7000 Oaks – City Forestation Instead of City Administration is a work of land art by the German artist Joseph Beuys. It was first publicly presented in 1982 at the documenta 7. With the help of volunteers, Beuys planted 7,000 oak trees over several years in Kassel, each with an accompanying basalt stone. In response to the extensive urbanization of the setting the work was an long and large-scale artistic and ecological intervention with the goal of enduringly altering the living space of the city; the project, though at first controversial, has become an important part of Kassel's cityscape. The project was of enormous scope, met with some controversy. While the biggest difficulty of the project was raising the money, the project had its share of opponents. Much of it was political, from the conservative state government dominated by the Christian Democrats.. Some people thought the black stone markers were ugly piling pink stones on the sites in 1982 as a prank. A motorcyclist had died as a result of one of the stone markers.
However, as more trees were planted people's perception of the project as a parking lot destroyer had met with increasing tolerance.“I think the tree is an element of regeneration which in itself is a concept of time. The oak is so because it is a growing tree with a kind of solid heart wood, it has always been a form of sculpture, a symbol for this planet since the Druids, who are called after the oak. Druid means oak, they used their oaks to define their holy places. I can see such a use for the future.... The tree planting enterprise provides a simple but radical possibility for this when we start with the seven thousand oaks.” "The planting of seven thousand oak trees is only a symbolic beginning. Contrary to its initiative, progressive features such a symbolic beginning requires a marker, in this instance a basalt column. Future goals for the project included: a) an ongoing scheme of tree planting to be extended throughout the world as part of a global mission to effect environmental & social change "the purpose of educational activities".
Beuys' art works and performances are not about amusing the audience. It is an awakening message from the tradition, a recognition of the whole based upon a new concept of beauty that extends beyond the instant gratification. "I not only want to stimulate people, I want to provoke them." It is a movement from the tradition, the expected, the established for an inclusive openness. Completed in 1987 by his son, Wenzel, on the first anniversary of his father's death, the project is still maintained by the city. Beuys' 7000 Oaks work is an example of the thread that links the Situationist International's approach to art and its re-creation by new groups continues to evolve through a new generation of conscious organizations that merge art and environmental issues in their work. In 2000, the Center for Art and Visual Culture developed the Joseph Beuys Sculpture Park and Joseph Beuys Tree Partnership and planted over 350 trees in various parks in Baltimore Parks with the help of over 500 volunteers including children from local schools.
The project was organized around Beuys' philosophy that ‘everyone can be an artist’ by acknowledging the creativity inherent in volunteers planting trees on their own. The goal of the project was to “extend the traditional role of the art gallery so the gallery extends out into the city”. 1982 in art The Letters of Utrecht Living sculpture Social sculpture Beuys, Joseph. Gespräche über Bäume. Wangen FIU-Verlag. ISBN 978-3-928780-11-7. Database. "Joseph Beuys, 7000 Oaks". Dia Art Foundation. Retrieved 25 May 2012
Saint Martin's School of Art
Saint Martin's School of Art was an art college in London, England. It offered degree level courses, it was established in 1854 under the aegis of the church of St Martin-in-the-Fields. Saint Martin's became part of the London Institute in 1986, in 1989 merged with the Central School of Art and Design to form Central Saint Martins College of Arts and Design. Saint Martin's School of Art was established in 1854 by Henry Mackenzie, vicar of the church of St Martin-in-the-Fields, it became independent from the church in 1859. The school was at first housed on the top floor of St Martin's Northern School in Shelton Street, to the north of Long Acre; the Gilbert-Garret Competition for Sketching Clubs was founded at Saint Martin's in 1870, when John Parker was headmaster. It was named after the first president of the school. From 1952 to 1979 Frank Martin was head of the sculpture department of Saint Martin's, he brought in young sculptors such as Anthony Caro, Robert Clatworthy, Elizabeth Frink and Eduardo Paolozzi to teach, employed as part-time teachers recent graduates of the department, including David Annesley, Michael Bolus, Phillip King, Tim Scott, Bill Tucker and Isaac Witkin.
Caro's influence was strong, the group around him came to be known as the New Generation of British sculptors. The sculpture department became, in the words of Tim Scott: "the most famous in the art world"; the first public performance of the Sex Pistols took place at the school on 6 November 1975. Notable alumni of Saint Martin's School of Art include: Sade Adu Pierce Brosnan Peter Doig John Galliano Bill Gibb Gilbert and George Anthony Gormley Katharine Hamnett Richard Long Bruce Oldfield Media related to Saint Martin's School of Art at Wikimedia Commons
Marina Abramović is a Serbian performance artist and art film director and producer. Her work explores body art, endurance art and feminist art, the relationship between performer and audience, the limits of the body, the possibilities of the mind. Being active for over four decades, Abramović refers to herself as the "grandmother of performance art", she pioneered a new notion of identity by bringing in the participation of observers, focusing on "confronting pain and physical limits of the body". Abramović was born in Belgrade, Yugoslavia on November 30, 1946. In an interview, Abramović described her family as having been "Red bourgeoisie." Her great-uncle was Serbian Patriarch of the Serbian Orthodox Church. Both of her parents, Danica Rosić and Vojin Abramović were Yugoslav Partisans during the Second World War. After the war, Abramović's parents became "national heroes" and were given positions in the post-war Yugoslavian government. Abramović was raised by her grandparents, her grandmother was religious and Abramović "spent childhood in a church following grandmother's rituals – candles in the morning, the priest coming for different occasions".
At the age of six, when Abramović's brother was born, she began living with her parents and took piano and English lessons. While she did not take art lessons, she took an early interest in art and enjoyed painting as a child. Life in Abramović's parental home under her mother’s strict supervision was difficult; when Abramović was a child, her mother beat her for "supposedly showing off". In an interview published in 1998, Abramović described how her "mother took complete military-style control of me and my brother. I was not allowed to leave the house after 10 o'clock at night until I was 29 years old.... Ll the performances in Yugoslavia I did before 10 o'clock in the evening because I had to be home then. It's insane, but all of my cutting myself, whipping myself, burning myself losing my life in'The Firestar' - everything was done before 10 in the evening."In an interview published in 2013, Abramović said, "My mother and father had a terrible marriage." Describing an incident when her father smashed 12 champagne glasses and left the house, she said, "It was the most horrible moment of my childhood."She was a student at the Academy of Fine Arts in Belgrade from 1965 to 1970.
She completed her post-graduate studies at the Academy of Fine Arts in Zagreb, SR Croatia in 1972. She returned to SR Serbia and, from 1973 to 1975, she taught at the Academy of Fine Arts at Novi Sad, while implementing her first solo performances. After Abramović was married to Neša Paripović between 1971 to 1976, in 1976, she went to Amsterdam to perform a piece decided to move there permanently. From 1990–1995 Abramović was a visiting professor at the Académie des Beaux-Arts in Paris and at the Berlin University of the Arts. From 1992–1996 she was a visiting professor at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Hamburg and from 1997–2004 she was a professor for performance-art at the Hochschule für bildende Künste Braunschweig; some of her best known students are Chiharu Shiota. In her first performance in Edinburgh in 1973, Abramović explored elements of gesture. Making use of twenty knives and two tape recorders, the artist played the Russian game, in which rhythmic knife jabs are aimed between the splayed fingers of one's hand.
Each time she cut herself, she would pick up a new knife from the row of twenty she had set up, record the operation. After cutting herself twenty times, she replayed the tape, listened to the sounds, tried to repeat the same movements, attempting to replicate the mistakes, merging past and present, she set out to explore the physical and mental limitations of the body – the pain and the sounds of the stabbing. With this piece, Abramović began to consider the state of consciousness of the performer. "Once you enter into the performance state you can push your body to do things you could never do." In this performance, Abramović sought to re-evoke the energy of extreme bodily pain, using a large petroleum-drenched star, which the artist lit on fire at the start of the performance. Standing outside the star, Abramović cut her nails and hair; when finished with each, she threw the clippings into the flames, creating a burst of light each time. Burning the communist five-pointed star represented a physical and mental purification, while addressing the political traditions of her past.
In the final act of purification, Abramović leapt across the flames, propelling herself into the center of the large star. Due to the light and smoke given off by the fire, the observing audience did not realize that, once inside the star, the artist had lost consciousness from lack of oxygen; some members of the audience realized what had occurred only when the flames came near to her body and she remained inert. A doctor and several members of the audience extricated her from the star. Abramović commented upon this experience: "I was angry because I understood there is a physical limit; when you lose consciousness you can't be present, you can't perform." Prompted by her loss of consciousness during Rhythm 5, Abramović devised the two-part Rhythm 2 to incorporate a state of unconsciousness in a performance. She performed the work at the Gallery of Contemporary Art in Zagreb, in 1974. In Part I, which had a duration of 50 minutes, she ingested a medication she describes as'given to patients who suffer from catatonia, to force them to change the positio
South London Gallery
The South London Gallery, founded 1891, is a public-funded gallery of contemporary art in Camberwell, London. Until 1992, it was known as the South London Art Gallery, nowadays the acronym SLG is used. Margot Heller became its director in 2001; the gallery traces its origins back to the South London Working Men's College at 91 Blackfriars Road in 1868, whose Principal was the biologist Thomas Henry Huxley, the grandfather of Aldous Huxley. In 1878, the College relocated to 143 Kennington Lane, where a Free Library was opened. In 1879 Rossiter staged an art show of owned works at the Library. After this the name was changed to the Free Art Gallery. In 1881, the library and gallery moved again to New Road, in 1887 to 207 Camberwell Road. Leading artists such as Sir Frederic Leighton, President of the Royal Academy, Edward Burne-Jones and G. F. Watts supported the institution. On 4 May 1891, The South London Fine Art Gallery opened in Peckham Road in a new building in the grounds of Portland House, whose freehold Rossiter had purchased.
In 1893, the Prince of Wales opened a lecture hall and library funded by newspaper owner John Passmore Edwards. In 1896, the Gallery was relocated at the Vestry of Camberwell. In 1898, Royal Academy President, Sir Edward Poynter opened a Technical Institute, which again had been funded by Passmore Edwards on the site of Portland House, it became Camberwell College of Art, run by the London County Council from 1904, though the Gallery was still under the local authority. The Gallery added to its permanent collection in 1953, to celebrate the coronation, with works by contemporary artists such as John Piper and Christopher Wood, the next decade acquired over 500 twentieth-century prints; the new London Borough of Southwark took over responsibility for the Gallery in 1965 but under independent trustees. The appointment of David Thorp as Director in 1992 brought what came to be known as the South London Gallery into its present phase, when it espoused Britart and staged significant "cutting edge" exhibitions.
The Gallery was the first venue for the showing of Tracey Emin's "tent", Everyone I Have Ever Slept With 1963–1995, when Carl Freedman curated the Minky Manky show in 1995. The show catalogue includes an interview with Emin. Other artists in the show were Sarah Lucas, Gary Hume, Damien Hirst, Mat Collishaw and George, Critical Décor and Stephen Pippin. Freedman said one of the show's themes was: the artist as a subject, explore the relationship between the art on the wall and its creator, to make the whole thing more humanistic, and in there somewhere there is the beginnings of a thesis on the relationship and similarities between madness and modernism, for example, defiance of authority, examples of extreme relativism, strange transformations of the self and things like that. Minky Manky went to the Arnolfini gallery, Bristol. Two years Emin staged a solo show I Need Art Like I Need God, which included a debate with artist Billy Childish about their former relationship. A strong programme of exhibitions gained the gallery increased publicity and greater visitor numbers, as well as a place in the 1996 Prudential Awards for the Arts, a nomination for Thorp in 1997 for the Prudential Creative Britons Award.
Exhibitors included Gavin Turk. Works were acquired by artists such as Antony Gormley, Anish Kapoor and Tracey Emin, Sarah Lucas and Angus Fairhurst. In 1999, Curator Donna Lynas began a Live Art programme, which incurred some controversy, with performances including Franko B and Stuart Brisley. In 2001, Margot Heller became Director continuing to develop the gallery's international reputation for its programme of contemporary art exhibitions and live art events, with integrated education projects for children, young people and adults. Five exhibitions each year profile the work of established international figures such as Tom Friedman, Mark Dion, Rivane Neuenschwander, Alfredo Jaar, Eva Rothschild, Ryan Gander and Superflex. Group shows bring together works by lesser known British and international artists; the gallery’s live art and film programme has included presentations by Rachel Gomme, Nathaniel Mellors, Gail Pickering, OMSK and Gisele Vienne, occasional large scale off-site projects have included those by on Kawara in Trafalgar Square in 2004, Chris Burden at Chelsea College of Art Parade Ground in 2006.
The South London Gallery is at 65 Peckham Road, London SE5 8UH. It is open Tuesday to Sunday, 11am–6pm, Wednesdays and the last Friday of every month until 9pm, exhibitions are free. South London Gallery
Il Sole 24 Ore
Il Sole 24 Ore is an Italian national daily business newspaper owned by Confindustria, the Italian employers' federation. Il Sole 24 Ore was first published on 9 November 1965 as a merger between Il Sole, founded in 1865, 24 Ore, founded in 1933; the latter was established by young economists, including Ferdinando di Fenizio, Libero Lenti and Roberto Tremelloni, on 15 February 1933. The owner of Il Sole 24 Ore is Confindustria. Il Sole 24 Ore is published in broadsheet format; the paper reports on business, developments in commercial and labour law, corporate news and features. Extensive share and financial product listings are provided in its daily supplement, Finanza e Mercati. Weekly supplements include: Domenica: art, philosophy, cinema, book reviews, related news. Irregular supplements are produced with a focus on a specific issue such as a particular business sector; the 1988 circulation of Il Sole 24 Ore was 320,000 copies. In 1997 it was the fifth best-selling Italian newspaper with a circulation of 368,652 copies.
The circulation of the paper was 520,000 copies in 2000 and 414,000 copies in 2001. In 2004 the paper had a circulation of 373,723 copies, making it the fourth best-selling newspaper in Italy, its circulation was 334,076 copies in 2008. The print + digital circulation in 2017 was equal to 177,000 average copies. In the course of 2017, Il Sole 24 Ore has risen again in the ranking of national newspapers with the highest diffusion from fourth to third place; the printed newspaper is presented as part of an integrated information system which includes: Radio 24: a news/talks fm/online radio channel. Il Sole 24 ORE is published by 24 Ore Group. In the field of services tailored to professionals and businesses, the Group enjoys a solid competitive market position thanks to its databanks, online services and training programs. Listed on the Italian Stock Exchange since 6 December 2007, the 24 ORE Group has carved itself a unique place in the organization of exhibitions and cultural events through 24 ORE Cultura, one of the most prominent players on the market.
Official website 24 Ore Group website
Installation art is an artistic genre of three-dimensional works that are site-specific and designed to transform the perception of a space. The term is applied to interior spaces, whereas exterior interventions are called public art, land art or intervention art. Installation art can be either permanent. Installation artworks have been constructed in exhibition spaces such as museums and galleries, as well as public and private spaces; the genre incorporates a broad range of everyday and natural materials, which are chosen for their "evocative" qualities, as well as new media such as video, performance, immersive virtual reality and the internet. Many installations are site-specific in that they are designed to exist only in the space for which they were created, appealing to qualities evident in a three-dimensional immersive medium. Artistic collectives such as the Exhibition Lab at New York's American Museum of Natural History created environments to showcase the natural world in as realistic a medium as possible.
Walt Disney Imagineering employed a similar philosophy when designing the multiple immersive spaces for Disneyland in 1955. Since its acceptance as a separate discipline, a number of institutions focusing on Installation art were created; these included the Mattress Factory, the Museum of Installation in London, the Fairy Doors of Ann Arbor, MI, among others. Installation art came to prominence in the 1970s but its roots can be identified in earlier artists such as Marcel Duchamp and his use of the readymade and Kurt Schwitters' Merz art objects, rather than more traditional craft based sculpture; the "intention" of the artist is paramount in much installation art whose roots lie in the conceptual art of the 1960s. This again is a departure from traditional sculpture. Early non-Western installation art includes events staged by the Gutai group in Japan starting in 1954, which influenced American installation pioneers like Allan Kaprow. Wolf Vostell shows his installation 6 TV Dé-coll/age in 1963 at the Smolin Gallery in New York.
Installation as nomenclature for a specific form of art came into use recently. It was coined in this context, in reference to a form of art that had arguably existed since prehistory but was not regarded as a discrete category until the mid-twentieth century. Allan Kaprow used the term "Environment" in 1958 to describe his transformed indoor spaces. Installation/environmental art takes into account a broader sensory experience, rather than floating framed points of focus on a "neutral" wall or displaying isolated objects on a pedestal; this may leave space and time as its only dimensional constants, implying dissolution of the line between "art" and "life". The conscious act of artistically addressing all the senses with regard to a total experience made a resounding debut in 1849 when Richard Wagner conceived of a Gesamtkunstwerk, or an operatic work for the stage that drew inspiration from ancient Greek theater in its inclusion of all the major art forms: painting, music, etc.. In devising operatic works to commandeer the audience's senses, Wagner left nothing unobserved: architecture and the audience itself were considered and manipulated in order to achieve a state of total artistic immersion.
In the book "Themes in Contemporary Art", it is suggested that "installations in the 1980s and 1990s were characterized by networks of operations involving the interaction among complex architectural settings, environmental sites and extensive use of everyday objects in ordinary contexts. With the advent of video in 1965, a concurrent strand of installation evolved through the use of new and ever-changing technologies, what had been simple video installations expanded to include complex interactive and virtual reality environments". In "Art and Objecthood", Michael Fried derisively labels art that acknowledges the viewer as "theatrical". There is a strong parallel between installation and theater: both play to a viewer, expected to be at once immersed in the sensory/narrative experience that surrounds him and maintain a degree of self-identity as a viewer; the traditional theater-goer does not forget that he has come in from outside to sit and take in a created experience. The artist and critic Ilya Kabakov mentions this essential phenomenon in the introduction to his lectures "On the "Total" Installation": " is both a'victim' and a viewer, who on the one hand surveys and evaluates the installation, on the other, follows those associations, recollections which arise in him he is overcome by the intense atmosphere of the total illusion".
Here installation art bestows an unprecedented importance on the observer's inclusion in that which he observes. The expectations and social habits that the viewer takes with him into the space of the installation will remain with him as he enters, to be either applied or negated once he has taken in the new environment. What is common to nearly all installation art is a consideration of the experience in toto and the problems it may present, namely the constant conflict between disinterested criticism
Ruskin School of Art
The Ruskin School of Art, known as the Ruskin, is an art school at the University of Oxford, England. It is part of Oxford's Humanities Division. From 1865, there existed an Oxford School of Art at Oxford University, headed by Alexander Macdonald and housed in the University Galleries; when John Ruskin became Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford, he was critical about the teaching methods employed there and set out to reform them. To achieve this, he founded the Ruskin School of Drawing in 1871 to replace the older art school in the same, but restructured and with the existing students. Macdonald was retained as its head and became, the first Ruskin Master until his death in 1921, it was renamed to Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art in 1945, to Ruskin School of Art in 2014. The Ruskin remained at the Ashmolean until 1975, it occupies a further building at 128 Bullingdon Road, opened in 2015, operates across both sites. The Slade School of Fine Art relocated to the Ruskin for the duration of the Second World War.
The School was founded to encourage artisanship and technical skills. It now provides undergraduate and postgraduate qualifications in the production and study of visual art; the subject is taught as a living element of contemporary culture with a broad range of historical and theoretical references. The school was traditionally headed by an appointed Ruskin Master. From 2002-2010, Richard Wentworth was the last to hold this position which, since remained vacant. Since 2017, the current Head of School is Professor Anthony Gardner. Previous Ruskin Masters were: Stephen Farthing 1990-2000 David Tindle 1985-1987 Philip Morsberger 1971-1984 Richard Naish 1964-1971 Percy Horton 1949-1964 Albert Rutherston 1929-1949 Sydney Carline 1922-1929 Alexander Macdonald 1871-1922 For full list, see Category:Alumni of the Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art Robert Hewison, John Ruskin: the Argument of the Eye, Princeton University Press 1976, Chapter Seven: Action Ruskin School of Art University of Oxford Admissions