The German Confederation was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, dissolved in 1806. The German Confederation excluded German-speaking lands in the eastern portion of the Kingdom of Prussia, the German cantons of Switzerland, Alsace within France, majority German speaking; the Confederation was weakened by rivalry between the Kingdom of Prussia and the Austrian Empire and the inability of the multiple members to compromise. In 1848, revolutions by liberals and nationalists attempted to establish a unified German state with a progressive liberal constitution under the Frankfurt Convention; the ruling body, the Confederate Diet, was dissolved on 12 July 1848, but was re-established in 1850 after failed efforts to replace it. The Confederation was dissolved after the Prussian victory in the Seven Weeks' War over Austria in 1866.
The dispute over which had the inherent right to rule German lands ended in favour of Prussia, leading to the creation of the North German Confederation under Prussian leadership in 1867, to which the eastern portions of the Kingdom of Prussia were added. A number of South German states remained independent until they joined the North German Confederation, renamed and proclaimed as the "German Empire" in 1871 for the now unified Germany with the Prussian king as emperor after the victory over French Emperor Napoleon III in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Most historians have judged the Confederation to have been weak and ineffective, as well as an obstacle to the creation of a German nation-state. However, the Confederation was designed to be weak, as it served the interests of the European Great Powers member states Austria and Prussia; the War of the Third Coalition lasted from about 1803 to 1806. Following defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz by the French under Napoleon in December 1805, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II abdicated, the Empire was dissolved on 6 August 1806.
The resulting Treaty of Pressburg established the Confederation of the Rhine in July 1806, joining together sixteen of France's allies among the German states. After the Battle of Jena–Auerstedt of October 1806 in the War of the Fourth Coalition, various other German states, including Saxony and Westphalia joined the Confederation. Only Austria, Danish Holstein, Swedish Pomerania, the French-occupied Principality of Erfurt stayed outside the Confederation of the Rhine; the War of the Sixth Coalition from 1812 to winter 1814 saw the defeat of Napoleon and the liberation of Germany. In June 1814, the famous German patriot Heinrich vom Stein created the Central Managing Authority for Germany in Frankfurt to replace the defunct Confederation of the Rhine. However, plenipotentiaries gathered at the Congress of Vienna were determined to create a weaker union of German states than envisaged by Stein; the German Confederation was created by the 9th Act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 after being alluded to in Article 6 of the 1814 Treaty of Paris, ending the War of the Sixth Coalition.
The Confederation was formally created by a second treaty, the Final Act of the Ministerial Conference to Complete and Consolidate the Organization of the German Confederation. This treaty was not concluded and signed by the parties until 15 May 1820. States joined the German Confederation by becoming parties to the second treaty; the states designated for inclusion in the Confederation were: Anhalt-Bernburg Anhalt-Dessau Anhalt-Köthen Austrian Empire Baden Bavaria Brunswick Hanover Electorate of Hesse Grand Duchy of Hesse Hohenzollern-Hechingen Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Holstein and Lauenburg, held by Denmark Holstein-Oldenburg Liechtenstein Lippe-Detmold Luxembourg, held by the Netherlands Mecklenburg-Schwerin Mecklenburg-Strelitz Nassau Prussia Reuss, elder line Reuss, younger line Saxony Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Saxe-Coburg Saxe-Gotha Saxe-Hildburghausen Saxe-Meiningen Schaumburg-Lippe Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt Schwarzburg-Sondershausen Waldeck Württemberg Hesse-Homburg Lübeck Frankfurt Bremen Hamburg In 1839, as compensation for the loss of the province of Luxemburg to Belgium, the Duchy of Limburg was created and it was a member of the German Confederation until its dissolution in 1866.
The cities of Maastricht and Venlo were not included in the Confederation. The Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia were the largest and by far the most powerful members of the Confederation. Large parts of both countries were not included in the Confederation, because they had not been part of the former Holy Roman Empire, nor had the greater parts of their armed forces been incorporated in the federal army. Austria and Prussia each had one vote in the Federal Assembly. Six other major states had one vote each in the Federal Ass
Revolutions of 1848
The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history; the revolutions were bourgeois revolutions and democratic and liberal in nature, with the aim of removing the old monarchical structures and creating independent nation-states. The revolutions spread across Europe after an initial revolution began in France in February. Over 50 countries were affected, but with no significant coordination or cooperation among their respective revolutionaries; some of the major contributing factors were widespread dissatisfaction with political leadership, demands for more participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, other demands made by the working class, the upsurge of nationalism, the regrouping of established government forces. The uprisings were led by ad hoc coalitions of reformers, the middle classes and workers, which did not hold together for long.
Tens of thousands of people were killed, many more were forced into exile. Significant lasting reforms included the abolition of serfdom in Austria and Hungary, the end of absolute monarchy in Denmark, the introduction of representative democracy in the Netherlands; the revolutions were most important in France, the Netherlands, the states of the German Confederation that would make up the German Empire in the late 19th and early 20th century and the Austrian Empire. The revolutions arose from such a wide variety of causes that it is difficult to view them as resulting from a coherent movement or set of social phenomena. Numerous changes had been taking place in European society throughout the first half of the 19th century. Both liberal reformers and radical politicians were reshaping national governments. Technological change was revolutionizing the life of the working classes. A popular press extended political awareness, new values and ideas such as popular liberalism and socialism began to emerge.
Some historians emphasize the serious crop failures those of 1846, that produced hardship among peasants and the working urban poor. Large swaths of the nobility were discontented with royal near-absolutism. In 1846, there had been an uprising of Polish nobility in Austrian Galicia, only countered when peasants, in turn, rose up against the nobles. Additionally, an uprising by democratic forces against Prussia, planned but not carried out, occurred in Greater Poland. Next, the middle classes began to agitate. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, working in Brussels, had written Manifesto of the Communist Party at the request of the Communist League. Following the March insurrection in Berlin, they began agitating in Germany, they issued their "Demands of the Communist Party in Germany" from Paris in March. The middle and working classes thus shared a desire for reform, agreed on many of the specific aims, their participations in the revolutions, differed. While much of the impetus came from the middle classes, much of the cannon fodder came from the lower classes.
The revolts first erupted in the cities. The population in French rural areas had risen causing many peasants to seek a living in the cities. Many in the bourgeoisie distanced themselves from the working poor. Many unskilled labourers toiled from 12 to 15 hours per day when they had work, living in squalid, disease-ridden slums. Traditional artisans felt the pressure of industrialization. Revolutionaries such as Karl Marx built up a following; the liberalisation of trade laws and the growth of factories had increased the gulf among master tradesmen, journeymen and apprentices, whose numbers increased disproportionately by 93% from 1815 to 1848 in Germany. Significant proletarian unrest had occurred in Lyon in 1831 and 1834, Prague in 1844. Jonathan Sperber has suggested that in the period after 1825, poorer urban workers saw their purchasing power decline steeply: urban meat consumption in Belgium and Germany stagnated or declined after 1830, despite growing populations; the economic crisis of 1847 increased urban unemployment: 10,000 Viennese factory workers were made redundant and 128 Hamburg firms went bankrupt over the course of 1847.
With the exception of the Netherlands, there was a strong correlation among the countries that were most affected by the industrial shock of 1847 and those that underwent a revolution in 1848. The situation in the German states was similar. Parts of Prussia were beginning to industrialize. During the decade of the 1840s, mechanized production in the textile industry brought about inexpensive clothing that undercut the handmade products of German tailors. Reforms ameliorated the most unpopular features of rural feudalism, but industrial workers remained dissatisfied with these and pressed for greater change. Urban workers had no choice but to spend half of their income on food, which consisted of bread and potatoes; as a result of harvest failures, food prices soared and the demand for manufactured goods decreased, causing an increase in unemployment. During the revolution, to address the problem of unemployment, workshops were organized for men interested in construction work. Officials set up workshops for women when they felt they were excluded.
Artisans and unemployed workers destroyed industrial machines when they threa
Hauptwache (Frankfurt am Main)
The Hauptwache is a central point of Frankfurt am Main and is one of the most famous plazas in the city. The original name Schillerplatz was superseded in the early 1900s, it lies to the west of Konstablerwache with both squares linked by the Zeil, the central shopping area of the city. The baroque building which gave the square its name was built in 1730, it was the headquarters of the city's Stadtwehr militia when Frankfurt was an independent city state and contained a prison. In the 18th century Frankfurt still had its own army; until 1864 the place surrounding the building was called Paradeplatz reflecting its military function. In 1833 during the Frankfurter Wachensturm, the Hauptwache and the Konstablerwache were stormed in a failed effort by a small revolutionary force of native citizens, among others Gustav Koerner, some people from different locations in Germany; when Prussia annexed the city in 1866 and took over military activities, the Hauptwache lost this role. The prison remained and the Hauptwache became a police station.
In 1904, the building remains one to this day. It was the scene of the Hauptwache incident when French troops opened fire on students protesting against the French occupation of Frankfurt on 7 April 1920. Burned in World War II bombing, it was reopened in a provisional form with an altered roof in 1954. In 1967, with the building of the U-Bahn tunnel through the city, it was dismantled so it could be moved and rebuilt over the new underground U-Bahn station; the plaza has undergone another major renovation when the S-Bahn station for suburban trains was opened in 1978. Today, Hauptwache station serves as one of the most important crosspoints of the Frankfurt public transport system. Eight of nine S-Bahn lines serve the station as well as six of nine U-Bahn lines; the plaza has been reformed several times. Its current appearance is marked by a sunken terrace leading down to underground pedestrian area with shops and the public transport station. Frankfurters call the sunken area "das Loch"; the plaza contains a number of different architectural styles.
It is dominated by St. Catherine's Church. Apart from the baroque Hauptwache itself, the surrounding buildings are new architecture because of the damage from the war. Shopping district streets Straßenzug Biebergasse/Fressgass Schillerstraße Steinweg Liebfrauenstraße Zeil Thoroughfare Streets Straßenzug Roßmarkt/Kaiserstraße Große Eschenheimer Straße Media related to Hauptwache and An der Hauptwache at Wikimedia Commons A view on cities: Hauptwache, Frankfurt Panoramic view of the Hauptwache
A Burschenschaft is one of the traditional Studentenverbindungen of Germany and Chile. Burschenschaften were founded in the 19th century as associations of university students inspired by liberal and nationalistic ideas, they were involved in the March Revolution and the unification of Germany. After the formation of the German Empire in 1871, they faced a crisis, as their main political objective had been realized. So-called Reformburschenschaften were established, but these were dissolved by the National Socialist regime in 1935/6. In West Germany, the Burschenschaften were re-established in the 1950s, but they faced a renewed crisis in the 1960s and 1970s, as the mainstream political outlook of the German student movement of that period swerved to the radical left. 160 Burschenschaften exist today in Germany and Chile. The first one, called Urburschenschaft, was founded on June 12, 1815 at Jena as an association drawn from all German university students inspired by liberal and patriotic ideas.
Like the Landsmannschaften or the Corps, a student association based on particular German region, the Burschenschaft members engaged in duelling. However, its main purpose was to break down society lines and to destroy rivalry in the student body, to improve student life and increase patriotism, it was intended to draw its members from a broader population base than the Corps. Indeed, the group was known for its middle-class membership while the Corps' was aristocratic. At first, a significant component of its membership were students who had taken part in the German wars of liberation against the Napoleonic occupation of Germany, its motto was “honor, fatherland”, the original colors were red-black-red with a golden oak leaves cluster, which might be based on the uniform of the Lützow Free Corps, being a corps of volunteer soldiers during the wars of liberation. The Burschenschaften were student associations. However, their most important goal was to foster loyalty to the concept of a united German national state as well as strong engagement for freedom and democracy.
Quite Burschenschaften decided to stress extreme nationalist or sometimes liberal ideas, leading in time to the exclusion of Jews, who were considered to be un-German. All Burschenschaften were banned as revolutionary by Klemens Wenzel von Metternich of Austria when he issued the reactionary Carlsbad Decrees in 1819. Many Burschenschafter took part in the Hambacher Fest in 1832 and the democratic Revolution in 1848/49. After this revolution had been suppressed, plenty of leading Burschenschafter, such as Friedrich Hecker and Carl Schurz, went abroad. After the foundation of the German Empire in 1871, the Burschenschaften movement faced a severe crisis, as one major goal had been achieved to some extent: German unification. In the 1880s, a renaissance movement, the Reformburschenschaften, led by the ideas of Küster and many new B! B! were founded. It was during this time until the 1890s when members turned towards anti-Semitic outlook since it provided an approach to achieving the fraternity's fundamental goal.
Members viewed the Jews as a problem that hampered the unification of Germany and the achievement of new values the organization advanced. There were members who resigned to protest a resolution adopted at an Eisenach meeting declaring that Burschenschaft "have no Jewish members and do not plan to have any in the future." Historical records show that the fraternity again accepted Jewish members on since it was not in favor of racist antisemitism. In 1935/36, most Burschenschaften north of the Austrian Alps were dissolved by the Nazi government or transformed and fused with other Studentenverbindungen into so-called Kameradschaften; some Nazis and Nazi opponents were members of Burschenschaften. Theodor Herzl, an Austrian Jewish journalist who founded modern political Zionism, was a member of a Burschenschaft. However, he resigned. While in communist East Germany Burschenschaften were prohibited as representatives of a bourgeois attitude to be extinguished, in West Germany most Burschenschaften were refounded in the 1950s.
Some of them had to be transferred into other cities, since Germany had lost great parts of its territories after the Second World War, many Burschenschaften from East Germany tried to find a new home. The allied victors had forbidden refounding Burschenschaften but this could not be upheld in a liberal surrounding. In the 1970s and 1980s, the Burschenschaften, as many other student fraternities, underwent a crisis: a lack of new members and strong attacks by the leftist student community. In the 1990s many Burschenschaften that had left Eastern Germany in the 1940s and 1950s returned to their traditional home universities in the East. 160 Burschenschaften still exist today and many are organized in different organizations ranging from progressive to nationalistic. Among the latter is the Deutsche Burschenschaft organization, which represents about a third of the Burschenschaften. Others are organized in the Neue Deutsche Burschenschaft. While the DB still insists upon Fichte's idea of a German nation based on language and culture, the NeueDB favors defining Germany as the political Germany established by the German Basic Law in 1949 and altered by the 1990 unification.
Many Burschenschaften are not org
Belleville is a city in St. Clair County, coterminous with the now defunct Belleville Township; the population was 42,034 according to the Census Bureau's 2015 estimates. It is the eighth-most populated city in the state outside the Chicago metropolitan area, the most-populated city in the state south of Springfield, it is the county seat of St. Clair County, the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Belleville and the National Shrine of Our Lady of the Snows. Belleville is the most-populated city in the Metro-East region of the St. Louis Metropolitan Area and in Southern Illinois. Due to its proximity to Scott Air Force Base, the population receives a boost from military and federal civilian personnel, defense contractors, military retirees. George Blair named the city of Belleville in 1814; because Blair donated an acre of his land for the town square and an additional 25 acres adjoining the square for the new county seat, the legislature transferred the county seat from the village of Cahokia.
The latter had been established by French colonists as a mission village in the late 17th century. Belleville was incorporated as a village in 1819, became a city in 1850, it is said that Blair named the city Belleville because he believed that a French name would attract new residents. Major immigration in the mid-19th century to this area occurred following revolutions in Germany, most of the European-American population is of German ancestry. Many of the educated Germans fled their homeland after the failure of the German Revolution in 1848. Belleville was the center of the first important German settlement in Illinois. By 1870, an estimated 90% of the city's population was either German-born or of German descent. After the Civil War, Belleville became a manufacturing center producing nails, printing presses, gray iron castings, agricultural equipment, stoves. Belleville became known as "The Stove Capital of the World." The first brewery in Illinois was established in Belleville. In 1868, Gustav Goelitz founded the candy company, known today as "Jelly Belly."An immense deposit of bituminous coal was found in St. Clair County.
By 1874, some farmers had become coal miners. One hundred shaft mines were in operation around Belleville; the coal brought the steam railroad to town, which allowed for the transport of many tons of coal to be shipped daily from Belleville to St. Louis on the west side of the Mississippi River, for use in its industries and businesses. Belleville had the first electric trolley in the state; the first style of houses in Belleville were simple brick cottages, known locally as "German street houses" or "row houses." Architectural styles flourished in greater variety, featuring American Foursquare, French Second Empire, Greek Revival, Gothic Revival, Queen Anne, Victorian. The Belleville Historic District, listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976, comprises 73 contributing properties; the "Old Belleville Historic District," was defined and recognized in 1974 and is the city's first historic district. The city has designated two more historic districts: "Hexenbukel" and "Oakland".
Belleville's early German immigrants were educated, with most of them having graduated from German universities. They were nicknamed "Latin Farmers" because of this. After 1836 Gustav Koerner contributed to establish the city's public library; the Belleville Public Library is the state's oldest, predating the Illinois State Library by three years. The German settlers founded choral and dramatic groups, as well as literary societies, they established one of the first kindergartens in the country here. The National Civic League recognized Belleville in 2011 as one of the ten recipients of the All-America City Award. Belleville is located at 38°31′18″N 89°59′43″W. According to the 2010 census, Belleville has a total area of 23.009 square miles, of which 22.74 square miles is land and 0.269 square miles is water. Richland Creek flows through much of Belleville; the Belleville Philharmonic Society was formed in 1866, making it the second oldest philharmonic orchestra in the country. With the increase in black population and migrants from the South, musicians developed who played blues and jazz.
Jay Farrar, Mike Heidorn, Jeff Tweedy of the now-defunct alt country group Uncle Tupelo are from Belleville. Another major musician was Neal Doughty, keyboardist for 1970s rock band REO Speedwagon. Belleville Historic District Gustave Koerner House Knobeloch-Seibert Farm Belleville holds several celebrations throughout the year: Rowdies Rugby Football Club – the only rugby football club in the Belleville area. Lindenwood Stadium is a college football stadium with alternating gray stripes, it has been called "The nation's most original football field." Belleville Running Club - a recreational running club based in Belleville organized under the Road Runners Club of America. The club puts on training programs for the community, hosts group runs, performs community service, hosted the Belleville Main Street Marathon. Belleville was named an RRCA Runner Friendly Community for 2014-2019; as of the census of 2000, there were 41,410 people, 17,603 households, 10,420 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,196.4 people per square mile.
There were 19,142 housing units at an average density of 1,015.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.51% White, 15.51% African American, 0.26% Native Am
The Forty-Eighters were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848 that swept Europe. In the German states, the Forty-Eighters favored unification of the German people, a more democratic government, guarantees of human rights. Disappointed at the failure of the revolution to bring about the reform of the system of government in Germany or the Austrian Empire and sometimes on the government's wanted list because of their involvement in the revolution, they gave up their old lives to try again abroad. Many emigrated to the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia after the revolutions failed; these emigrants included Germans, Czechs and others. Many were respected and politically active and well-educated. A large number went on to be successful in their new countries. After being advised by Bernhard Eunom Philippi among others, Karl Anwandter emigrated to Chile following the failed revolution. In 1850 he settled in Valdivia, he was joined there by numerous other German immigrants of the period.
Germans migrated to developing midwestern and southern cities, developing the beer and wine industries in several locations, advancing journalism. Galveston, Texas was a port of entry to many Forty-Eighters; some settled there and in Houston, but many settled in the Texas Hill Country in the vicinity of Fredericksburg. Due to their liberal ideals, they opposed Texas's secession in 1861. In the Bellville area of Austin County, another destination for Forty-Eighters, the German precincts voted decisively against the secession ordinance. More than 30,000 Forty-Eighters settled in what became called the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio. There they helped define the distinct German culture of the neighborhood, but in some cases brought a rebellious nature with them from Germany. Cincinnati was the southern terminus of the Miami and Erie Canal, large numbers of emigrants from modern Germany, beginning with the Forty-Eighters, followed the canal north to settle available land in western Ohio.
In the Cincinnati riot of 1853, in which one demonstrator was killed, Forty-Eighters violently protested the visit of the papal emissary Cardinal Gaetano Bedini, who had repressed revolutionaries in the Papal States in 1849. Protests took place in 1854. Many German Forty-Eighters settled in Milwaukee, helping solidify that city's progressive political bent and cultural Deutschtum; the Acht-und-vierzigers and their descendants contributed to the development of that city's long Socialist political tradition. Others settled throughout the state. In the United States, most Forty-Eighters opposed nativism and slavery, in keeping with the liberal ideals that had led them to flee Europe. In the Camp Jackson Affair in St. Louis, Missouri, a large force of German volunteers helped prevent Confederate forces from seizing the government arsenal just prior to the beginning of the American Civil War. About two hundred thousand German-born soldiers enlisted in the Union Army forming about 10% of the North’s entire armed forces.
13,000 Germans served in Union Volunteer Regiments from New York alone. After the Civil War, Forty-Eighters supported working conditions, they advanced the country's cultural and intellectual development in such fields as education, the arts, medicine and business. Many were members of the Turner movement. Notable German Forty-Eighters in the USArchitects, scientists: Louis Burger, Adolf Cluss, Henry Flad Artists: Friedrich Girsch. Soldiers in the American Civil War: Louis Blenker. Salomon.
Konstablerwache is a central square in the centre of Frankfurt am Main and part of its pedestrian zone. It lies to the east of Hauptwache with both squares linked by the Zeil, the central shopping area of the city. At the corner of the current Konstablerwache square near the street of Fahrgasse, an armoury was established in 1544 for the defence of Frankfurt. In 1822 the building, upgraded into a military guard house, was converted into a police station; the name Konstablerwache, comes from the period. In 1833, it was at the centre of an attempted revolution when revolutionary students attacked and attempted to loot it and the main watch-house; the two watch-houses proved too small for a growing city, a new police headquarters was built at Hohenzollernplatz. In contrast to Hauptwache, Konstablerwache was demolished in 1886 and replaced by commercial buildings; the Bienenkorbhaus office building was built on the site in 1953-54, the architect was Johannes Krahn. Until 1881 the present square was a significant but narrow road junction at the end of the broad street of the Zeil, with Allerheiligenstraße connecting towards the southeast to Allerheiligentor, Fahrgasse continuing to the east and Große Friedberger Strasse as the main north-south link in the old town, leading to Alte Brücke in the south and Friedberger Tor in the north.
In that year, the New Zeil was built as a wide commercial street leading from Konstablerwache to the east towards Friedberger Anlage. Between the New Zeil and Allerheiligenstraße there was a small square, far smaller than the modern square. At the beginning of the 20th century Konstablerwache became a major transport hub, both for cars and trams; the situation changed after the Second World War. With many of the buildings on the Zeil destroyed in air raids, it decided not to rebuild some of them in order to build a larger square. At the same time Kurt-Schumacher-Strasse was built, replacing Fahrgasse as the main north-south route in the eastern part of the city, giving Konstablerwache its current eastern boundary; when the square was converted into a pedestrian zone, the level of the square was raised by just under 80 centimetres in order to create room for the underground U-Bahn/S-Bahn station. The former tram junction lost its significance when the main tram lines were closed in the inner city in the 70s.
The Zeil was served by trams after its conversion into a pedestrian zone. This line had been closed in the 1960s, but was put back into operation until 1986 as the terminus of line 12 connecting to Nordend. In 1999, tram tracks were opened in Kurt-Schumacher-Straße, creating a through route for line 12 from Fechenheim to Schwanheim. Konstablerwache station is a major junction of Frankfurt's U-Bahn and S-Bahn networks