California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Peat, called turf, is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation or organic matter that is unique to natural areas called peatlands, mires, moors, or muskegs. The peatland ecosystem is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet because peatland plants capture the CO2 which is released from the peat. Sphagnum moss is one of the most common components in peat, soils that contain mostly peat are known as histosols. Peat forms in wetland conditions, where flooding obstructs flows of oxygen from the atmosphere, particularly bogs, are the most important source of peat. That said, other less common types, including fens, pocosins. Landscapes covered in peat are home to specific kinds of plants including Sphagnum moss, ericaceous shrubs, because organic matter accumulates over thousands of years, peat deposits provide records of past vegetation and climates stored in plant remains like pollen. This allows humans to reconstruct past environments and study changes in land use. Peat is harvested as an important source of fuel in certain parts of the world, by volume, there are about 4 trillion cubic metres of peat in the world, covering a total of around 2% of the global land area, containing about 8 billion terajoules of energy.
Over time, the formation of peat is often the first step in the formation of other fossil fuels such as coal. This is the commonly used in the peat industry. At 106 g CO2/MJ, the carbon dioxide emission intensity of peat is higher than that of coal and natural gas, peat fires have been responsible for large public health disasters including the 1997 Southeast Asian haze. Peat forms when plant material does not fully decay in acidic and anaerobic conditions and it is composed mainly of wetland vegetation, principally bog plants including mosses and shrubs. As it accumulates, the peat holds water and this slowly creates wetter conditions that allow the area of wetland to expand. Peatland features can include ponds and raised bogs, most modern peat bogs formed 12,000 years ago in high latitudes after the glaciers retreated at the end of the last ice age. Peat usually accumulates slowly at the rate of about a millimetre per year, using Carbon-dating, scientists found that Peat in peatlands started forming 360 million years ago based on it currently containing 550 Gt of carbon.
Peat material is either fibric, hemic, or sapric, fibric peats are the least decomposed and consist of intact fiber. Hemic peats are partially decomposed and sapric are the most decomposed, Phragmites peat is one composed of reed grass, Phragmites australis, and other grasses. It is denser than other types of peat
Pittsburg is an industrial city in Contra Costa County, California. The population was 63,264 at the 2010 census and it is located on the southern shore of the Suisun Bay in the East Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area. In 1849, Colonel Jonathan D. Stevenson bought the Rancho Los Medanos land grant, because of the industrial potential of the site, a name change to Pittsburg was proposed in 1909. Pittsburg, originally settled in 1839, was called first New York Landing, Black Diamond, the name was selected to honor Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, as the two cities shared a common steel and mining industrial heritage. However, from 1891 to July 1911, Pittsburgh, PA was officially known as Pittsburg, hence, in February 1911, when Pittsburg, CA adopted it name, the h was absent from its namesake city. The original town site fronts on the Sacramento/San Joaquin River Delta, in the process, the former town of Cornwall, California was absorbed. The city has enjoyed continued residential redevelopment growth near its boundary, as well as ongoing construction of major subdivisions in the southwest hills.
As of the 2000 census, the city had a population of 56,769. Camp Stoneman, located in the area, was a staging area for the United States Army during World War II. The post office first opened in 1868 as Black Diamond, during the early 1900s, many Sicilian fishermen from Isola delle Femmine near Palermo settled in what will be Pittsburg. 1954 - Camp Stoneman was officially deactivated by the Army,1984 - United States Steel closes its Steel mill in the city laying off over 400. 1987 - On the night of a city council meeting that approved the funds to restore the former Railroad Depot,2011 - Pittsburg is recognized as one of the most diverse suburban cities in the San Francisco Bay Area, the state of California and the United States. 2012 - The original Brenden Theater Corporation theater closed after 22 years, ramar International manufactures Magnolia Dairy Ice Cream, a Philippine specialty brand, in Pittsburg. Pittsburg shares a border with the community of Bay Point, California to the west. The Suisun Bay is directly north of the city and connects the San Francisco Bay to the Sacramento, Pittsburg experiences a hot summer Mediterranean climate bordering on the Semi-arid climate because of the Mt.
Diablo rain shadow in East Contra Costa County. The city has one BART station, the Pittsburg/Bay Point Station located in Pittsburg near Bay Point, EBART will extend rail service further into the city via DMU train with a Railroad Avenue station. Tri Delta Transit provides bus service in the area, California State Route 4 bisects the city from west to east. Pittsburg is home to Los Medanos College, a community college that is part of the Contra Costa Community College District
Bethel Island (California)
Bethel Island is an island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta of Contra Costa County, approximately 10 kilometres east of Antioch. The island describes itself as the heart of the California Delta, the population at the 2010 census was 2,137, a 7.6 percent decline from 2,312 at the 2000 census. Bethel Island, which was named after the Bethell Brothers and Warren Bethell, the islands reputation as such began in 1930, with Blanche and Jack Farrar founding a park with swimming and other outdoor activities. This park would eventually be called Farrar Park, Remsburg Marina was started by Warren Remsburg in 1938, and in 1944 a fishing resort called Franks had gained popularity on the island. The resort was built by the Andronico family, by the 1950s the area became popular with sport fishermen and the rich. Frank Bethell and Warren Bethells widow, Ann Youree Bethell sold their interest in the island in 1901, Ann went on to form a successful ranch in Almaden Valley and established the Bethell Block in downtown San Jose (site of the current Federal Building.
Bethel Island, California, is located in East Contra Costa County and it is one of the western islands within the California Delta region. The island is approximately 3,500 acres in size, the Bethel Island Municipal Improvement District has five directors, elected from the local community. They are responsible primarily for maintaining the levee around the island and they have responsibilities for water supply and drainage and playgrounds, and the local airports. As of January 2012, the Directors are, President Daniel Phippen Vice President Marguerite Lawry Jeff Rocca Dennis Eisenbeis Anthony Berzinas, BIMID was created by the California State Legislature in 1960, replacing Reclamation District No.1619. BIMID owns 100 acres of land in the center of the island between Bethel Island Road and Piper Road, appromiately 85 acres is used for sourcing sand to maintain the levee, plus approximately 15 acres used to plant new trees to mitigate for tree removal elsewhere on the island. The BIMID property on Stone Road consists of the District offices, a meeting room, the island is mostly below sea level, with an 14.9 mile perimeter levee.
The area is home to approximately 3,700 people, with 1,300 residential houses on the island, plus four mobile home parks,13 commercial marinas, a commercial business area and agricultural land. Bethel Island Golf Course designed by Bob Baldock, is home to Bethel Island Mens Golf Club, U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Bethel Island Bethel Island Chamber of Commerce
Lathrop is a city located in San Joaquin County, United States. At the 2010 census Lathrop’s population was 18,023, the city is located in Northern California at the intersection of Interstate 5 and SR120. Lathrop was platted when the railroad was extended to that point, a post office has been in operation at Lathrop since 1871. The city was named for the name of the wife of Leland Stanford. On August 14,1889 Chief Justice of California David S. Terry assaulted United States Supreme Court Justice Stephen J. Field, fields bodyguard United States Marshal David Neagle shot and killed Terry. The events led the United States Supreme Court decision In re Neagle, Lathrop is located at 37°49′1″N 121°17′19″W. The San Joaquin River is on the west side of Lathrop and has elevation of 20 feet, neighboring towns include Manteca, French Camp, and Tracy. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city covers an area of 23.0 square miles,21.9 square miles of it land, the mayor of Lathrop is Sonny Dhaliwal.
The current city council consists of Mayor Dhaliwal, Vice-Mayor Omar Ornelas, Councilmember Martha Salcedo, Councilmember Steve Dresser, Lathrop is represented in the California State Assembly by Assemblymember Heath Flora. The City of Lathrop is served by The San Joaquin Regional Transit District, the 2010 United States Census reported that Lathrop had a population of 18,023. The population density was 782.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Lathrop was 7,410 White,1,300 African American,231 Native American,3,968 Asian,144 Pacific Islander,3,735 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 7,674 persons. The Census reported that 18,011 people lived in households,6 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 376 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 35 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 484 households were made up of individuals and 128 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.77. There were 4,071 families, the family size was 3.99.
The median age was 30.5 years, for every 100 females there were 99.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males, there were 5,261 housing units at an average density of 228.4 per square mile, of which 3,604 were owner-occupied, and 1,178 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3. 7%, the vacancy rate was 5. 5%
Rio Vista, California
The population was 7,360 at the 2010 census. Rio Vista is approximately 60 miles northeast of San Francisco, on the Sacramento River in the Sacramento River Delta. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 7.1 square miles. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Rio Vista has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, the present location of Rio Vista is several miles south of the original settlement. Colonel Nathan H. Davis founded Brazos del Rio near the entrance of Cache Slough at the Sacramento River, on the Rancho Los Ulpinos Mexican land grant, in 1858. The settlement was renamed Rio Vista before a flood in 1862 that resulted in the moving to its present location on higher ground. The citys name combines the Spanish words for river and view, post authorities established office in 1858. The community was incorporated as Rio Vista on December 30,1893. The newspaper of record there is the River News-Herald and Isleton Journal, from 1911 through 1992 Rio Vista was home to the United States Army Reserve Center, Rio Vista.
The facility was established as a base for river control activities by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1980 it was transferred to the U. S. Army Reserve, the town hosts a United States Coast Guard station, established in 1963. Rio Vista was visited by a lost humpback whale in 1985, the young whale, nicknamed Humphrey, attracted throngs of curiosity seekers before he was eventually guided back to sea by rescuers. Again in May 2007, humpbacks were sighted in Rio Vista and Dawn, mother and calf, stopped at least twice in the river near the town. The 2010 United States Census reported that Rio Vista had a population of 7,360, the population density was 1,037.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Rio Vista was 6,003 White,372 African American,53 Native American,359 Asian,15 Pacific Islander,288 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 914 persons. The Census reported that 100% of the lived in households. There were 146 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 24 same-sex married couples or partnerships,1,045 households were made up of individuals and 605 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.13, there were 2,240 families, the average family size was 2.60
Tracy is the second most populated city in San Joaquin County, United States. The population was 82,922 at the 2010 census, Tracy is part of the greater San Francisco Bay Area. The origins of Tracy are related to the mid-19th century construction of Central Pacific Railroad lines running from Sacramento through Stockton, Tracy is part of the San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area, an extension of the Bay Area. A number of small communities sprang up along lines, including the one named for railroad director Lathrop J. Tracy. Incorporated in 1910, Tracy grew rapidly and prospered as an area even when railroad operations began to decline in the 1950s. Beginning in the 1980s, Tracy experienced a growth spurt as people migrated to the city looking for alternatives to Bay Area home prices. A steady period of growth ensued, as many companies found Tracy an ideal location for their distribution facilities, located in the Greater Bay Area, Tracy sits near both fertile and infertile agricultural lands.
In an effort to reduce its impact on the environment, the city launched the Emerald Tracy Project in September 2009, city spokesman Matt Robinson said that if it succeeds, Tracy will be the second city after Riverside to satisfy the state’s goal for sustainable communities. Tracy is marked by a climate, with mild, moist winters and very hot and dry summers. July is the warmest month, averaging 76.4 °F, average annual precipitation is around 12.5 inches, which, by definition, would classify the area as a semidesert. On August 7,1998, a fire ignited at S. F. Roysters Tire Disposal south of Tracy on South MacArthur Drive, near Linne Rd, the tire dump held over 7 million illegally stored tires and was allowed to burn for over two years before it was extinguished. Allowing the fire to burn was considered to be a way to avoid groundwater contamination than putting it out. The cleanup of chemicals released by the fire cost $16.2 million, the 2010 United States Census reported that Tracy had a population of 82,922.
The population density was 3,745.5 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Tracy was 43,724 White,5,953 African American,715 Native American,12,229 Asian,747 Pacific Islander,13,173 from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 30,557 persons. The Census reported that 82,606 people lived in households,69 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 1,501 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 184 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 3,326 households were made up of individuals and 1,026 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.40
Stockton is the county seat of San Joaquin County located in the central valley portion of the U. S. State of California and the. Stockton was founded by Captain Charles Maria Weber in 1849 after he acquired Rancho Campo de los Franceses, the city is named after Robert F. Stockton, and it was the first community in California to not have a name of Spanish or Native American origin. The city is located on the San Joaquin River in the northern San Joaquin Valley and had an population of 315,592 as of 2016. Stockton is the 13th largest city in California and the 63rd largest city in the United States and it was named an All-America City in 1999,2004 and again in 2015. Built during the California Gold Rush, Stocktons seaport serves as a gateway to the Central Valley and it provided easy access for trade and transportation to the southern gold mines. Stockton has been the location of the oldest university in California, as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, Stockton was the second largest city in the United States to file for bankruptcy protection.
Stockton successfully exited bankruptcy in February 2015, Stockton is situated amidst the farmland of Californias San Joaquin Valley, a subregion of the Central Valley. In and around Stockton are thousands of miles of waterways, which make up the California Delta, Interstate 5 and State Route 99, inland Californias major north-south highways, pass through the city. State Route 4 and the dredged San Joaquin River connect the city with the San Francisco Bay Area to its west and Sacramento are Californias only inland sea ports. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city occupies an area of 64.8 square miles. When Europeans first visited the Stockton area, the Yatchicumne, a branch of the Northern Valley Yokuts Indians and they built their villages on low mounds to keep their homes above regular floods. A Yokuts village named Pasasimas was located on a mound between Edison and Harrison Streets on what is now the Stockton Channel in downtown Stockton, the Siskiyou Trail began in the northern San Joaquin Valley.
It was a centuries-old Native American footpath that lead through the Sacramento Valley over the Cascades, Gold rush era Europeans and Americans started to arrive in the area after gold was found in northern California, starting with the California Gold Rush in 1848. When Captain Charles Maria Weber, a German immigrant, decided to try his hand at mining in late 1848. As an alien, Weber could not secure a land grant directly, born in New York, Gulnae had married a Mexican woman and sworn allegiance to Mexico, which ruled California. He applied in Webers place for a grant of eleven square leagues on the east side of the San Joaquin River. Weber acquired the Rancho Campo de los Franceses Mexican land grant, Weber built the first permanent residence in the San Joaquin Valley on a piece of land now known as Weber Point. During the California Gold Rush, Stockton developed as a river port, during its early years, Stockton was known by several names, including Tuleburg, Fat City and Californias Sunrise Seaport
Lodi /ˈloʊ. daɪ/ LOH-dy is a city located in San Joaquin County, California, in the northern portion of Californias Central Valley. The population was 62,134 at the 2010 census and its estimated population as of July 1,2013 was 63,338. Lodi is best known for being a center of production, although its vintages have traditionally been less prestigious than those of Sonoma. National recognition came from the Creedence Clearwater Revival song Lodi and continues with the 2015 Wine Region of the Year award given to Lodi by Wine Enthusiast Magazine, nearby Woodbridge is the home of the well known winery, Woodbridge by Robert Mondavi. Mondavi grew up in Lodi, and Mondavi Winery is considered one of the most influential in the American wine industry, Lodi gained international attention in 2005 when local residents Hamid and Umer Hayat were arrested and charged in the first terrorism trial in the state of California. When a group of local families decided to establish a school in 1859, they settled on a site near present-day Cherokee Lane and Turner Road.
The railroad received a reserve of 12 acres in the middle of town. Settlers flocked from nearby Woodbridge, Liberty City, and Galt, including town founders John M. Burt, initially called Mokelumne and Mokelumne Station after the nearby river, confusion with other nearby towns prompted a name change, which was officially endorsed in Sacramento by an assembly bill. Several stories have been offered as to the origins of the new name. Alternatively, Lodi is a city in northern Italy where Napoleon defeated the Austrians in 1796, more than likely, some of the earliest settler families were from Lodi and they chose to use the same name as their hometown. In 1906, the city was incorporated by voters, passing 2 to 1. The fire department was established in 1911, and the city purchased the Bay City Gas, additional public buildings constructed during this period include the Lodi Opera House in 1905, a Carnegie library in 1909, and a hospital in 1915. The 2010 United States Census reported that Lodi had a population of 62,134, the population density was 4,494.5 people per square mile.
The racial makeup of Lodi was 44,715 White,517 African American,560 Native American,4,293 Asian,105 Pacific Islander,11,164 from other races, Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22,613 persons. The Census reported that 61,457 people lived in households,187 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, there were 1,530 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 105 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 5,547 households were made up of individuals and 2,567 had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 2.78. There were 15,258 families, the family size was 3.35. The median age was 34.3 years, for every 100 females there were 95.5 males
San Joaquin County, California
San Joaquin County /ˈsæn wɑːˈkiːn/ is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 685,306, San Joaquin County comprises the Stockton-Lodi, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the more inclusive San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area. The county is located in Northern Californias Central Valley, just east of the less extensive nine-county San Francisco Bay Area region, the City of San Joaquin, despite sharing its name with the county, is located in Fresno County. San Joaquin County was one of the original United States counties of California, the county was named for the San Joaquin River which runs through it. San Joaquin County is the site of the San Joaquin Valleys first permanent residence and it was developed for ranching and agriculture. It attracted more miners and settlers at the time of the California Gold Rush, on August 7,1998, a tire fire ignited at S. F. Roysters Tire Disposal just south of Tracy on South MacArthur Drive, the tire dump held over 7 million illegally stored tires and was allowed to burn for more than two years before it was extinguished.
Allowing the fire to burn was considered to be a way to avoid groundwater contamination than putting it out. The cleanup cost $16.2 million and wound up contaminating local groundwater anyway. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,426 square miles. The center of San Joaquin County is near Stockton at about 37°54N 121°12W, San Joaquin River National Wildlife Refuge The 2010 United States Census reported that San Joaquin County had a population of 685,306. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 266,341 persons, the Filipino American population was 46,447, just under half of all Asian Americans in San Joaquin County, and as of 1990 have been the largest population of Asian Americans in the county. As of the census of 2000, there were 563,598 people,181,629 households, the population density was 403 people per square mile. There were 189,160 housing units at a density of 135 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 58. 1% White,6. 7% Black or African American,1. 1% Native American,11.
4% Asian,0. 4% Pacific Islander,16. 3% from other races, and 6. 1% from two or more races. 30. 5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,9. 3% were of German,5. 3% Irish and 5. 0% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 66. 4% spoke English,21. 3% Spanish,2. 2% Tagalog,1. 8% Mon-Khmer or Cambodian,1. 1% Vietnamese and 1. 1% Hmong as their first language. 20. 7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older, the average household size was 3.00 and the average family size was 3.48