Cumberland County, Pennsylvania
Cumberland County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 235,406, its county seat is Carlisle. Cumberland County is included in PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. Cumberland County was first settled by a majority of Scots-Irish immigrants who arrived in this area about 1730. English and German settlers constituted about ten percent of the early population; the settlers mostly devoted the area to farming and developed other trades. These settlers built the Middle Spring Presbyterian Church, among the oldest houses of worship in central Pennsylvania, in 1738 near present-day Shippensburg, Pennsylvania; the General Assembly of the Pennsylvania colony on January 27, 1750, created Cumberland County from Lancaster County, naming it for Cumberland, England. Its county seat is Carlisle; the county lies within the Cumberland Valley adjoining the Susquehanna River at its eastern border, stretching 42 miles from the borough of Shippensburg on the west to the Susquehanna River in east Cumberland County.
The oldest towns in the county are Shippensburg and Carlisle, each with its unique history. Shippensburg is home to Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania, one of 14 universities of the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education. Carlisle is home to Dickinson College, established in 1773, the Penn State Dickinson School of Law; the United States Army War College is a United States Army school located in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on the 500 acre campus of the historic Carlisle Barracks, a military post dating back to the 1770s. It caters to high-level military personnel and civilians and prepares them for strategic leadership responsibilities, it is the U. S. Army's most senior military educational institution. During the Gettysburg campaign of the American Civil War in the summer of 1863, Confederate troops marched through the Cumberland Valley occupying much of Cumberland County. In the 20th century, the suburbs of Harrisburg, the state capital, expanded extensively into eastern Cumberland County.
Carlisle developed suburbs in adjoining townships. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 550 square miles, of which 545 square miles is land and 4.8 square miles is water. It has a hot-summer humid continental climate and its hardiness zone is 6b except in much of the eastern portion where it is 7a; the area code is 717 with an overlay of 223. Perry County Dauphin County York County Adams County Franklin County Colonel Denning State Park Kings Gap Environmental Education and Training Center Pine Grove Furnace State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 213,674 people, 83,015 households, 56,118 families residing in the county; the population density was 388 people per square mile. There were 86,951 housing units at an average density of 158 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.40% White, 2.36% Black or African American, 0.13% Native American, 1.67% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. 1.35 % of the population were Latino of any race.
35.3 % were of 10.6 % American, 10.1 % Irish, 7.5 % English and 6.8 % Italian ancestry. 94.7 % spoke 1.4 % Spanish as their first language. There were 83,015 households out of which 29.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.50% were married couples living together, 8.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families. 26.70% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.41 and the average family size was 2.92. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.00% under the age of 18, 10.60% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 24.10% from 45 to 64, 14.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.70 males. Its per capita income is $31,627, making it the wealthiest Pennsylvania county outside greater Philadelphia, fifth wealthiest overall.
The United States Office of Management and Budget has designated Cumberland County as the Harrisburg-Carlisle, PA Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 U. S. Census the metropolitan area ranked 6th most populous in the State of Pennsylvania and the 96th most populous in the United States with a population of 549,475. Cumberland County is a part of the larger Harrisburg-York-Lebanon, PA Combined Statistical Area, which combines the populations of Cumberland County as well as Adams, Lebanon and York Counties in Pennsylvania; the Combined Statistical Area ranked 5th in the State of Pennsylvania and 43rd most populous in the United States with a population of 1,219,422. As of November 2008, there are 152,408 registered voters in Cumberland County. Republican: 78,568 Democratic: 52,887 Other Parties: 20,953 The Republican Party has been dominant in Cumberland County politics since before the American Civil War, with the victories of Robert P. Casey for governor in 1990, Bob Casey Jr. for state treasurer in 2004 and Tom Wolf for governor in 2018 being among the few times where a statewide Democrat carried the county.
The county commissioner majority, all row offices, all legislative seats serving Cumberland are held by Republicans. Vince DiFilippo, Republican Jim Hertzler, vice-chairman, Democrat Gary Eichelberger, Republican Clerk of Courts, Dennis Lebo, Republican Controller, Alfred Whitcomb, Republican
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is 405 miles long, with a drainage area of about 14,700 square miles. In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States and the 21st largest in the United States. Over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed; the river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D. C. on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the river's right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of Maryland. Exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, the border with Virginia being delineated from "point to point". Except for a small portion of its headwaters in West Virginia, the North Branch Potomac River is considered part of Maryland to the low water mark on the opposite bank; the South Branch Potomac River lies within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, which lie in Virginia.
The Potomac River runs 405 miles from Fairfax Stone Historical Monument State Park in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout and drains 14,679 square miles. The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles; the average daily flow during the water years 1931-2018 was 11,498 cubic feet /s. The highest average daily flow recorded on the Potomac at Little Falls, was in March 1936 when it reached 426,000 cubic feet /s; the lowest average daily flow recorded at the same location was 601.0 cubic feet /s in September 1966 The highest crest of the Potomac registered at Little Falls was 28.10 ft, on March 19, 1936. The river has two sources; the source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant and Preston counties in West Virginia. The source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland Virginia; the river's two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac.
As it flows from its headwaters down to the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac traverses five geological provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont Plateau, the Atlantic coastal plain. Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D. C. and beyond. Salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream; the estuary widens, reaching 11 statute miles wide at its mouth, between Point Lookout and Smith Point, before flowing into the Chesapeake Bay. "Potomac" is a European spelling of Patawomeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village on its southern bank. Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning "honking geese" and "Patawomke" below the Falls, meaning "river of swans"; the spelling of the name has taken many forms over the years from "Patawomeck" to "Patomake", "Patowmack", numerous other variations in the 18th century and now "Potomac".
The river's name was decided upon as "Potomac" by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931. The river itself is at least 3.5 million years old extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line. This included the area at Great Falls, which eroded into its present form during recent glaciation periods; the Potomac River brings together a variety of cultures throughout the watershed from the coal miners of upstream West Virginia to the urban residents of the nation's capital and, along the lower Potomac, the watermen of Virginia's Northern Neck. Being situated in an area rich in American history and American heritage has led to the Potomac being nicknamed "the Nation's River." George Washington, the first President of the United States, was born in, spent most of his life within, the Potomac basin. All of Washington, D. C. the nation's capital city lies within the watershed. The 1859 siege of Harper's Ferry at the river's confluence with the Shenandoah was a precursor to numerous epic battles of the American Civil War in and around the Potomac and its tributaries, such as the 1861 Battle of Ball's Bluff and the 1862 Battle of Shepherdstown.
General Robert E. Lee crossed the river, thereby invading the North and threatening Washington, D. C. twice in campaigns climaxing in the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg. Confederate General Jubal Early crossed the river in July 1864 on his attempted raid on the nation's capital; the river not only divided the Union from the Confederacy, but gave name to the Union's largest army, the Army of the Potomac. The Patowmack Canal was intended by George Washington to connect the Tidewater region near Georgetown with Cumberland, Maryland. Started in 1785 on the Virginia side of the river, it was not completed until 1802. Financial troubles led to the closure of the canal in 1830; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal operated along the banks of the Potomac in Maryland from 1831 to 1924 and connected Cumberland to Washington, D. C; this allowed freight to be transported around the rapids known as the
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary in the U. S. states of Virginia. The Bay is located in the Mid-Atlantic region and is separated from the Atlantic Ocean by the Delmarva Peninsula with its mouth located between Cape Henry and Cape Charles. With its northern portion in Maryland and the southern part in Virginia, the Chesapeake Bay is a important feature for the ecology and economy of those two states, as well as others. More than 150 major rivers and streams flow into the Bay's 64,299-square-mile drainage basin, which covers parts of six states and all of Washington, D. C; the Bay is 200 miles long from its northern headwaters in the Susquehanna River to its outlet in the Atlantic Ocean. It is 2.8 miles wide at 30 miles at its widest. Total shoreline including tributaries is 11,684 miles, circumnavigating a surface area of 4,479 square miles. Average depth is 21 feet; the Bay is spanned twice, in Maryland by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge from Sandy Point to Kent Island and in Virginia by the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel connecting Virginia Beach to Cape Charles.
Known for both its beauty and bounty, the Bay has become "emptier", with fewer crabs and watermen in past years. Recent restoration efforts begun in the 1990s have been ongoing and show potential for growth of the native oyster population; the health of the Chesapeake Bay improved in 2015, marking three years of gains over the past four years, according to a new report by the University of Maryland. The word Chesepiooc is an Algonquian word referring to a village "at a big river", it is the seventh oldest surviving English place-name in the United States, first applied as "Chesepiook" by explorers heading north from the Roanoke Colony into a Chesapeake tributary in 1585 or 1586. The name may refer to the Chesapeake people or the Chesepian, a Native American tribe who inhabited the area now known as South Hampton Roads in the U. S. state of Virginia. They occupied an area, now the Norfolk, Portsmouth and Virginia Beach areas. In 2005, Algonquian linguist Blair Rudes "helped to dispel one of the area's most held beliefs: that'Chesapeake' means something like'great shellfish bay.'
It does not, Rudes said. The name might have meant something like'great water,' or it might have just referred to a village location at the Bay's mouth." In addition, the name is always prefixed by "the" in usage by local residents: "The Chesapeake", "The Chesapeake Bay" and "The Bay". The Chesapeake Bay is an estuary to the North Atlantic, lying between the Delmarva Peninsula to the east and the North American mainland to the west, it is the ria, or drowned valley, of the Susquehanna River, meaning that it was the alluvial plain where the river flowed when the sea level was lower. It is not a fjord, because the Laurentide Ice Sheet never reached as far south as the northernmost point on the Bay. North of Baltimore, the western shore borders the hilly Piedmont region of Maryland; the large rivers entering the Bay from the west have broad mouths and are extensions of the main ria for miles up the course of each river. The Bay's geology, its present form, its location were created by a bolide impact event at the end of the Eocene, forming the Chesapeake Bay impact crater and the Susquehanna River valley much later.
The Bay was formed starting about 10,000 years ago when rising sea levels at the end of the last ice age flooded the Susquehanna River valley. Parts of the Bay the Calvert County, coastline, are lined by cliffs composed of deposits from receding waters millions of years ago; these cliffs known as Calvert Cliffs, are famous for their fossils fossilized shark teeth, which are found washed up on the beaches next to the cliffs. Scientists' Cliffs is a beach community in Calvert County named for the desire to create a retreat for scientists when the community was founded in 1935. Much of the Bay is shallow. At the point where the Susquehanna River flows into the Bay, the average depth is 30 feet, although this soon diminishes to an average of 10 feet southeast of the city of Havre de Grace, Maryland, to about 35 feet just north of Annapolis. On average, the depth of the Bay is 21 feet, including tributaries; because the Bay is an estuary, it has salt water and brackish water. Brackish water has three salinity zones: oligohaline and polyhaline.
The freshwater zone runs from the mouth of the Susquehanna River to north Baltimore. The oligohaline zone has little salt. Salinity varies from 0.5 ppt to 10 ppt, freshwater species can survive there. The north end of the oligohaline zone is north Baltimore and the south end is the Chesapeake Bay Bridge; the mesohaline zone has a medium amount of salt and runs from the Bay Bridge to the mouth of the Rappahannock River. Salinity there ranges from 10.7 ppt to 18 ppt. The polyhaline zone is the saltiest zone, some of the water can be as salty as sea water, it runs from the mouth of the Rappahannock River to the mouth of the Bay. The salinity ranges from 18.7 ppt to 36 ppt. The climate of the area surrounding the Bay i
Juniata County, Pennsylvania
Juniata County is a county located in the U. S. state of Pennsylvania. At the 2010 census, the population was 24,636, its county seat is Mifflintown. The county was created on March 2, 1831, from part of Mifflin County and named for the Juniata River. Mountains in Juniata County include Shade Mountain. Agricultural land and forested land make up most of the county's area. Major rivers and creeks in the county include the Susquehanna River, the Juniata River, Tuscarora Creek, West Branch Mahantango Creek, it borders seven other counties. The county lies over 51 different soils. Juniata County has a low population density; the most population-dense parts of the county are the boroughs of Mifflin. The most common races in the county are black. Between 1940 and 2005, Juniata County's population grew faster than all but two other counties in Pennsylvania. Susquehanna Township had the fastest-growing population of any borough or township in the county during this time period. Livestock farming is the largest industry in the county, although there are other industries as well, including crop farming and tourism.
Manufacturing jobs are the most common jobs in the county. The county's median household income is $34,698 per year and its median family income is $39,757 per year; the poverty rate is 9.5% and the unemployment rate is 5.4%. The median house value in the county was $87,000 in 2000; the main roads in Juniata County are Pennsylvania Route 235, Pennsylvania Route 35, Pennsylvania Route 104, U. S. Route 11/U. S. Route 15, U. S. Route 22/U. S. Route 322, Pennsylvania Route 74, Pennsylvania Route 850, Pennsylvania Route 333. There are four boroughs and thirteen townships in Juniata County; the county is served by two school districts: the Juniata County School District and the Greenwood School District. There are five areas in Juniata County that are protected by the Central Pennsylvania Conservancy and 59 natural heritage sites in the county; the first European settlers arrived in Juniata County in the 1750s. The county has been part of Mifflin County and before that, part of Cumberland County. Juniata County was a part of Cumberland County and Mifflin County.
Juniata County was formed on March 1831, from parts of Mifflin County. It is named after the Juniata River; the word "juniata" itself is a Seneca word that means either "people of the standing stone" or "blue waters". The first boroughs in the county to be settled were Mifflintown and Thompsontown, which were settled in 1790. Port Royal and Mifflin were settled in 1848, respectively; the first of these borough to be incorporated was Mifflintown, on March 6, 1833. The last one to be incorporated was Thompsontown, on February 7, 1868. However, squatters arrived in the county and were removed from it earlier, by 1750 and one of the first warrants for land in the county was issued in 1755. Many of the earliest landowners in Delaware Township were speculators as opposed to settlers. There was an Indian raid in the county in 1755 and 1756, although Fort Bingham and Fort Peterson had been constructed; the Beale family was one of the earliest families to inhabit the county. More settlers arrived in the 1750s and 1760s and the first gristmill on the western side of the Juniata River was built in the county in 1767.
A public road was built in the county between Tuscarora Creek and a location near Shade Mountain in 1768. John Hamilton constructed a sawmill and gristmill on Cocalamus Creek in Delaware Township in 1776; the first known physician in the county, Dr. Ezra Doty, settled in Mifflintown in 1791; the first four townships in what would become Juniata County were formed on October 23, 1754. They were Lack Township, Aire Township, Fannett Township, Tyrone Township; these early townships had no formal boundaries. By 1913, the original townships had been divided into a total of 13 townships; the Pennsylvania Canal began serving Juniata County in 1826 and closed in 1900. The Pennsylvania Railroad reached the county in the late 1840s; the Tuscarora Valley Railroad was in the county until it closed in 1934. During Hurricane Agnes in 1972, a total of 6374 acres of Juniata County were flooded. 57 families were displaced during this flooding. Juniata County was the last county in Pennsylvania to develop a modern comprehensive plan.
It did, construct a comprehensive plan in 1974. In a 1997 survey, 66.8% of respondents found Juniata County a "very desirable" living place. In a similar survey in 2007, only 56.9% of respondents found the county a "very desirable" living place. Eight locations in Juniata County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, they were listed between 1972 and 1986. They include the Academia Pomeroy Covered Bridge, the Tuscarora Academy, the Book Site in Beale Township; the Dimmsville Covered Bridge in Greenwood Township had been designated as a historic place, but fell into disrepair and collapsed in April 2017. Eight additional places are eligible for a listing on the National Register of Historic Places. There are five Pennsylvania Museum Commission historical markers in Juniata County, they commemorate the Tuscarora Path, the Tuscarora Academy, Patterson's Fort, Fort Bingham, Juniata County itself. The Academia Pomeroy Covered Bridge was built in 1901, it is 18 feet wide and 278 feet long, making it one of the longest remaining covered bridges in Pennsylvania.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 394 square mi
U.S. Route 30 in Pennsylvania
In the U. S. state of Pennsylvania, U. S. Route 30 runs east–west across the southern part of the state, passing through Pittsburgh and Philadelphia on its way from the West Virginia state line east to the Benjamin Franklin Bridge over the Delaware River into New Jersey. In Pennsylvania, US 30 runs along or near the transcontinental Lincoln Highway, which ran from San Francisco, California to New York City before the U. S. Routes were designated. Popular places along the route include the Gettysburg Battlefield, Dutch Wonderland, the Flight 93 National Memorial, Fort Ligonier, Westmoreland Mall, Jennerstown Speedway and Soak Zone, Independence Mall of Independence National Historical Park. US 30 presently crosses from West Virginia into Pennsylvania near West Virginia, it is a surface road from West Virginia to the U. S. Route 22 junction southeast of Imperial. There it joins the US 22 freeway, US 22/30 joins the Penn-Lincoln Parkway West into downtown Pittsburgh. US 30 passes through Pittsburgh on the Penn-Lincoln Parkway, crossing the Monongahela River on the Fort Pitt Bridge.
This freeway was built from 1953 to 1962 as a bypass for both the Lincoln Highway and the William Penn Highway. Besides US 30, it carries US 22 and Interstate 376. At a point beyond the Squirrel Hill Tunnel, at the southern end of PA Route 8, US 30 leaves the Parkway. Much of this section of U. S. 30 has been supplanted by the Pennsylvania Turnpike. From the Pittsburgh area, US 30 heads east through Greensburg, where it intersects U. S. Route 119, it heads into Somerset County, where it meets U. S. Route 219 east of Jennerstown. On September 11, 2001, United Airlines Flight 93 crashed in an empty field two miles south of U. S. 30, in Stonycreek Township in Somerset County. The heroism of the passengers and crew thwarted the hijackers' plan to crash into either the US Capitol Building or the White House in Washington D. C.. The entrance to the permanent Flight 93 National Memorial is along U. S. 30. The route continues east into Bedford County, where it heads toward Bedford, the site of the route's intersection with U.
S. Route 220 a short distance south of the southern beginning of Interstate 99 at the Pennsylvania Turnpike interchange. Past Bedford, the route is four-laned and follows the Pennsylvania Turnpike, passing through Everett, it passes through the town of Breezewood, where Interstate 70 traffic must still use a short non-interstate section of U. S. 30 to go between the I-70 going to Maryland. The route narrows back to two lanes climbs through the Allegheny Mountains as it passes through Fulton County, intersecting U. S. Route 522 in McConnellsburg, it enters the scenic Cumberland Valley in Franklin County, where it passes through Chambersburg, crossing U. S. Route 11 and Interstate 81; the highway crosses the South Mountain range through the Cashtown Gap and enters Adams County. West of Gettysburg, U. S. 30 follows much of the path of the old Chambersburg Turnpike, a route used by much of Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia during the Gettysburg Campaign; the route serves as the main east–west artery through Gettysburg, traversing the northwestern portion of the Gettysburg Battlefield and intersecting U.
S. Route 15. Past Gettysburg, Route 30 travels through New Oxford before entering York County. Just west of York, Route 30 branches off Lincoln Highway to bypass the downtown parts of the cities of York and Lancaster. Several modifications to improve flow have been made in York but the route is still congested due to a series of traffic signals, it becomes freeway again, crosses the Susquehanna River on the Wright's Ferry Bridge into Lancaster County. Along the north side of Lancaster, US 30 intersects the eastern terminus of Pennsylvania Route 283, which heads to Harrisburg, shares a brief concurrency with U. S. Route 222. From 1997 to 2004 significant work was completed to the bypass around Lancaster. Just east of Lancaster, the freeway ends at the eastern end of PA 462. S. 30 continues on its way toward Philadelphia. U. S. 30 follows the route of the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, the first long-distance, paved road built in the United States, between Lancaster and Philadelphia. Between the east end of the bypass around York and Lancaster and the west end of the Coatesville Bypass in Chester County, there is a large freeway gap between these two segments, congested.
PennDOT is under study to improve this last remaining section. This section passes through Pennsylvania Dutch Country and is lined with many Amish tourist attractions. Between Sadsbury Township and East Whiteland Township, US 30 follows the limited-access Coatesville Bypass with U. S. Route 30 Business running along the former alignment through Coatesville and Exton. Along the bypass, US 30 intersects U. S. Route 322 near Downingtown. At the east end of the bypass, it intersects U. S. Route heads east on Lancaster Avenue; the Exton Bypass portion of US 30 is designated the Exton Bypass Scenic Byway, a Pennsylvania Scenic Byway. It heads through the Main Line s
Baltimore is the largest city in the state of Maryland within the United States. Baltimore was established by the Constitution of Maryland as an independent city in 1729. With a population of 611,648 in 2017, Baltimore is the largest such independent city in the United States; as of 2017, the population of the Baltimore metropolitan area was estimated to be just under 2.808 million, making it the 20th largest metropolitan area in the country. Baltimore is located about 40 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. making it a principal city in the Washington-Baltimore combined statistical area, the fourth-largest CSA in the nation, with a calculated 2017 population of 9,764,315. Baltimore is the second-largest seaport in the Mid-Atlantic; the city's Inner Harbor was once the second leading port of entry for immigrants to the United States. In addition, Baltimore was a major manufacturing center. After a decline in major manufacturing, heavy industry, restructuring of the rail industry, Baltimore has shifted to a service-oriented economy.
Johns Hopkins Hospital and Johns Hopkins University are the city's top two employers. With hundreds of identified districts, Baltimore has been dubbed a "city of neighborhoods." Famous residents have included writers Edgar Allan Poe, Edith Hamilton, Frederick Douglass, Ogden Nash, H. L. Mencken. During the War of 1812, Francis Scott Key wrote "The Star-Spangled Banner" in Baltimore after the bombardment of Fort McHenry, his poem popularized as a song. Baltimore has more public statues and monuments per capita than any other city in the country, is home to some of the earliest National Register Historic Districts in the nation, including Fell's Point, Federal Hill, Mount Vernon; these were added to the National Register between 1969–1971, soon after historic preservation legislation was passed. Nearly one third of the city's buildings are designated as historic in the National Register, more than any other U. S. city. The city has 33 local historic districts. Over 65,000 properties are designated as historic buildings and listed in the NRHP, more than any other U.
S. city. The historical records of the government of Baltimore are located at the Baltimore City Archives; the city is named after Cecil Calvert, second Lord Baltimore of the Irish House of Lords and founding proprietor of the Province of Maryland. Baltimore Manor was the name of the estate in County Longford on which the Calvert family lived in Ireland. Baltimore is an anglicization of the Irish name Baile an Tí Mhóir, meaning "town of the big house." The Baltimore area had been inhabited by Native Americans since at least the 10th millennium BC, when Paleo-Indians first settled in the region. One Paleo-Indian site and several Archaic period and Woodland period archaeological sites have been identified in Baltimore, including four from the Late Woodland period. During the Late Woodland period, the archaeological culture, called the "Potomac Creek complex" resided in the area from Baltimore south to the Rappahannock River in present-day Virginia. In the early 1600s, the immediate Baltimore vicinity was sparsely populated, if at all, by Native Americans.
The Baltimore County area northward was used as hunting grounds by the Susquehannock living in the lower Susquehanna River valley. This Iroquoian-speaking people "controlled all of the upper tributaries of the Chesapeake" but "refrained from much contact with Powhatan in the Potomac region" and south into Virginia. Pressured by the Susquehannock, the Piscataway tribe, an Algonquian-speaking people, stayed well south of the Baltimore area and inhabited the north bank of the Potomac River in what are now Charles and southern Prince George's counties in the coastal areas south of the Fall Line. European colonization of Maryland began with the arrival of an English ship at St. Clement's Island in the Potomac River on March 25, 1634. Europeans began to settle the area further north, beginning to populate the area of Baltimore County; the original county seat, known today as "Old Baltimore", was located on Bush River within the present-day Aberdeen Proving Ground. The colonists engaged in sporadic warfare with the Susquehanna, whose numbers dwindled from new infectious diseases, such as smallpox, endemic among the Europeans.
In 1661 David Jones claimed the area known today as Jonestown on the east bank of the Jones Falls stream. The colonial General Assembly of Maryland created the Port of Baltimore at old Whetstone Point in 1706 for the tobacco trade; the Town of Baltimore, on the west side of the Jones Falls, was founded and laid out on July 30, 1729. By 1752 the town had just 27 homes, including two taverns. Jonestown and Fells Point had been settled to the east; the three settlements, covering 60 acres, became a commercial hub, in 1768 were designated as the county seat. Being a colony, the Baltimore street names were laid out to demonstrate loyalty to the mother country. For example King George, King and Caroline streets. Baltimore grew swiftly in the 18th century, its plantations producing grain and tobacco for sugar-producing colonies in the Caribbean; the profit from sugar encouraged the cultivation of cane in the Caribbean and the importation of food by planters there. As noted, Baltimore was as the county seat, in 1768 a courthouse was built to serve both the city and county.
Its square was a center of community discussions. Baltimore established its public market system in 1763. Lexington Market, founded in 1782, i