Charles Horton Cooley was an American sociologist and the son of Thomas M. Cooley. He studied and went on to teach economics and sociology at the University of Michigan, and he was a founding member and the eighth president of the American Sociological Association. He is perhaps best known for his concept of the looking glass self, which is the concept that a persons self grows out of societys interpersonal interactions and the perceptions of others. He would eventually attain the title of president of the American Sociological Society, at the end of his life he became very ill, and succumbed to an unidentified form of cancer in 1929. Charles Horton Cooley was born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, on August 17,1864, to Mary Elizabeth Horton and his father was very successful in the legal field, and with a high social status he was well respected in the community. Thomas Cooley was the Supreme Court Judge for the state of Michigan and he was later appointed the dean at the law school from 1859-1884. His father was a successful man that stressed the importance of education to his six children.
Nevertheless, Cooley had a childhood and was somewhat of a passive child. The intimidation and alienation he felt by his own father at a young age took a toll in his life on, due to this situation, he suffered for fifteen years from a variety of illnesses, some appearing to be psychosomatic. He was shy and developed several insecurities due to his speech impediment, Cooley was a day dreamer and many of his dreaming-life had some form of influence to his sociological works. As a child he dealt with the feeling of isolation and loneliness, at the age of sixteen Cooley started attending the University of Michigan. Cooley suffered from obstetative elimination which is an illness that affects the mental and physical health of individuals and his illness negatively affected his college life since it caused him to take breaks from studying. Due to the effects of medical condition, it took Cooley a total of seven years to graduate from the University of Michigan in 1887. Charles continued with a training in mechanical engineering at the same school.
In 1888, he returned for a degree in political economics. He began teaching economics and sociology at the University in the fall of 1892, Cooley went on to receive a PhD in 1894. His doctoral thesis was The Theory of Transportation in economics, since Cooleys father was honored nationwide, Cooley feared the idea of failure. He did not know where he belonged in life and did not know what he wanted to do with his life and he questioned if he wanted to study science, social science, psychology or sociology
American Sociological Association
The American Sociological Association, founded in 1905 as the American Sociological Society, is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the discipline and profession of sociology. Most members work in academia, but about 20% work in government, the ASA holds its own annual academic conference, the American Sociological Association Annual Meeting. The 103rd ASA Annual Meeting in Boston in August 2008 attracted 5,458 attendees, the best known is the American Sociological Review and the newest one is Contexts, a magazine designed to share sociology with other fields and the public. In 2010, ASAs membership went beyond 14,000 and consists of various sociology-related professionals, ASA currently is the largest professional association of sociologists in the world, even larger than the International Sociological Association. The mission of the ASA is to advance sociology as a scientific discipline, the American Sociological Association was founded in December 1905 at Johns Hopkins University by a group of fifty people.
The first president of the association was Lester Frank Ward, the American Sociological Association is governed by a code of ethics and ethical standards. In 1970, the first ASA code of ethics was written, since 1970, the code of ethics has been revised. The Committee on Professional Ethics worked to write code and upon completing and approving it in 1997. These three goals were to make the code more educative, easier to use, in 1993, then-doctoral student Rik Scarce was jailed for more than five months as a result of following the ASAs code of ethics. Scarces Ph. D. research was on the environmental movement. Scarces refusal to answer resulted in a contempt of court citation and 159 days spent in jail and he was never suspected of wrongdoing and—in keeping with contempt of court practice—he was never read his Miranda rights, arrested, or tried. In early 2010, ASA publicly expressed outrage over a controversy involving Frances Fox Piven and Glenn Beck, an article written by Piven concerning mobilization of unemployed individuals had spurred the commentary by Beck.
In January 2012, a United States district court ordered Boston College to turn over material from the Belfast Project, Boston College filed an appeal in February 2012, challenging the district courts decision. ASA became involved in the case to protect human participants from the subpoena of confidential project research data. The statement by the ASA council cited the damage this ruling would have on social science research by stifling the ability to study controversial topics. ASA is looking for an affirmation by the court for confidentiality in research, ASA style is a widely accepted format for writing university research papers that specifies the arrangement and punctuation of footnotes and bibliographies. Standards for ASA style are specified in the ASA Style Guide and it provides networking outlets for nearly 3,000 research papers and 4,600 presenters. The meeting is spread across four days and covers 600 program sessions, all ASA Committees and Task Forces meet during the annual meeting
Find a Grave
Find a Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry. com, the worlds largest for-profit genealogy company, the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of celebrities. He added an online forum, Find a Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000. The site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find a Grave to Ancestry. com, burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history. In a September 30,2013, press release, Ancestry, as of March 2017, Find a Grave contained over 159 million burial records and 75 million photos. The website contains listings of cemeteries and graves from around the world, american cemeteries are organized by state and county, and many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites.
Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information, Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, and other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, the submitter becomes the manager of the listing but may transfer management. Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the features to send correction requests to the listings manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses, members may post requests for photos of a specific grave, these requests will be automatically sent to other members who have registered their location as being near that grave. Find a Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their claim to fame, such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, Find a Grave exercises editorial control over these listings.
Canadian Headstones Interment. net National Cemetery Administrations Nationwide Gravesite Locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Colker, web site answers grave concerns about stars. Web site attracts millions of grave-seekers, Find VIPs who R. I. P. through online cemetery. Genealogy, Find a Grave tremendous on many different levels, terre Haute, Community Newspaper Holdings Inc. Archived from the original on May 14,2011, Find a Grave has info youre dying to know. Tracking Down Relatives, Visiting Graves Virtually, media related to Images from Find A Grave at Wikimedia Commons Official website
HathiTrust was founded in October 2008 by the thirteen universities of the Committee on Institutional Cooperation and the University of California. The partnership includes over 60 research libraries across the United States and Europe, costs are shared by the participating libraries and library consortia. The repository is administered by Indiana University and the University of Michigan, the Executive Director of HathiTrust is Mike Furlough. In October 2015, HathiTrust comprised over 13.7 million volumes, HathiTrust provides a number of discovery and access services, full-text search across the entire repository. In 2016 over 6.17 million users located in the United States, in September 2011, the Authors Guild sued HathiTrust, alleging massive copyright violation. A federal court ruled against the Authors Guild in October 2012, pronounced hah-tee, is the Hindi word for elephant, an animal famed for its long-term memory. Hathi is the name of an elephant in Rudyard Kiplings The Second Jungle Book, an Elephant Backs Up Googles Library.
HathiTrust, A Research Library at Web Scale, matthew Miller, Gilok Choi, and Lindsay Chell. Comparison of three digital library interfaces, open library, Google books, and Hathi Trust, in Proceedings of the 12th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries, pp. 367–368. Official website HathiTrust adds new members, goes global Major Library Partners Launch HathiTrust Shared Digital Repository
Robert K. Merton
Robert King Merton was an American sociologist. He spent most of his teaching at Columbia University, where he attained the rank of University Professor. In 1994 he was awarded the National Medal of Science for his contributions to the field and he is considered a founding father of modern sociology. Merton developed notable concepts such as unintended consequences, the group, and role strain. Mertons work on the model first appeared in a study on the socialization of medical students at Columbia University. The term grew from his theory of the group, the group to which individuals compare themselves. Social roles were central to Mertons theory of social groups, Merton emphasized that, rather than a person assuming one role and one status, they have a status set in the social structure that has, attached to it, a whole set of expected behaviors. Robert K. Merton was born on 4 July 1910 in Philadelphia as Meyer Robert Schkolnick into a family of Yiddish-speaking Russian Jews who had immigrated to the United States in 1904 and his mother was Ida Rasovskaya, an unsynagogued socialist who had freethinking radical sympathies.
His father was Aaron Schkolnickoff, a tailor who had officially registered at his United States port of entry as Harrie Skolnick. Mertons family lived in straitened circumstances after his father’s uninsured dairy-product shop in South Philadelphia burned down, the father became a carpenter’s assistant to support the family. Even though Merton grew up poor, however, he believed that he had been afforded many opportunities. He adopted the name Robert K. Merton initially as a name for his magic performances. Young Merton developed a strong interest in magic, heavily influenced by his sister’s boyfriend, for his magic acts he initially chose the stage name “Merlin”, but he eventually settled on the surname “Merton” in order to further Americanize his immigrant-family name. He picked the given name Robert in honor of the 19th-century French magician Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin, thus his stage name became Robert Merton, and he kept it as his personal name on receiving a scholarship to Temple University.
He started his career under the guidance of George E. Simpson at Philadelphias Temple University. Mertons work as Simpsons research assistant on a project dealing with race, under Simpsons leadership, Merton attended an American Sociological Association annual meeting where he met Pitrim A. Sorokin, the founding chair of the Harvard University Sociology Department. Merton applied to Harvard and went to work as an assistant to Sorokin. Many had doubted that Merton would be accepted into Harvard after graduating from Temple, after completing these, Merton went on to graduate from Harvard with an M. A. and Ph. D. in sociology
Edwin Hardin Sutherland was an American sociologist. He is considered as one of the most influential criminologists of the 20th century and he was a sociologist of the symbolic interactionist school of thought and is best known for defining white-collar crime and differential association, a general theory of crime and delinquency. Sutherland earned his Ph. D. in sociology from the University of Chicago in 1913, Sutherland grew up and studied in Ottow and Grand Island, Nebraska. In 1904, he received his B. A. from Grand Island College, and after that, he taught Latin, Greek and shorthand for two years at Sioux Falls College in South Dakota. In 1906, he left Sioux Falls to enter school at the University of Chicago from which he received his doctorate. He changed his major from history to sociology and Political Economy, sutherlands historical importance rests upon his having introduced the concept of white-collar crime, a concept which violated existing prejudices that aristocrats can do no wrong.
Sutherland solidified his reputation as one of the countrys leading criminologists at the University of Minnesota, during this period, he concentrated in sociology as a scientific enterprise whose goal was to understand and control social problems. For several months in 1929 Sutherland studied the British penal system while in England, during 1929–30 Sutherland worked as a researcher with the Bureau of Social Hygiene in New York City. In 1930, Sutherland accepted a position as a professor at the University of Chicago. In 1935 he took a position at Indiana University, where he remained till his death on October 11,1950. He founded the Bloomington School of Criminology at Indiana University and it remained censored until the original text was published in 1983 by Yale University Press. Sutherland was elected president of the American Sociological Society in 1939, the theory had a structural element positing that conflict and social disorganisation are the underlying causes of crime because they determine the patterns of people associated with.
This latter element was dropped when the edition was published in 1947. But he remained convinced that social class was a relevant factor, in his 1949 monograph White-Collar Crime he defined a white-collar crime approximately as a crime committed by a person of respectability and high social status in the course of his occupation. Principles of Criminology, University of Chicago Press, with Locke, H. J.24,000 Homeless Men, Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Conwell, Chic. The Professional Thief, by a Professional Thief and Interpreted by Edwin H. Sutherland. Development of the Theory, in Karl Schuessler Edwin H. Sutherland on Analyzing Crime, Edwin H. White Collar Crime, New York, Rinehart & Winston. The Diffusion of Sexual Psychopath Laws, American Journal of Sociology, Issue 56, pp. 142–8 Organi-cultural Deviance Edwin Sutherland at the American Sociological Association
Louis Wirth was an American sociologist and member of the Chicago school of sociology. Louis Wirth was born in the village of Gemünden in the Hunsrück. He was one of seven born to Rosalie Lorig and Joseph Wirth. Gemünden was a community, and Joseph Wirth earned a living as a cattle dealer. The family was Jewish and both of his parents were religiously active, Louis left Gemünden to live with his older sister at his uncles home in Omaha, Nebraska in 1911. Soon after arriving in the United States, Louis met and married Mary Bolton, the couple had two daughters and Alice. Wirth studied in the United States and became a figure in Chicago School Sociology. His interests included city life, minority group behaviour and mass media, Wirths major contribution to social theory of urban space was a classic essay Urbanism as a Way of Life, published in the American Journal of Sociology in 1938. His research was concerned with how Jewish immigrants adjusted to life in urban America. Wirth was a supporter of applied sociology, and believed in taking the knowledge offered by his discipline, according to Wirth, marriage tends to be postponed, and the proportion of single people is growing, leading to isolation and less interaction.
It is in respect that Wirths path-breaking and insightful work still amply rewards detailed study even today. A good example of Wirths work, which includes a bibliography, is On Cities and Social Life. Chicago, Preface to „Ideology and Utopia“, by Karl Mannheim, in, Shils, E. Wirth, L. Ideology and Utopia, by Karl Mannheim, NY, p. XIII-XXXI, Types of Nationalism. In, AJS, Vol.41, no.6, May, p. 723-737, Chicago, p. 23-30, Urbanism As A Way of Life. In, AJS44, p. 1-24, Social Interaction, The Problem of the Individual, in, AJS, Vol.44, May, p. 965-979, Ideological Aspects of Social Disorganization. In, American Sociological Review, Vol.5, no.4, p. 472-482, The Urban Society, in, Louis, Eleven Twenty Six, A Decade of Social Science Research, p. 51-63, Morale and Minority Groups. In, AJS, Vol.47, no.3, November, p. 415-433, in, Studies in Political Science and Sociology. Philadelphia, p. 137-156, Race and Public Policy, in, Scientific Monthly, Vol.58, April, p. 302-312, Group Tension and Mass Democracy
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. It was established in 1754 as Kings College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain, after the American Revolutionary War, Kings College briefly became a state entity, and was renamed Columbia College in 1784. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university has global research outposts in Amman, Istanbul, Mumbai, Rio de Janeiro, Asunción, Columbia administers annually the Pulitzer Prize. Additionally,100 Nobel laureates have been affiliated with Columbia as students, faculty, Columbia is second only to Harvard University in the number of Nobel Prize-winning affiliates, with over 100 recipients of the award as of 2016. In 1746 an act was passed by the assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. Classes were initially held in July 1754 and were presided over by the colleges first president, Dr.
Johnson was the only instructor of the colleges first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan, in 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queens College, and an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777. The suspension continued through the occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783. The colleges library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a hospital first by American. Loyalists were forced to abandon their Kings College in New York, the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where they founded Kings Collegiate School. After the Revolution, the college turned to the State of New York in order to restore its vitality, the Legislature agreed to assist the college, and on May 1,1784, it passed an Act for granting certain privileges to the College heretofore called Kings College.
The Regents finally became aware of the colleges defective constitution in February 1787 and appointed a revision committee, in April of that same year, a new charter was adopted for the college, still in use today, granting power to a private board of 24 Trustees. On May 21,1787, William Samuel Johnson, the son of Dr. Samuel Johnson, was unanimously elected President of Columbia College, prior to serving at the university, Johnson had participated in the First Continental Congress and been chosen as a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. The colleges enrollment and academics stagnated for the majority of the 19th century, with many of the college presidents doing little to change the way that the college functioned. In 1857, the college moved from the Kings College campus at Park Place to a primarily Gothic Revival campus on 49th Street and Madison Avenue, during the last half of the 19th century, under the leadership of President F. A. P. Barnard, the institution assumed the shape of a modern university
Union College is a private, non-denominational liberal arts college located in Schenectady, New York, United States. Founded in 1795, it was the first institution of higher learning chartered by the New York State Board of Regents, in the 19th century, it became the Mother of Fraternities, as three of the earliest such organizations were established there. After 175 years as a traditional institution, Union College began enrolling women in 1970. The college offers an arts curriculum across some 21 academic departments, as well as opportunities for interdepartmental majors. Approximately 25% of students major in the sciences, 10% in psychology, 11% in engineering, 10% in biology, 9% in history. By the time they graduate, about 60% of Union students will have engaged in some form of study or study abroad. Places of higher learning were few in the days of the Americas. Officially chartered in 1795, Union can trace its beginnings to 1779, by 1799, another 16 surviving colleges had been chartered or founded in the United States, to bring the total to 25 at the end of the 18th century.
But, in the years between the American Revolution and Civil War, the foundations of 182 permanent colleges were laid in the United States. Hundreds more were born but proved short-lived, largely because of financial limitations, of the 182 colleges and universities founded in those years, well over a hundred appeared outside the original thirteen colonies. Union College, like many of these, was founded in what was nearly a wilderness, in the town of Schenectady, New York on the Mohawk River, at the time, the town had fewer than 4,000 residents. The cities of Syracuse and Buffalo did not yet exist, and western New York was very sparsely settled, Unions charter was 16 years in the making. Even before the Revolution had ended, a new rising democratic tide was overtaking the colonists, the old ways, and in particular the old purposes and structure of higher education, were being pushed aside. Practical education for the new man of commerce and politics was the new desire, not just classical education for the professions, every hamlet and rude settlement aspired to become an Athens of the West, and Schenectady was no exception.
The Mohawk and Hudson River regions were for the most part dominated by the Dutch in those years, Queens College, while intended in part to provide a classical education, had been founded specifically to train ministers in the Dutch Reformed Church. This has been said by some to be the first expression in America of a demand for higher education. This petition, along with a one in 1782, failed in its purpose. In the meantime, the Dutch Church continued to show an interest in establishing an academy or college under its control in Schenectady
Edward Alsworth Ross
Edward Alsworth Ross was a progressive American sociologist and major figure of early criminology. He was born in Virden, Illinois and he attended Coe College and graduated in 1887. After two years as an instructor at a school, the Fort Dodge Commercial Institute, he went to Germany for graduate study at the University of Berlin. He returned to the U. S. and in 1891 he received his Ph. D. from Johns Hopkins University in political economy under Richard T. Ely, with minors in philosophy and ethics. Ross was a professor at Indiana University, secretary of the American Economic Association, professor at Cornell University, in Stanfords first academic freedom controversy, Ross was fired from Stanford because of his political views on eugenics. He objected to Chinese immigrant labor and Japanese immigration altogether, jordan managed to keep Ross from being fired, but Ross resigned shortly after. The position was at odds with the founding family, the Stanfords, who had made their fortune in Western rail construction.
Ross had made remarks about the railroad industry in his classes. This was too much for Jane Stanford, Leland Stanfords widow, numerous professors at Stanford resigned after protests of his dismissal, sparking a national debate. Concerning the freedom of expression and control of universities by private interests, the American Association of University Professors was founded largely in response to this incident. Ross left for the University of Nebraska, where he taught until 1905, in 1906, he moved to the University of Wisconsin–Madison, where he became Professor of Sociology, and eventually chairman of the department. His understanding of Americanization and assimilation bore a resemblance to that of another Wisconsin professor. Like Turner, Ross believed that American identity was forged in the crucible of the wilderness, in 1913, the State of Wisconsin passed its first sterilization law. Ross, who lived in Wisconsin at the time, was a proponent of sterilization. Involuntary sterilization remained legal in Wisconsin until July 1978, Ross visited Russia after the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917.
He endorsed the revolution even as he acknowledged its bloody origins and he was subsequently a leading advocate of US recognition of the Soviet Union. However, he served on the Dewey Commission, which cleared Leon Trotsky of the charges made against him by the Soviet government during the Moscow Trials. From 1900 to the 1920s, Ross supported the alcohol Prohibition movement as well as contunuing to support eugenics, by 1930, he had moved away from those views, however
Project Gutenberg is a volunteer effort to digitize and archive cultural works, to encourage the creation and distribution of eBooks. It was founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart and is the oldest digital library, most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books. The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, as of 3 October 2015, Project Gutenberg reached 50,000 items in its collection. The releases are available in plain text but, wherever possible, other formats are included, such as HTML, PDF, EPUB, MOBI, most releases are in the English language, but many non-English works are available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional, Project Gutenberg is closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an Internet-based community for proofreading scanned texts. Project Gutenberg was started by Michael Hart in 1971 with the digitization of the United States Declaration of Independence, Hart, a student at the University of Illinois, obtained access to a Xerox Sigma V mainframe computer in the universitys Materials Research Lab.
Through friendly operators, he received an account with an unlimited amount of computer time. Hart has said he wanted to back this gift by doing something that could be considered to be of great value. His initial goal was to make the 10,000 most consulted books available to the public at little or no charge and this particular computer was one of the 15 nodes on ARPANET, the computer network that would become the Internet. Hart believed that computers would one day be accessible to the general public and he used a copy of the United States Declaration of Independence in his backpack, and this became the first Project Gutenberg e-text. He named the project after Johannes Gutenberg, the fifteenth century German printer who propelled the movable type printing press revolution, by the mid-1990s, Hart was running Project Gutenberg from Illinois Benedictine College. More volunteers had joined the effort, all of the text was entered manually until 1989 when image scanners and optical character recognition software improved and became more widely available, which made book scanning more feasible.
Hart came to an arrangement with Carnegie Mellon University, which agreed to administer Project Gutenbergs finances, as the volume of e-texts increased, volunteers began to take over the projects day-to-day operations that Hart had run. Starting in 2004, an online catalog made Project Gutenberg content easier to browse, access. Project Gutenberg is now hosted by ibiblio at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Italian volunteer Pietro Di Miceli developed and administered the first Project Gutenberg website and started the development of the Project online Catalog. In his ten years in this role, the Project web pages won a number of awards, often being featured in best of the Web listings, Hart died on 6 September 2011 at his home in Urbana, Illinois at the age of 64. In 2000, a corporation, the Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. Long-time Project Gutenberg volunteer Gregory Newby became the foundations first CEO, in 2000, Charles Franks founded Distributed Proofreaders, which allowed the proofreading of scanned texts to be distributed among many volunteers over the Internet