The Czech Republic, known as Czechia, is a nation state in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with mostly temperate continental climate and it is a unitary parliamentary republic, has 10.5 million inhabitants and the capital and largest city is Prague, with over 1.2 million residents. The Czech Republic includes the territories of Bohemia, Moravia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire, after the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria, the Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years War.
After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, reimposed Roman Catholicism, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, and was liberated in 1945 by the armies of the Soviet Union and the United States. The Czech country lost the majority of its German-speaking inhabitants after they were expelled following the war, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections. Following the 1948 coup détat, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence, in 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed, on 6 March 1990, the Czech Socialistic Republic was renamed to the Czech Republic. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic.
The Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the European Union in 2004, it is a member of the United Nations, the OECD, the OSCE, and it is a developed country with an advanced, high income economy and high living standards. The UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development, the Czech Republic ranks as the 6th most peaceful country, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance. It has the lowest unemployment rate in the European Union, the traditional English name Bohemia derives from Latin Boiohaemum, which means home of the Boii. The current name comes from the endonym Čech, spelled Cžech until the reform in 1842. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, the etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning member of the people, thus making it cognate to the Czech word člověk. The country has traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the southeast, and Czech Silesia in the northeast.
Following the dissolution of Czechoslovakia at the end of 1992, the Czech part of the former nation found itself without a common single-word geographical name in English, the name Czechia /ˈtʃɛkiə/ was recommended by the Czech Ministry of Foreign Affairs
The Avia B-534 is a Czechoslovak biplane produced during the period between the Great War and World War II. In 1932, the Czechoslovak aircraft company flew a first prototype of a fighter biplane. After modification, the Czechoslovak Ministry of Defence placed an order for B-34s and this engine proved prone to overheating and vibration, and it was decided to re-engine the B. 34/2 before it flew, fitting it with a Hispano-Suiza 12Ybrs V12 engine. The Avia B-34/2 made its flight on 25 May 1933. The prototype was sent for testing in September and was redesignated as B-534.1, on 10 September, the B-534 was displayed to the public for the first time at an Army Air Day. It was to compete against the Praga E-44 and Letov Š-231, a second prototype, the B-534/2 was completed in September 1933. It differed from the first prototype in having an enclosed cockpit, on 14 April 1934 test pilot Václav Kočí successfully gained a Czechoslovak national speed record of 365.7 kilometres per hour. More testing followed and an order for 34 aircraft for the Czechoslovak Air Force.
At that time, the B-534 was well ahead of its contemporaries, the United Kingdom was still dependent on Hawker Furies, with the first Gloster Gladiators being produced at this time. The Soviet Union was placing its hope on its Polikarpov aircraft designs, the United States was still using descendants of the Curtiss Hawk series, with the Seversky P-35 and Curtiss P-36 just about to fly as prototypes. The B-534 was designed as a biplane fighter with a license-built Hispano-Suiza inline powerplant. The air forces of the 1930s were reluctant to abandon the maneuverability and climb rates of biplanes for the speed of monoplanes, even in the face of new and better technology. The success of the Soviet pilots with biplanes may have contributed to this reluctance, they were known to strip their aircraft of sliding canopies, aircraft with two fabric-covered wings and fixed landing gear were less expensive to manufacture. First deliveries of the B-534 to the Czechoslovak air force began in October 1935, the first 100 of these were of the first series.
The second prototype was the blueprint for the I series, although it was built with an open cockpit and these early series aircraft were initially armed with four 7. 92mm vz.28 guns. Two were located in the either side of the engine in a similar manner to the Avia B-34. At an early stage of production it was recognised that the wing mounted guns were troublesome. Aircraft from serial number B-534.47 were completed without the wing guns, the first to fourth series aircraft were fitted with the Avia licence built version of the Hispano-Suiza 12Ydrs engine
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. It is the 14th largest city in the European Union and it is the historical capital of Bohemia. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city has a temperate climate, with warm summers and chilly winters. Prague has been a political and economic centre of central Europe with waxing and waning fortunes during its history and it was an important city to the Habsburg Monarchy and its Austro-Hungarian Empire. Prague is home to a number of cultural attractions, many of which survived the violence. Main attractions include the Prague Castle, the Charles Bridge, Old Town Square with the Prague astronomical clock, since 1992, the extensive historic centre of Prague has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The city has more than ten major museums, along with theatres, cinemas. An extensive modern public transportation system connects the city, also, it is home to a wide range of public and private schools, including Charles University in Prague, the oldest university in Central Europe.
Prague is classified as an Alpha- global city according to GaWC studies, Prague ranked sixth in the Tripadvisor world list of best destinations in 2016. Its rich history makes it a popular tourist destination, and the city more than 6.4 million international visitors annually. Prague is the fifth most visited European city after London, Istanbul, the region was settled as early as the Paleolithic age. In the last century BC, the Celts were slowly driven away by Germanic tribes, around the area where present-day Prague stands, the 2nd century map of Ptolemaios mentioned a Germanic city called Casurgis. In the following century, the Czech tribes built several fortified settlements in the area, most notably in Levý Hradec, Butovice and in the Šárka valley. The construction of what came to be known as the Prague Castle began near the end of the 9th century, the first masonry under Prague Castle dates from the year 885 at the latest. The other prominent Prague fort, the Přemyslid fort Vyšehrad, was founded in the 10th century, Prague Castle is dominated by the cathedral, which was founded in 1344, but completed in the 20th century.
The legendary origins of Prague attribute its foundation to the 8th century Czech duchess and prophetess Libuše and her husband, Přemysl, legend says that Libuše came out on a rocky cliff high above the Vltava and prophesied, I see a great city whose glory will touch the stars. She ordered a castle and a town called Praha to be built on the site, a 17th century Jewish chronicler David Solomon Ganz, citing Cyriacus Spangenberg, claimed that the city was founded as Boihaem in c.1306 BC by an ancient king, Boyya. The region became the seat of the dukes, and kings of Bohemia, under Roman Emperor Otto II the area became a bishopric in 973
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other. The first powered, controlled aeroplane to fly, the Wright Flyer, used a biplane wing arrangement, while a biplane wing structure has a structural advantage over a monoplane, it produces more drag than a similar unbraced or cantilever monoplane wing. Improved structural techniques, better materials and the quest for greater speed made the biplane configuration obsolete for most purposes by the late 1930s. Biplanes offer several advantages over conventional cantilever monoplane designs, they permit lighter wing structures, low wing loading, interference between the airflow over each wing increases drag substantially, and biplanes generally need extensive bracing, which causes additional drag. Biplanes are distinguished from tandem wing arrangements, where the wings are placed forward and aft, instead of above, the term is occasionally used in biology, to describe the wings of some flying animals. In a biplane aircraft, two wings are placed one above the other, either or both of the main wings can support ailerons, while flaps are more usually positioned on the lower wing.
Bracing is nearly always added between the upper and lower wings, in the form of wires and/or slender interplane struts positioned symmetrically on either side of the fuselage. The primary advantage of the biplane over the traditional single plane or monoplane is to combine great stiffness with light weight. A braced monoplane wing must support itself fully, while the two wings of a help to stiffen each other. The biplane is therefore inherently stiffer than the monoplane, the structural forces in the spars of a biplane wing tend to be lower, so the wing can use less material to obtain the same overall strength and is therefore much lighter. A disadvantage of the biplane was the need for extra struts to space the wings apart, the low power supplied by the engines available in the first years of aviation meant that aeroplanes could only fly slowly. This required an even lower stalling speed, which in turn required a low wing loading, combining both large wing area with light weight. A biplane wing of a span and chord has twice the area of a monoplane the same size and so can fly more slowly.
Alternatively, a wing of the same area as a monoplane has lower span and chord, reducing the structural forces. Biplanes suffer aerodynamic interference between the two planes and this means that a biplane does not in practice obtain twice the lift of the similarly-sized monoplane. The farther apart the wings are spaced the less the interference, given the slow speed and low power of early aircraft, the drag penalty of the wires and struts and the mutual interference of airflows were relatively minor and acceptable factors. The smaller biplane wing allows greater maneuverability, during World War One, this further enhanced the dominance of the biplane and, despite the need for speed, military aircraft were among the last to abandon the biplane form. Specialist sports Aerobatic biplanes are still occasionally made, biplanes were originally designed with the wings positioned directly one above the other
Olomouc is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. Located on the Morava River, the city is the ecclesiastical metropolis, today it is an administrative centre of the Olomouc Region and sixth largest city in the Czech Republic. The city has about 100,154 residents, and its urban zone has a population of about 480,000 people. Olomouc is said to occupy the site of a Roman fort founded in the imperial period, during the 6th century, Slavs migrated into the area. As early as the 7th century, a centre of power developed in the present-day quarter of Povel. Around 810 the local Slavonic ruler was defeated by troops of Great Moravian rulers, a new centre, where the Great Moravian governor resided, developed at the gord at Předhradí, a quarter of the inner city. This settlement survived the defeat of the Great Moravia and gradually became the capital of the province of Moravia, the bishopric of Olomouc was founded in 1063. Centuries in 1777, it was raised to the rank of an archbishopric, the bishopric was moved from the church of St.
Peter to the church of Saint Wenceslas in 1141 under bishop Jindřich Zdík. The bishops palace was built in the Romanesque architectural style, the bishopric acquired large tracts of land, especially in northern Moravia, and was one of the richest in the area. Olomouc became one of the most important settlements in Moravia and a seat of the Přemyslid government, in 1306 King Wenceslas III stopped here on his way to Poland. He was going to fight Władysław I the Elbow-high to claim his rights to the Polish crown and was assassinated, with his death, the whole Přemyslid dynasty died out. The city was founded in the mid-13th century and became one of the most important trade. In the Middle Ages, it was the biggest town in Moravia, Olomouc finally lost after the Swedes took the city and held it for eight years. In 1235, the Mongols launched an invasion of Europe, after the Battle of Legnica in Poland, the Mongols carried their raids into Moravia, but were defensively defeated at the fortified town of Olomouc.
The Mongols subsequently invaded and defeated Hungary, in 1454 the city expelled its Jewish population as part of a wave of anti-Semitism, seen in Spain and Portugal. The second half of the 15th century is considered the start of Olomoucs golden age and it hosted several royal meetings, and Matthias Corvinus was elected here as King of Bohemia by the estates in 1469. In 1479 two kings of Bohemia met here and concluded an agreement for splitting the country, participating in the Protestant Reformation, Moravia became mostly Protestant. During the Thirty Years War, in 1640 Olomouc was occupied by the Swedes for eight years and they left the city in ruins, and it became second to Brno
Czechoslovak Air Force
The Czechoslovak Air Force was the air force branch of the military of Czechoslovakia. It was known as the Czechoslovak Army Air Force from 1918 to 1939, in 1993, it was divided into the Czech Air Force and the Slovak Air Force. For a modern nation surrounded by hostile neighbors, without access to the ocean. So was born the motto Air is our sea, the Czechoslovak government between the wars balanced a home-grown aviation industry with licensing engine and aircraft designs from allied nations. Several major aircraft companies, and a few companies, thrived in Czechoslovakia during the 1930s. One well-known engine manufacturer was A. S. Walter located in Prague, the Aero Company, was located in the Vysočany quarter of Prague. Its mixed construction and all-metal aircraft were competitive in the early 1930s, however, by 1938, the Avia Company, a branch of the enormous Škoda Works heavy machinery and military industrial enterprise, was different. Founded in 1919 in an old factory in the eastern Prague suburbs of Letňany and Čakovice, Avia made entire airplanes, including motors.
The standard Czechoslovak pursuit plane of the late 1930s, the B-534 reached a production of 514 units. It was one of the last biplane fighters in operational use, the state-controlled Letov was situated in Letňany. It employed about 1,200 workers in the late 1930s, the entire airframe was welded together, not bolted or riveted. The Letov factory was the only Czechoslovak plant that manufactured metal propellers, during this time, Czechoslovakia was divided into the Protektorat Böhmen und Mähren – a rump state directly controlled by Nazi Germany – and the Slovak Republic – a German puppet state. Many Czechoslovak pilots successfully escaped to Poland and France, where they helped to fight against the Nazi blitzkrieg during the Battle of France. Later, in Great Britain, the Inspectorate of the Czechoslovak Air Force was established on July 12,1940, as a co-ordinating, brigadier General Dr Karel Janoušek was appointed to head the Inspectorate by the British Ministry of Defence. Janousek joined the ranks of the Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve and was given the rank of Acting Air Commodore, Czechoslovakian airmen were enlisted into the RAFVR and the formation of Czechoslovak fighter and bomber squadrons within the Royal Air Force was put in hand.
Czech fighter ace Josef František became arguably the best top scoring allied fighter pilot of the Battle of Britain, other Czech and Slovak pilots continued to fight against the Germans in the Soviet Union. Under German rule all Czechoslovak aircraft were absorbed into the Luftwaffe –, after the end of the war in late 1945 four Czechoslovak RAF squadrons, Numbers 310,311,312, and 313 were all dispatched to Czechoslovakia and became part of the Czechoslovak armed forces. After the division of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in 1939, Slovakia was left with an air force composed primarily of Czechoslovakian combat aircraft
The name came to be used by other World War II as they subsequently recognized it. The Committee was originally created by the former Czechoslovak President, Edvard Beneš in Paris, unsuccessful negotiations with France for diplomatic status, as well as the impending Nazi occupation of France, forced the Committee to withdraw to London in 1940. From there, it moved to Aston Abbots, Buckinghamshire in 1941 and it was the legitimate government for Czechoslovakia throughout the Second World War. A specifically anti-Fascist government, it sought to reverse the Munich Agreement and the subsequent German occupation of Czechoslovakia, as such it was ultimately considered, by those countries that recognized it, the legal continuation of the First Republic of Czechoslovakia. Seeing the end of the Republic as a fait accompli, Edvard Beneš resigned as president of the First Czechoslovak Republic one week after the Munich Agreement ceded the Sudetenland to Nazi Germany, while there, he was urged to quickly return to Europe to organize some kind of government-in-exile.
He therefore returned to Europe in July to live in Paris along with other key players in his former administration. It was in fact France itself that proved the greatest obstacle to accepting the Committee as a full government-in-exile, the government of Édouard Daladier was ambivalent towards the ambitions of the Committee and of Czechoslovakia in general. Though he had seen the appeasement of Hitler as the road to war. After the war came, he and his government dithered over whether the Soviet or Nazi threat was the greater, though he extended recognition to the Committee as a non-governmental agency, his government was non-committal to Beneš himself, and saw many possibilities for a post-war Czechoslovakia. One of its reservations about giving governmental status to Beneš, was the fact of the murky situation in the then-independent Slovakia. The French government of the winter of 1939/40 felt that Beneš was not necessarily speaking for all Czechoslovaks, frances diplomacy towards Beneš was therefore agile.
It avoided any direct expression of support for the Beneš Committees desire to return to the First Republic, however, as Beneš was the key to getting military support from the well-trained Czechoslovak army, France was in fact the first nation to conclude a treaty with the Committee. The 2 October 1939 agreement between France and Beneš allowed for the reconstitution of the Czechoslovak army on French territory, units of the First Division of the Czechoslovak Army fought alongside their hosts in the final stages of the Battle of France. It was the failure of the Allied military forces in battle which most directly helped the ambitions of the Beneš Committee. With the fall of France, the views of the newly appointed prime minister Winston Churchill took predominance over the concerns of the waning Third Republic. He was very much clearer than his predecessor Chamberlain with respect to Czechoslovak affairs, they pressed the British in April 1941 for even greater clarity. On the 18th of that month, they sent a letter to the British requesting that their agreements be concluded, as before September,1938, British Foreign Minister Anthony Eden gave such assent on 18 July 1941.
The United States and the Soviet Union were effectively forced to do the in the year
Ernst Udet was a German pilot and air force general during World War II. Udet joined the Imperial German Air Service at age 19, eventually becoming a flying ace of World War I. Udet spent the 1920s and early 1930s as a stunt pilot, international barnstormer, light aircraft manufacturer, in 1933, Udet joined the Nazi Party and became involved in the early development of the Luftwaffe, where he was appointed director of research and development. Influential in the adoption of dive bombing techniques as well as the Stuka dive bomber, the stress of the position and his distaste for administrative duties led to Udet developing alcoholism. Ernst Udet was born on 26 April,1896, in Frankfurt am Main, Udet grew up in Munich, and was known from his early childhood for his sunny temperament and fascination with aviation. In his youth he hung out at an airplane factory. In 1909, he helped found the Munich Aero-Club, after crashing a glider he and a friend constructed, he finally flew in 1913 with a test pilot in the nearby Otto Works owned by Gustav Otto, which he often visited.
Shortly after the beginning of World War I, Udet attempted to enlist in the Imperial German Army on 2 August 1914, that month, when the Allgemeiner Deutscher Automobil-Club appealed for volunteers with motorcycles, Udet applied and was accepted. Udets father had him a motorcycle when he had passed his first year examination. Württembergischen Reserve Division as a messenger rider, after injuring his shoulder when his motorcycle hit a crater from an artillery shell explosion, he was sent to a military hospital, and his motorcycle was sent for repairs. When Udet tried to track down the 26th Division, he was unable to find it, during this time, he met officers from the Chauny flying sector, who advised him to transfer as an aerial observer. However, before he received his orders, the army dispensed with the volunteer motorcyclists, Udet tried to return to the fighting, but he was unable to get into either the pilot or aircraft mechanic training the army offered. However, he learned that if he were a trained pilot, through a family friend, Gustav Otto, owner of the aircraft factory he had hung out around in his youth, Udet received private flight training.
This cost him 2,000 marks and new equipment from his fathers firm. Udet received his pilots license at the end of April 1915 and was immediately accepted by the Imperial German Air Service. Udet at first flew in Feld Flieger-Abteilung 206 —an observation unit—as an Unteroffizier pilot with observer Leutnant Justinius and he and his observer won the Iron Cross for nursing their damaged Aviatik B. I two-seater back to German lines after a shackle on a wing-cable snapped. Justinius had climbed out to hold the wing and balance it rather than landing behind the enemy lines, Udet was court-martialed for losing an aircraft in an incident the flying corps considered a result of bad judgement. Overloaded with fuel and bombs, the aircraft stalled after a sharp bank, both Udet and Justinius survived with only minor injuries
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the United Kingdoms aerial warfare force. Formed towards the end of the First World War on 1 April 1918, following victory over the Central Powers in 1918 the RAF emerged as, at the time, the largest air force in the world. The RAF describe its mission statement as, an agile and capable Air Force that, person for person, is second to none, and that makes a decisive air power contribution in support of the UK Defence Mission. The mission statement is supported by the RAFs definition of air power, Air power is defined as the ability to project power from the air and space to influence the behaviour of people or the course of events. Today the Royal Air Force maintains a fleet of various types of aircraft. The majority of the RAFs rotary-wing aircraft form part of the tri-service Joint Helicopter Command in support of ground forces, most of the RAFs aircraft and personnel are based in the UK, with many others serving on operations or at long-established overseas bases. It was founded on 1 April 1918, with headquarters located in the former Hotel Cecil, during the First World War, by the amalgamation of the Royal Flying Corps, at that time it was the largest air force in the world.
The RAFs naval aviation branch, the Fleet Air Arm, was founded in 1924, the RAF developed the doctrine of strategic bombing which led to the construction of long-range bombers and became its main bombing strategy in the Second World War. The RAF underwent rapid expansion prior to and during the Second World War, under the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan of December 1939, the air forces of British Commonwealth countries trained and formed Article XV squadrons for service with RAF formations. Many individual personnel from countries, and exiles from occupied Europe. By the end of the war the Royal Canadian Air Force had contributed more than 30 squadrons to serve in RAF formations, the Royal Australian Air Force represented around nine percent of all RAF personnel who served in the European and Mediterranean theatres. In the Battle of Britain in 1940, the RAF defended the skies over Britain against the numerically superior German Luftwaffe, the largest RAF effort during the war was the strategic bombing campaign against Germany by Bomber Command.
Following victory in the Second World War, the RAF underwent significant re-organisation, during the early stages of the Cold War, one of the first major operations undertaken by the Royal Air Force was in 1948 and the Berlin Airlift, codenamed Operation Plainfire. Before Britain developed its own nuclear weapons the RAF was provided with American nuclear weapons under Project E and these were initially armed with nuclear gravity bombs, being equipped with the Blue Steel missile. Following the development of the Royal Navys Polaris submarines, the nuclear deterrent passed to the navys submarines on 30 June 1969. With the introduction of Polaris, the RAFs strategic nuclear role was reduced to a tactical one and this tactical role was continued by the V bombers into the 1980s and until 1998 by Tornado GR1s. For much of the Cold War the primary role of the RAF was the defence of Western Europe against potential attack by the Soviet Union, with many squadrons based in West Germany. With the decline of the British Empire, global operations were scaled back, despite this, the RAF fought in many battles in the Cold War period
French Third Republic
It came to an end on 10 July 1940. Harsh reparations exacted by the Prussians after the war resulted in the loss of the French regions of Alsace and Lorraine, social upheaval, and the establishment of the Paris Commune. The early governments of the Third Republic considered re-establishing the monarchy, but confusion as to the nature of that monarchy, the Third Republic, which was originally intended as a provisional government, instead became the permanent government of France. The French Constitutional Laws of 1875 defined the composition of the Third Republic and it consisted of a Chamber of Deputies and a Senate to form the legislative branch of government and a president to serve as head of state. The period from the start of World War I to the late 1930s featured sharply polarized politics, Adolphe Thiers called republicanism in the 1870s the form of government that divides France least, politics under the Third Republic were sharply polarized. On the left stood Reformist France, heir to the French Revolution, on the right stood conservative France, rooted in the peasantry, the Roman Catholic Church and the army.
The Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 resulted in the defeat of France, after Napoleons capture by the Prussians at the Battle of Sedan, Parisian deputies led by Léon Gambetta established the Government of National Defence as a provisional government on 4 September 1870. The deputies selected General Louis-Jules Trochu to serve as its president and this first government of the Third Republic ruled during the Siege of Paris. After the French surrender in January 1871, the provisional Government of National Defence disbanded, French territories occupied by Prussia at this time did not participate. The resulting conservative National Assembly elected Adolphe Thiers as head of a provisional government, due to the revolutionary and left-wing political climate that prevailed in the Parisian population, the right-wing government chose the royal palace of Versailles as its headquarters. The new government negotiated a settlement with the newly proclaimed German Empire. To prompt the Prussians to leave France, the government passed a variety of laws, such as the controversial Law of Maturities.
The following repression of the communards would have consequences for the labor movement. The Orléanists supported a descendant of King Louis Philippe I, the cousin of Charles X who replaced him as the French monarch in 1830, his grandson Louis-Philippe, Comte de Paris. The Bonapartists were marginalized due to the defeat of Napoléon III and were unable to advance the candidacy of any member of his family, the Bonaparte family. Legitimists and Orléanists came to a compromise, whereby the childless Comte de Chambord would be recognised as king, consequently, in 1871 the throne was offered to the Comte de Chambord. Chambord believed the monarchy had to eliminate all traces of the Revolution in order to restore the unity between the monarchy and the nation, which the revolution had sundered apart. Compromise on this was if the nation were to be made whole again
The rank was first used in the 13th century in the English Royal Navy and is today used in most services in many countries, including the Commonwealth nations and the United States. Outside the United States, warrant officers are included in the Other Ranks category, equivalent to the US E category, Warrant officers in the United States are classified as officers and are in the W category, they are technical leaders and specialists. Chief warrant officers are commissioned by the President of the United States and they may be technical experts with a long service as enlisted personnel, or direct entrants, notably for U. S. Army helicopter pilots. The warrant officer corps began in the nascent English Royal Navy, at that time, noblemen with military experience took command of the new Navy, adopting the military ranks of lieutenant and captain. As cannon came into use, the officers required gunnery experts, specialist gunners began to appear in the 16th century, since all warrant officers had responsibility for stores, this was enough to debar the illiterate.
In origin, warrant officers were specialist professionals whose expertise and authority demanded formal recognition, in the early 19th century, they were joined in the wardroom by naval chaplains, who had warrant officer status. Other warrant officers included surgeons mates, boatswains mates and carpenters mates, armourers, masters-at-arms, who had formerly overseen small-arms provision on board, had by this time taken on responsibility for discipline. On 25 July 1864 the standing warrant officers were divided into two grades, warrant officers and chief warrant officers. By the time of the First World War, their ranks had been expanded with the adoption of technology in the Navy to include telegraphists, shipwrights, artificer engineers. Both warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers messed in the warrant officers mess rather than the wardroom, Warrant officers and commissioned warrant officers carried swords, were saluted by ratings, and ranked between sub-lieutenants and midshipmen.
Collectively, these officers were known as officers, being retitled special duties officers in 1956. In 1998, the special duties list was merged with the general list of officers in the Royal Navy, the Australian Army has two warrant officer ranks, warrant officer class one and warrant officer class two, the former is superior in rank to the latter. All warrant officers are addressed as Sir or Maam, to gain the attention of a particular warrant officer in a group, they can be addressed as Warrant Officer Bloggs, sir/maam or by their appointment, e. g. ASM Bloggs, sir/maam. All warrant officers hold an appointment such as company sergeant major or regimental sergeant major, the WO1 appointed to the position of Regimental Sergeant Major of the Army is the most senior warrant officer in the Australian Regular Army, including the Army Reserve. The appointment of RSM-A was introduced in 1991, the rank insignia are, a crown for a WO2, the Australian Commonwealth coat of arms for a WO1, and the Australian Commonwealth coat of arms surrounded by a laurel wreath for the RSM-A.
The Royal Australian Navy rank of warrant officer is the only rank appointed by warrant and is equivalent to the armys WO1. The most senior non-commissioned member of the navy is the warrant officer appointed Warrant Officer of the Navy, the Royal Australian Air Force rank of warrant officer is the air forces only rank appointed by warrant and is equivalent to both the armys WO1 and the navys WO. The most senior non-commissioned member is the warrant officer appointed Warrant Officer of the Air Force, the ranks of adjudant, adjudant-chef, and major may be considered equivalent to Commonwealth warrant officer ranks