Georgia State Route 77
State Route 77 is a 103-mile-long state highway that runs nouth-to-sorth through portions of Hancock, Oglethorpe County and Hart Counties in the eastern part of the State of Georgia. SR 77 begins at an intersection with SR 16, at a point northwest in Hancock County, it heads northeast to an intersection with SR 15. They head concurrent to the north-northwest, passing through rural areas of the county and cross into Greene County, they curve to the northwest to the town of Siloam. In town, SR 15 heads to the northwest on Main Street, while SR 77 splits off to the north-northeast and has an interchange with Interstate 20, it leaves town and heads north to Union Point. It intersects US 278/SR 12; the three routes head concurrent for about 4 blocks, to an intersection with SR 44. Here, SR 44/SR 77 head concurrent to the northwest, until SR 44 splits off onto Washington Highway and SR 77 continues to the northwest, it enters Oglethorpe County. In a curving fashion, the highway passes through the towns of Maxeys and Stephens, enters Lexington.
There, it intersects US 78/SR 10/SR 22. The four routes head concurrent to the southeast, until SR 77 splits off in the southeastern part of town, it heads northeast, passing through rural areas of the county and crosses over the Broad River into Elbert County. The road heads to the north, into Elberton, where it intersects SR 17/SR 72, it curves to the north-northwest and meets the southern terminus of SR 368. SR 77 continues to the north-northwest, enters Hart County. Less than 1 mile after the county line, the route meets the western terminus of SR 77 Spur, it heads north and curves to the north-northwest, until it enters Hartwell. There, it begins a concurrency with US 29/SR 8; the three routes head to the west-northwest, to an intersection with SR 51, which joins the concurrency. A block or two US 29/SR 8 depart to the southwest on Athens Street. SR 51/SR 77 head to the northwest and curve to the west, crossing over Lake Hartwell, until SR 51 splits off onto Bowersville Highway. At that point, SR 77 heads curves to the north.
It meets the eastern terminus of SR 77 Connector. It heads north-northwest to and intersection with SR 59, northeast of Lavonia. About 1,500 feet it meets its northern terminus, an interchange with I-85. SR 77 is not part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility. State Route 77 Connector is a 5.2-mile-long connector route, located within portions of Franklin and Hart counties. It begins at an intersection with SR 59 in Franklin County; the highway travels to the southeast, crossing into Hart County. The road continues to the southeast and curves to the east, until it meets its eastern terminus, an intersection with the SR 77 mainline, northeast of Bowersville. SR 77 Connector is not part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility. State Route 77 Spur is a 7.0-mile-long spur route located within rural portions of Hart County. It begins at an intersection with southeast of Hartwell, it zigzags to the northeast, until it meets its eastern terminus, an intersection with SR 181, at a spot just west of the South Carolina state line.
SR 77 Spur is not part of the National Highway System, a system of roadways important to the nation's economy and mobility. The entire route is in Hart County. Georgia portal U. S. Roads portal Media related to Georgia State Route 77 at Wikimedia Commons Georgia Roads Georgia State Route 77 on State-Ends.com
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state in the Southeastern United States. It began as a British colony in 1733, the last and southernmost of the original Thirteen Colonies to be established. Named after King George II of Great Britain, the Province of Georgia covered the area from South Carolina south to Spanish Florida and west to French Louisiana at the Mississippi River. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788. In 1802–1804, western Georgia was split to the Mississippi Territory, which split to form Alabama with part of former West Florida in 1819. Georgia declared its secession from the Union on January 19, 1861, was one of the original seven Confederate states, it was the last state to be restored to the Union, on July 15, 1870. Georgia is the 8th most populous of the 50 United States. From 2007 to 2008, 14 of Georgia's counties ranked among the nation's 100 fastest-growing, second only to Texas. Georgia is known as the Empire State of the South. Atlanta, the state's capital and most populous city, has been named a global city.
Atlanta's metropolitan area contains about 55% of the population of the entire state. Georgia is bordered to the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, to the northeast by South Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by Florida, to the west by Alabama; the state's northernmost part is in the Blue Ridge Mountains, part of the Appalachian Mountains system. The Piedmont extends through the central part of the state from the foothills of the Blue Ridge to the Fall Line, where the rivers cascade down in elevation to the coastal plain of the state's southern part. Georgia's highest point is Brasstown Bald at 4,784 feet above sea level. Of the states east of the Mississippi River, Georgia is the largest in land area. Before settlement by Europeans, Georgia was inhabited by the mound building cultures; the British colony of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe on February 12, 1733. The colony was administered by the Trustees for the Establishment of the Colony of Georgia in America under a charter issued by King George II.
The Trustees implemented an elaborate plan for the colony's settlement, known as the Oglethorpe Plan, which envisioned an agrarian society of yeoman farmers and prohibited slavery. The colony was invaded by the Spanish during the War of Jenkins' Ear. In 1752, after the government failed to renew subsidies that had helped support the colony, the Trustees turned over control to the crown. Georgia became a crown colony, with a governor appointed by the king; the Province of Georgia was one of the Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule in the American Revolution by signing the 1776 Declaration of Independence. The State of Georgia's first constitution was ratified in February 1777. Georgia was the 10th state to ratify the Articles of Confederation on July 24, 1778, was the 4th state to ratify the United States Constitution on January 2, 1788. In 1829, gold was discovered in the North Georgia mountains leading to the Georgia Gold Rush and establishment of a federal mint in Dahlonega, which continued in operation until 1861.
The resulting influx of white settlers put pressure on the government to take land from the Cherokee Nation. In 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, sending many eastern Native American nations to reservations in present-day Oklahoma, including all of Georgia's tribes. Despite the Supreme Court's ruling in Worcester v. Georgia that U. S. states were not permitted to redraw Indian boundaries, President Jackson and the state of Georgia ignored the ruling. In 1838, his successor, Martin Van Buren, dispatched federal troops to gather the tribes and deport them west of the Mississippi; this forced relocation, known as the Trail of Tears, led to the death of over 4,000 Cherokees. In early 1861, Georgia became a major theater of the Civil War. Major battles took place at Chickamauga, Kennesaw Mountain, Atlanta. In December 1864, a large swath of the state from Atlanta to Savannah was destroyed during General William Tecumseh Sherman's March to the Sea. 18,253 Georgian soldiers died in service one of every five who served.
In 1870, following the Reconstruction Era, Georgia became the last Confederate state to be restored to the Union. With white Democrats having regained power in the state legislature, they passed a poll tax in 1877, which disenfranchised many poor blacks and whites, preventing them from registering. In 1908, the state established a white primary, they constituted 46.7% of the state's population in 1900, but the proportion of Georgia's population, African American dropped thereafter to 28% due to tens of thousands leaving the state during the Great Migration. According to the Equal Justice Institute's 2015 report on lynching in the United States, Georgia had 531 deaths, the second-highest total of these extralegal executions of any state in the South; the overwhelming number of victims were male. Political disfranchisement persisted through the mid-1960s, until after Congress passed the Voting Rights Act of 1965. An Atlanta-born Baptist minister, part of the educated middle class that had developed in Atlanta's African-American community, Martin Luther King, Jr. emerged as a national leader in the civil rights movement.
King joining with others to form the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in Atlanta in 1957 to provide political leadership for the Civil Rights Movement across the South. By the 1960s, the proportion of
Interstate 85 in Georgia
Interstate 85 is a major Interstate Highway that travels northeast-to-southwest in the U. S. state of Georgia. It enters the state at the Alabama state line near West Point, Lanett, traveling through the Atlanta metropolitan area and to the South Carolina state line, where it crosses the Savannah River near Lake Hartwell. I-85 connects northern Georgia with Montgomery, Alabama, to the southwest, with South Carolina, North Carolina, Virginia to the northeast. Within Georgia, I-85 is designated as the unsigned State Route 403. I-85 in Georgia travels parallel with the route of U. S. Route 29. However, from Atlanta northeast to South Carolina, I-85 ventures away from that route, traveling about halfway between US 29 and the combination of US 23 and US 123. Within the City of Atlanta, I-85 has a concurrency with I-75 known as the "Downtown Connector". After splitting from Downtown Connector, it is known as Northeast Expressway until its junction with I-285. I-85 enters the state of Georgia from Alabama via twin bridges over the Chattahoochee River, it skirts the town of West Point, with Kia's multibillion-dollar plant located adjacent to the freeway just east of West Point.
After leaving West Point, I-85 enters the LaGrange area, the first large town in Georgia on its route to the northeast. Northeast of LaGrange, I-85 has an interchange with the long spur freeway, I-185, to the Columbus, Georgia Metropolitan Area; this is the only connection between the Interstate Highway System. From LaGrange, I-85 heads northeastward towards Atlanta. Before reaching Atlanta, the highway runs through a widened stretch that includes six to eight lanes between exits 35 and 77, passing near the suburbs of Moreland, Fairburn, Union City, College Park and East Point as well as intersecting I-285 at its southwest end in of the most complex interchanges in the country, meanwhile providing access to Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. I-85 runs along the northwestern boundary of the airport, providing access to the domestic terminal. I-75 services the International Terminals of the airport, which are located on the east side of the airport. At the southwestern edge of Atlanta's city limits, I-85 merges with I-75 to form the Downtown Connector, 12 to 14 lanes wide.
At the southern edge of downtown Atlanta, this freeway has an interchange with the major east-west Interstate Highway, I-20. The two freeways skirt the eastern edge of downtown, running due north, passing through the Georgia Tech campus and the Atlantic Station section of Atlanta before the two highways split, with I-75 exits via the right three lanes and heads northwest while I-85 uses the left three lanes and heads northeast. Heading northbound after the Brookwood Interchange with I-75, I-85 is routed along a ten lane wide viaduct from the Buford Highway Connector to State Route 400. Continuing northeast of Atlanta, I-85 continues through the northeastern suburbs, bypassing Chamblee and Doraville, where there is another intersection with I-285; the Interstate travels through the northeastern suburbs of Atlanta, including Lilburn, Lawrenceville. The Interstate has freeway interchanges with SR 316 in Duluth and I-985 in Suwanee, which provides a link to Gainesville. I-85 leaves the Atlanta area, continuing to travel through rural northeast Georgia.
At Lake Hartwell—which was formed by the damming of the Savannah River—I-85 crosses into South Carolina. I-85 has the first express lanes in Georgia, located in DeKalb counties. From Chamblee–Tucker Road to Old Peachtree Road, travelers that utilize the converted 15.5-mile lanes will be charged a toll varying from 10 to 90 cents per mile, depending on traffic conditions and usage. Though not signed on the freeway, they are HOT lanes, which means registered transport vehicles, carpools with three or more occupants and buses are exempt from toll charges as long as they are registered as such. Tolls are collected using an electronic toll collection system. All travelers that use the lane must have a Peach Pass sticker to avoid fines. Starting in November 2014, SunPass and NC Quick Pass are interoperable with Peach Pass, allowing motorists with those transponders to use the express lanes. Funds generated from the express lanes will be used to defray the costs of construction and maintenance of the lanes.
Long term revenue allocation is being studied and a decision about future excess revenues will be made in the project process. Proponents for the express lanes say it is to provide commuters with a more reliable, free-flow commute option. Detractors point out that existing infrastructure was reused for the express lanes and that commute times on the non-paying travel lanes have doubled since implementation. Constructed as a four- to six-lane expressway in the 1950s, the stretch of I-85 between the southern merge with I-75 and North Druid Hills Road was reconstructed as part of the Georgia Department of Transportation's Freeing the Freeways program; this project included rebuilding all overpasses, new HOV-ready ramps, a widen
Franklin is a city in Heard County, United States. The population was 993 at the 2010 census, up from 902 at the 2000 census. Franklin is the county seat of Heard County; the city is named after Benjamin Franklin. Franklin was settled in 1770, was designated seat of the newly formed Heard County in 1831. Franklin is located in central Heard County at 33°16′47″N 85°05′54″W, along the Chattahoochee River. U. S. Route 27 passes through the east side of the city on a bypass, leading north 23 miles to Carrollton and south 19 miles to LaGrange. Georgia State Route 34 passes through the center of Franklin, leading northeast 20 miles to Newnan and southwest 12 miles to the Alabama border. Georgia State Route 100 joins SR 34 for part of its path through Franklin, but leads northwest 14 miles to Ephesus and southeast 14 miles to Hogansville. According to the United States Census Bureau, Franklin has a total area of 3.5 square miles, of which 3.4 square miles are land and 0.2 square miles, or 4.00%, are water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 902 people, 349 households, 203 families residing in the city. The population density was 277.8 people per square mile. There were 398 housing units at an average density of 122.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 69.07% White, 29.93% African American, 0.11% Native American, 0.33% from other races, 0.55% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.11% of the population. There were 349 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 30.1% were married couples living together, 25.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.8% were non-families. 37.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 3.03. 24.7% of the population of Franklin were under the age of 18, 8.1% were from 18 to 24, 24.6% from 25 to 44, 18.4% from 45 to 64, 24.2% were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 77.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 68.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $19,125, the median income for a family was $23,571. Males had a median income of $29,583 versus $20,724 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,142. About 27.8% of families and 28.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.3% of those under age 18 and 29.4% of those age 65 or over. The Heard County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of three elementary schools, a middle school, a high school; the district has 132 full-time teachers and over 2,278 students. Centralhatchee Elementary School Ephesus Elementary School Heard Elementary School Heard County Middle School Heard County Comprehensive High School Pauly Jail Company of Alabama built the jail in 1912 for $7,500, using plans by Manly Jail Works of Dalton, Georgia, it replaced an older jail built in 1880.
The jail housed up to 16 prisoners upstairs. The Heard County Sheriff and his family lived downstairs. In the 1930s, two prisoners cut the window escaped. Death row prisoners were held here. In 1964, a new county jail opened on the Franklin Square and the old jail closed; the jail was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on January 27, 1981. In 1987 it was restored by the Heard County Historical Society, it now serves as historical center. Franklin Baptist Church historical marker Franklin Methodist Church historical marker Heard County Jail historical marker
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may