen. Section 6, Asien: chital, yaks and Père David's deer and a gibbon island. Section 7: Indian wild dogs Section 8: lions Section 9: tigers Section 10: animals from several continents including American black bear, ostriches, Bactrian camels, Barbary sheep Section 11, Australien: Emus and kangaroos Section 12, Afrika 2: white rhino, Watusi cattle, zebra and dromedaries.
Section 13 includes an enclosure with African elephants. The biggest attraction here is elephant calf Bou Bou born on 23 March 2006 at Serengeti Park. Since early 2003, four white tigers have been added to Animal World in a new enclosure; the tigers were part of Circus Barum and were given to Serengeti Park by Gerd Siemoneit-Barum on being retired. In December 2006, the first successful breeding of a tiger was achieved with the birth of tiger cub Paul. Water World can be visited on foot. In Water World everything revolves around water. Here, in addition to animals like geese and ducks there are attractions like a 600 m long log flume, a giant pirate ship, the African village, Kongo. Twenty different species of monkey live in some in walk-through enclosures; the Jungle Safari Tour begins in Monkey World. This open-top bus tour takes in part of Animal World in Safari style and negotiates an off-road section with special effects. In Leisure World there are over 40 different fairground rides suitable for children and adults, such as the roller coaster, Ferris wheel, fitness trail.
The Serengeti restaurant, Zanzibar, is located in Leisure World. Four shows take place daily in Serengeti Park: Feeding of the monkeys in the Amboseli Reserve African Magic Show Punch and Judy Show Zambesi Water Show Since 2007, it has been possible to stay at Serengeti Park. Eighty holiday homes with a total of 300 beds are available in the Serengeti Safari Lodge. In addition, there is a conference room with around 200 seats. Official website of Serengeti Park Acoommodation at Serengeti Park
Cologne Zoological Garden
The Aktiengesellschaft Cologne Zoological Garden is the zoo of Cologne, Germany. It features over 10,000 animals of more than 850 species on more than 20 hectares; the internationally renowned zoo with an attached aquarium and invertebrate exhibit is active in preservational breeding of animals that are in danger of becoming extinct. In addition, in-the-wild conservation efforts and research focussing on animals of Madagascar and Vietnam are promoted and supported via cooperation with Cologne University and local projects, such as in the case of Przewalski's horses; the zoo was founded in 1860. The world wars led to a phase of stagnation, the zoo had to close for two years after being destroyed in World War II, it reopened in 1947. In 1985, the large primate house, one of the main attractions, was opened. Today, the zoo features a free-flight rainforest hall with free-ranging birds and reptiles opened in 2000, a large elephant park, a house for hippos with great underwater views and, as the latest addition, a farm with rare native species and petting zoo.
Rainforest hall - since 2000 Asian elephant park Hippodom - hall for hippos and aardvarks in the form of a replica of an African river landscape farm with rare native cultivated animals and petting zoo for children Madagascar House with rare lemurs Aquarium with a huge variety of reptiles and insects Great ape section Meerkat paddockMammals Birds Note that not all these species are present/on display at all times. Programmes marked. Less-endangered species may be kept to train for more endangered relatives. Birds Mammals Cologne Zoological Garden is one of the pioneers of international conservation efforts of zoos. Cologne Zoo manages on the one hand a number of projects on its own. On the other hand the Zoological Garden of Cologne supports partner organisations for other projects with expertise and financial resources; the Zoo combines every new major construction project with a related natural conservation project in situ. Between 2010 and 2018, Cologne Zoo was able to donate around 1,6 Mio. euro for wildlife conservation with grants for various projects.
He strongly promote wildlife conservation locally in the Rhineland area, cooperating with local organisations. As a scientific zoo, Cologne Zoo fulfil numerous tasks. On the one hand, he is an attractive location that combines entertainment, fun and education, and on the other hand, he is aware of the problems that wildlife face and have therefore become an important global player in nature and wildlife conservation initiatives in recent years. Cologne Zoo coordinates its actions and initiatives through national associations such as the Association of Zoological Gardens and internationally active and networked organisations such as the European Zoo Association and the World Association of Zoos. Cologne Zoo's work focus on breeding endangered species under conditions appropriate to their species; as part of this, he coordinates breeding programmes and maintains breeding registers worldwide for numerous species. Nearly half of the species Cologne Zoo manages this way are listed as “endangered” on the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s Red List.
The goal is to provide genetically variable and viable wildlife stocks and prepare animals for release into the wild if possible. The zoo’s engagement here has kept species such as the European bison, California condors, Przewalski's horses and sable antelopes from extinction. Cologne Zoo is active in research and collaborates with the University of Cologne and other research institutions. Much of the knowledge about wildlife comes from research on such animals. On August 25, 2012, the Siberian Tiger Altai fatally injured her; the animal had entered through an open security lock into a covered part of his enclosure, which the zookeeper was cleaning. The cat was shot by director Theo Pagel with a rifle to allow rescue workers access to the carer. Homepage of Cologne Zoo Video Webcam in the Elephant Park...watch out for the babies! Marlar and Ming Jung Cologne Zoo at Zoo-Infos.de Cologne Zoo on zooinstitutes.com