A tonneau in current automotive terminology is an area of a car or truck open at the top. It can be either a cargo space. A tonneau cover describes a hard or soft cover used to protect unoccupied passenger seats in a convertible or roadster, or the cargo bed in a pickup truck. Hard tonneau covers open by a folding mechanism while soft covers open by rolling up; the tonneau cover conceals and/or covers cargo. When the cover is pulled out, it keeps items out of the sun and provides extra security by keeping personal items out of sight. A tonneau was an open rear passenger compartment, rounded like a barrel, on an automobile and, by extension, a body style incorporating such a compartment; the word is barrel. Early tonneaus had a rear-facing hinged door, but single and dual side doors were soon introduced; the first US side-door tonneau was made by Peerless, others followed. When the street was muddy or dirty the car could be backed up to the curb so tonneau passengers could exit directly onto the sidewalk.
Early open-bodied touring-type automobiles used. As early as the 1930s, lakes racers, searching for that extra competitive edge, pulled a page directly from early automobile construction and skinned the cockpits of their roadsters and streamliners with removable canvas; the skins covered gaping cockpits that would otherwise create undue drag. Tonneau covers are available for open sports cars such as the Porsche Boxster, MG, Austin-Healey; these covers made of natural or artificial leather, cover the entire passenger compartment, are zippered so the driver's seat can be uncovered while the rest of the interior remains covered. Tonneau covers may be used in lieu of soft convertible tops; as air courses over the windshield at speed, it creates turbulence as it cascades into and bounces out of the cockpit. This condition is called buffeting, can be annoying. A tonneau cover reduces buffeting at all speeds. Heat produced by a heater leaves as that turbulence exchanges the cockpit's warmer air for cooler ambient air.
A tonneau cover is capable of both retaining heat and shielding a driver from UV exposure. Tonneau covers are used in utility vehicles and pickup trucks to cover and secure the truck bed and come in a variety of styles; the most common style is the roll-up tonneau made from cloth or vinyl, which uses a rib-like structure to support the fabric and keep it taut. A snap-based system is used, but has become less common due to truck owners not wanting to install the snaps on their vehicle as they require drilling or permanent adhesive. Roll-up Tonneaus are opened by rolling the cover up toward the cab of the truck. Hard roll-up tonneau covers are more firm, they are made of a wall of individual aluminum slats, covered with soft vinyl. In the unrolled position, these aluminum slats form a hard aluminum shell, which not only covers the cargo inside the bed, but may support loads up 400 pounds on top of it. Another style of truck bed tonneau cover is a retractable unit, mounted at the front and sides of the bed and rolls up or retracts from the tailgate towards the cab.
The retractable tonneau is made of vinyl, plastic or aluminum. Retractable tonneaus are more secure than soft tonneau covers, since they lock and are made from a harder composition, but they take more time to install and are designed for semi-permanent installation. Fiberglass, hard plastic or aluminum tonneau covers are common; some may be painted to match the truck, are solid in construction, can be locked. These covers are heavy and require gas struts to assist in opening and closing, they operate much like a vehicle's hood opening from the tailgate end of the bed. Some have multiple compartments that open front to back, back to front, side to side, or rise vertically. Fiberglass, hard plastic or aluminum tonneau covers are sometimes installed as a factory option on new vehicles. Many sellers claim that tonneau covers improve gas mileage because they make the truck more streamlined. However, air currents create a wake inside the pickup bed. A tonneau cover interferes with this wake, scientific tests have shown little to no improvement in mileage by using a tonneau cover traveling at less than 70 mph.
A similar effect is seen when the tailgate is down and the mileage goes down. "Tonneau case" is used to describe a type of watch case, with rounded, bulging sides resembling a barrel
The Fal-Car known as A Car Without A Name, was an American automobile manufactured from 1909 until 1914 by a company that identified itself in advertisements only as Department C, 19 North May Street, Chicago. The address had been the location where the Reliable-Dayton automobile had been built, it was advertised as "trim, classy and efficient". The idea behind the name, or lack thereof, was that it would allow its buyers of the generic vehicle to name the vehicle as they wished, without the expense or bother of setting up their own automobile concern; such practices in the early days of the automobile market were not uncommon, however most companies that were involved with such endeavors at least had publicly known names. The A Car Without A Name was equipped with a 30 hp engine, three-speed transmission, came in three body styles, priced below $1,700 per unit; because the car had no name, it is impossible to find a concrete production number for the period that builds were undertaken. By 1910, the Car was given an official name, the F.
A. L. or Fal-Car, derived by its backers last names of Fauntleroy and Lowe. The Fal-Car continued in production through 1914 at its factory in Chicago until its assets were liquidated at auction; the former business location became an empty lot. Burgess-Wise, David; the New Illustrated Encyclopedia of Automobiles. BookSales Inc. P. 559. ISBN 0-7858-1106-0. Kimes, Beverly R. Editor. Clark, Henry A.. The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945. Kraus Publications. ISBN 0-87341-428-4. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list p. 14. One-Hundred Makes. Editors of Collectible Automobile. Collectible Automobile Magazine. P. 58. Volume 17, Number 4. December, 2000
Success Automobile Manufacturing Company
The Success Automobile Manufacturing Company was a brass era United States automobile manufacturer, located at 532 De Ballviere Avenue, St. Louis, Missouri, in 1906. Business concentrated on building high wheeler automobiles buggies; the Success Automobile Manufacturing Company was founded in 1906 by John C. Higdon, who had built his first car in 1896. Production started with a price of US$250, exceedingly low for high wheelers, it is the lowest nominal that a new car has been sold for lower than $260 Ford T in 1925. Models became more complex, expensive. While Success always stayed with highwheelers, they got a twin cylinder engine in 1908, built a commercial car in 1908 only, offered several new models in 1909, among them their only four-cylinder car. Two - and four cylinder engines were available with air cooling. While Higdon was open to let people copy his construction back in 1896, publicly invited to do so, he became much more aware of patents and royalties when building cars on a commercial schedule.
So, he took several competitors to court on this matter. Although, the Success Automobile Manufacturing Company folded before the end of this litigations, it is estimated. Success never offered models other than high wheelers; the initial Model A featured an air-cooled single cylinder gasoline engine of 3 x 3 in. Bore and stroke, giving a capacity of 21,21 c.i. or 347.5 cm³, delivered 2 to 3 HP. steel tires, a 2-speed planetary transmission brought power via a single chain to a sprocket on the right rear wheel only. The engine was placed on the right side below the driver's seat. Front wheels had a diameter of 37 in. Rear wheels of 41 in.. It claimed mileage of 100mpg. A improved Model B followed in 1907 with a 4 HP single cylinder engine. In 1908, a more sophisticated high wheeler came with the 2-cylinder Model C, its engine delivered 10 HP, the vehicle got a longer wheelbase. 1908 brought two more horsepower to the Model C, a choice of bodywork, including the first Success commercial car. In 1909, the final year of its existence, the single cylinder model was dropped, as were the additional body styles for the Model C.
Instead, new models were introduced: Model D, a Surrey that offered more power and a longer wheelbase for less money than the previous C variant, Model E, a more comfortable runabout than the C, offering more power and the longest wheelbase of all Success cars, a car, not to be expected by this manufacturer: A four-cylinder sports car with an output of 24 HP. Models A and B: air cooled. High wheelers had a market of their own, bought in the countryside in an auto-sceptical environment. So, these cars had to be simple, easy to maintain and repair, inexpensive. Sophistication was no criterion, they were offered at prices around $350 bis 450, as the Black for $375. With a price tag of $250, the Success Model A was one of the cheapest and simplest automobiles available in the U. S. at that time. Success vehicles competed with more sophisticated high wheelers, as offered by the Auto-Bug Company, or the George White Buggy. Still, one has to keep in mind that few automobile manufacturers had yet a nationwide representative network, or sold their products in the whole country.
Car building was a local business, for this, comparisons are difficult. Comparing them with "real" or conventional automobiles is still another challenge, as their building methods, their construction differed because of their different tasks; the best-selling American car of the early 1900s was the Oldsmobile Curved Dash that cost $650 through its whole production run, but was nearly as outdated in 1906 as the Success was when introduced: Both had no front mounted engine, no shaft drive, the latter becoming standard at least for smaller cars soon and both had single cylinder engines while most high wheelers used twin, Ford introduced with its Model N, a four-cylinder, for only $500 in 1907. List of defunct United States automobile manufacturers Floyd. Treasury of Early American Automobiles, 1877-1925. Kimes, Beverly Rae and Clark, Henry Austin jr.: The Standard Catalogue of American Cars 1805-1942, 3rd ed. Krause Publications, Iola WI 54990, USA, ISBN 978-0-87341-428-9 ISBN 0-87341-428-4. Kimes, Beverly Rae: Pioneers and Scoundrels: The Dawn of the Automobile in America.
Edited by SAE Permissions, Warrendale PA 2005, ISBN 0-7680-1431-X. American-automobiles.com: Success, retrieved 16 Jan. 2014
Rolex Monterey Motorsports Reunion
The Rolex Monterey Motorsports Reunion is an annual event held at WeatherTech Raceway Laguna Seca in Monterey, California. Its purpose is to provide an event, it takes place over the course of one weekend every mid-August. It was first established by Steve Earle in 1974 as the Monterey Historic Automobile Races. Earle organized the meeting for his friends to race their cars at Laguna Seca; the event acts as a part of Monterey Car Week, which includes the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance and other events. 550 cars participate in the event. The 2017 event took place August 17–20; the first company to sponsor the event was the Chrysler Corporation. The event added a sponsorship from Rolex; the Chrysler sponsorship was replaced with one from Toyota, who sponsored the event from 2006 to 2008. Although celebrities and professional drivers do attend, the Reunion is not a professional event, has no awards or prizes for finishing position; each Saturday and Sunday afternoon race has a Rolex Award winner voted by committee.
Two of the morning races each day honor a Bonham's Cup winner chosen. There are special Awards for best paddock display, best Ford-powered car, outstanding craftsmanship, etc; the highest honor is the Rolex Spirit of Monterey Award, A Rolex watch and original Bill Patterson painting, presented to the entrant who best embodies the spirit of the event in his presentation and competition drive. The Reunion has been featured in Autoweek magazine, it was featured in the September 2008 issue. The 2003 event was featured in an issue of Popular Mechanics. Popular Mechanics documented the 2000 event; the 2009 event was featured. The 2010 event was featured in an issue of Track; the 2004 event was featured in an article on the R&T website. For many years television network Speed Channel provided coverage of the event. For a few years the coverage consisted of several different episodes featuring the major groups. In years the event was abridged to one episode combining behind-the-scenes coverage with coverage of select races.
The races covered were some of the GT groups for better interest. If the featured a one-time race group, that race may be covered; the Reunion was for awhile covered by Fox Sports 1, which replaced Speed in August 2013. In recent years the Reunion has been livestreamed by Motor Trend magazine, with the coverage being shown on YouTube. Various race groups from multiple eras and types of automobile racing are featured at the Monterey Reunion; the groups contain vehicles that competed against one another during that point in history. The schedule will feature combined-class races, such as the sports racing cars competing alongside the GT cars. While these two groups race they do not compete against each other, much like in professional racing; the event featured a mixed "GT and production cars" race group in which professionally raced grand tourers competed against unmodified sports cars of the same era. The unmodified cars have since been phased out; the Sonoma Historic Motorsports Festival, a former sister event held at Sonoma Raceway, continues to include the production cars.
In the past the prewar groups were divided into two types: single-seater. The latter has since been merged with the racing cars; the sports and racing cars were merged and are now combined with the touring cars. The Reunion features special or expanded race groups in an attempt to generate greater interest from its spectators; these one-time groups have included Grand National and Winston Cup Series stock cars, an under two liter Trans Am Series race group, a Formula Atlantic group. Single-marque spec groups have been featured. In 2011 an all Jaguar XKE race was featured to commemorate that model's fiftieth anniversary; the same was done in 2012 for the Shelby Cobra, featuring small block AC Cobras racing against the big block Shelby 427 Cobras. In 2013 an all Porsche 911 "Weissach Cup" was featured to commemorate the fiftieth anniversary of the 911. In 1975, the event introduced the tradition of honoring a "featured marque" each year; this tribute is done through various ways. These include an increased number of entered vehicles from that marque, special displays of the marque's history and some of the brand's vehicles, sometimes spec races only featuring vehicles from the marque being tributed.
The event will have special one-time tributes. These have included Can Am team Chaparral Cars and racing legend Juan Manuel Fangio; because of the high value of many of the cars used, the Reunion committee has established a severe punishment for avoidable contact. The driver convicted will be unable to participate in any further events, but can appeal the judgement one year after the incident. In the prewar groups the drivers can be seen waving as a signal to other drivers to pass; this is to avoid any costly damage to the vehicles. Although the event features many groups of different types of racecars, it does not place entrants in their most appropriate groups. For example, a 2.1 liter Morgan can be placed in an under two liter class despite being over the specified displacement. This is done due to the over two liter groups featuring vehicles with at least five liters. Certain postwar cars have been known to compete with the prewar cars due to technological similarities; some drivers will enter themselves in the wrong class either as a late entry or if they were unable to q
Ford Model N
The Ford Model N is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company. It was built at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant; the Model N diverged from its predecessors in that it was a front-engine car with a four-cylinder engine. The 15 hp straight-four drove the rear wheels via a long shaft; this was the first American car to use vanadium steel. The car had a wheelbase of 84 in. A successful model, 7000 cars were made before production ended in 1908. At US$500, the car was viewed as affordable at the time. Maroon was the only factory color for the Model N; the Model R was a higher trim level of the Model N with a larger body, wheels covered by full fenders, running boards, oil lamps. Model R was $650, $150 above the $500 base Model N; the Model R was a 1907 model year offering, 2500 were sold. Color was dark green, with leather seats, brass fixtures, a fuel tank holding 8 US gal. Other differences from the Model N included 30-inch tires, a rounded trunk, a McCord mechanical oiler, rather than the Model N-style exhaust pressure oiler.
Two Model S styles were produced, a roadster. The S runabout first appeared in late 1907 model year, was similar to the Model R, selling for $50 less than the R, at $700. Both models were sold for a short time before the R was discontinued for model/fiscal year 1908; the S roadster, like the R, had fenders attached to running boards, a mechanical oiler. Differences from the R included Model N-style the pointed trunk; the Model S Roadster was based on the same chassis as models N, R, S runabout before it. Making its appearance during Ford fiscal/model year 1908, the S Roadster had an enclosed cowl, full fenders and fender aprons, a third "rumble" seat. Like R and S runabouts, the SR used a McCord pressure oiler. Like Model R, the S Roadster was equipped with 30-inch tires; the S Roadster and Model K Roadster were the last models produced during the summer of 1908 as Ford retooled and prepared for the advent of the Model T. The S Roadster sold for $750. Extras such as a convertible top, gas lamps, umbrella holders were available.
3750 S Roadsters were sold between 1908 and 1909. David L. Lewis. 100 Years of Ford. Publications International. ISBN 0-7853-7988-6. "Early Ford models 1903–1908". Retrieved August 20, 2006
Oldsmobile was a brand of American automobiles produced for most of its existence by General Motors. Olds Motor Vehicle Co. was founded by Ransom E. Olds in 1897, it produced over 35 million vehicles, including at least 14 million built at its Lansing, Michigan factory. During its time as a division of General Motors, it slotted in the middle of GM's five divisions, was noted for its testing of groundbreaking technology and designs, most notably the "Rocket V8" engine. In 1985, over 1 million Oldsmobiles were sold, but by the 1990s the division was tasked with competing with import brands; when it was shut down in 2004, Oldsmobile was the oldest surviving American automobile marque, one of the oldest in the world, after Peugeot, MAN, Tatra. Oldsmobiles were first manufactured by the Olds Motor Vehicle Co. in Lansing, Michigan, a company founded by Ransom E. Olds in 1897. In 1902, the company produced 635 cars, making it the first high-volume gasoline-powered automobile manufacturer. Oldsmobile became the top selling car company in the United States for a few years around 1903-4.
Ransom Olds formed the REO Motor Car Company. The 1902 to 1904 Oldsmobile Curved Dash was the first mass-produced car, made from the first automotive assembly line, an invention, miscredited to Henry Ford and the Ford Motor Company. After Olds merged Olds Motor Vehicle Co. with the Olds Gas Engine Works in 1899, it was renamed Olds Motor Works and moved to a new plant in Detroit, located at the corner of East Jefferson Avenue and MacArthur Bridge. By March 1901, the company had a whole line of models ready for mass production. However, a mistake by a worker caused the factory to catch fire, it burned to the ground, with all of the prototypes destroyed; the only car that survived the fire was a Curved Dash prototype, wheeled out of the factory by two workers while escaping the fire. A new factory was built in Lansing, production of the Curved Dash commenced; the cars were called "Olds automobiles," but were colloquially referred to as "Oldsmobiles." It was this moniker, as applied to the Curved Dash Olds, popularized in the lyrics and title of the 1905 hit song "In My Merry Oldsmobile".
The last Oldsmobile Curved Dash was made in 1907. General Motors purchased the company in 1908; the 1910 Limited Touring was a high point for the company. Riding atop 42-inch wheels, equipped with factory "white" tires, the Limited was the prestige model in Oldsmobile's two model lineup; the Limited retailed for US$4,600, an amount greater than the purchase of a new, no-frills three bedroom house. Buyers received goatskin upholstery, a 60 hp 707 CID straight-six engine, Bosch Magneto starter, running boards and room for five. Options included a speedometer, a full glass windshield. A limousine version was priced at $5,800. While Oldsmobile only sold 725 Limiteds in its three years of production, the car is best remembered for winning a race against the famed 20th Century Limited train, an event immortalized in the painting Setting the Pace by William Hardner Foster. In 1926, the Oldsmobile Six came in five body styles, ushered in a new GM bodystyle platform called the "GM B platform", shared with Buick products.
In 1929, as part of General Motors' companion make program, Oldsmobile introduced the higher standard Viking brand, marketed through the Oldsmobile dealer network. Viking was discontinued at the end of the 1930 model year although an additional 353 cars were marketed as 1931 models. In 1937, Oldsmobile was a pioneer in introducing a four-speed semi-automatic transmission called the "Automatic Safety Transmission", although this accessory was built by Buick, which would offer it in its own cars in 1938; this transmission features a conventional clutch pedal, which the driver presses before selecting either "low" or "high" range. In "low," the car shifts between second gears. In "high," the car shifts among first and fourth gears. For the 1940 model, Oldsmobile was the first auto manufacturer to offer a automatic transmission, called the "Hydramatic", which features four forward speeds, it has a gas pedal and a brake—no clutch pedal. The gear selector is on the steering column. Starting in 1941 and continuing through 1999, Oldsmobile used a two digit model designation.
As implemented, the first digit signifies the body size while the second represents the number of cylinders. Body sizes were 6, 7, 8, 9, six- and eight-cylinder engines were offered. Thus, Oldsmobiles were named "66" through "98"; the last pre-war Oldsmobile rolled off the assembly line on February 5, 1942. During World War II, Oldsmobile produced numerous kinds of material for the war effort, including large-caliber guns and shells. Production resumed on October 15, 1945 with a warmed-over 1942 model serving as the offering for 1946. Oldsmobile once again was a pioneer when, for the 1949 model, the Rocket engine was introduced, which used an overhead valve V8 design rather than the flathead "straight-eight" design which prevailed at the time; this engine produced far more power than the other engines that were popular during that era, found favor with hot-rodders and stock car racers. The basic design, with a few minor changes, endured until Oldsmobile redesigned its V8 engines in the mid-1960s.
Oldsmobile entered the 1950s following a divisional image campaign centered on its'Rocket' engines and its cars' appearance followed suit. Oldsmobile's Rocket V8 engine was the leader in performanc
Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899. The company produces a range of cars and vans, in the past has manufactured trucks, tanks, buses/coaches and autorail vehicles. According to the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, in 2016 Renault was the ninth biggest automaker in the world by production volume. By 2017, the Renault–Nissan–Mitsubishi Alliance had become the world's biggest seller of light vehicles, bumping Volkswagen AG off the top spot. Headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, near Paris, the Renault group is made up of the namesake Renault marque and subsidiaries, Automobile Dacia from Romania, Renault Samsung Motors from South Korea, AvtoVAZ from Russia. Renault has a 43.4% controlling stake in Nissan of Japan, a 1.55% stake in Daimler AG of Germany. Renault owns subsidiaries RCI Banque, Renault Retail Group and Motrio. Renault has various joint ventures, including Renault Pars; the French government owns a 15% share of Renault.
Renault Trucks known as Renault Véhicules Industriels, has been part of AB Volvo since 2001. Renault Agriculture became 100% owned by German agricultural equipment manufacturer CLAAS in 2008. Together Renault and Nissan invested €4 billion in eight electric vehicles over three to four years beginning in 2011. Renault is known for its role in motor sport rallying, Formula 1 and Formula E, its early work on mathematical curve modeling for car bodies is important in the history of computer graphics. The Renault corporation was founded in 1899 as Société Renault Frères by Louis Renault and his brothers Marcel and Fernand. Louis was a bright, aspiring young engineer who had designed and built several prototypes before teaming up with his brothers, who had honed their business skills working for their father's textile firm. While Louis handled design and production and Fernand managed the business; the first Renault car, the Renault Voiturette 1CV, was sold to a friend of Louis' father after giving him a test ride on 24 December 1898.
In 1903, Renault began to manufacture its own engines. The first major volume sale came in 1905 when Société des Automobiles de Place bought Renault AG1 cars to establish a fleet of taxis; these vehicles were used by the French military to transport troops during World War I which earned them the nickname "Taxi de la Marne." By 1907, a significant percentage of London and Paris taxis had been built by Renault. Renault was the best-selling foreign brand in New York in 1907 and 1908. In 1908 the company produced 3,575 units; the brothers recognised the value of publicity that participation in motor racing could generate for their vehicles. Renault made itself known through succeeding in the first city-to-city races held in Switzerland, producing rapid sales growth. Both Louis and Marcel raced company vehicles, but Marcel was killed in an accident during the 1903 Paris-Madrid race. Although Louis never raced again, his company remained involved, including Ferenc Szisz winning the first Grand Prix motor racing event in a Renault AK 90CV in 1906.
Louis took full control of the company as the only remaining brother in 1906 when Fernand retired for health reasons. Fernand died in 1909 and Louis became the sole owner, renaming the company Société des Automobiles Renault. Renault fostered its reputation for innovation from early on. At the time, cars were luxury items; the price of the smallest Renaults at the time were 3000 francs. In 1905, the company introduced mass production techniques and Taylorism in 1913. Renault manufactured commercial cargo vehicles in the pre-war years; the first real commercial truck from the company was introduced in 1906. During World War I, it branched out into ammunition, military aircraft engines and vehicles such as the revolutionary Renault FT tank; the company's military designs were so successful that Louis was awarded the Legion of Honour for his company's contributions. The company exported engines to American automobile manufacturers for use in such automobiles as the GJG, which used a Renault 26 horsepower or 40 hp four-cylinder engine.
Louis Renault enlarged Renault's scope after 1918, producing industrial machinery. The war led to many new products; the first Renault tractor, the Type GP was produced between 1919 and 1930. It was based on the FT tank. Renault struggled to compete with the popular small, affordable "people's cars," while problems with the stock market and the workforce slowed the company's growth. Renault had to find a way to distribute its vehicles more efficiently. In 1920, Louis signed one of its first distribution contracts with Gustave Gueudet, an entrepreneur from northern France; the pre-First World War cars had a distinctive front shape caused by positioning the radiator behind the engine to give a so-called "coalscuttle" bonnet. This continued through the 1920s. Only in 1930 did all models place the radiator at the front; the bonnet badge changed from circular to the familiar and continuing diamond shape in 1925. Renault introduced new models at the Paris Motor Show, held in September or October of the year.
This led to confusion about model years. For example, a "1927" model was produced in 1928. Renault cars ranged from small to large. For example