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Franz Brentano

Franz Clemens Honoratus Hermann Brentano was an influential German philosopher and priest whose work influenced not only students Edmund Husserl, Sigmund Freud, Tomáš Masaryk, Rudolf Steiner, Alexius Meinong, Carl Stumpf, Anton Marty, Kazimierz Twardowski, Christian von Ehrenfels, but many others whose work would follow and make use of his original ideas and concepts. Brentano was born at Marienberg am Rhein, near Boppard, he was the son of Christian Brentano, the brother of Lujo Brentano, the nephew of Clemens Brentano and Bettina von Arnim. He studied philosophy at the universities of Würzburg, Berlin and Münster, he had a special interest in scholastic philosophy. He wrote his dissertation in 1862 at Tübingen under the title Von der mannigfachen Bedeutung des Seienden nach Aristoteles, his thesis advisor was Franz Jakob Clemens. Subsequently, he began to study theology and entered the seminary in Munich and Würzburg, he was ordained a Catholic priest on 6 August 1864. In 1865/66 he wrote and defended his habilitation thesis, Die Psychologie des Aristoteles, insbesondere seine Lehre vom Nous Poietikos, began to lecture at the University of Würzburg.

His students in this period included, among Carl Stumpf and Anton Marty. Between 1870 and 1873 Brentano was involved in the debate on papal infallibility. A strong opponent of such dogma, he gave up his priesthood and his tenure in 1873 and in 1879 left the church altogether, he remained, however religious and dealt with the topic of the existence of God in lectures given at the Universities of Würzburg and Vienna. In 1874 Brentano published his major work, Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint. From 1874 to 1895 he taught at the University of Vienna. While he began his career as a full ordinary professor, he was forced to give up both his Austrian citizenship and his professorship in 1880 in order to marry, but he was permitted to stay at the university only as a Privatdozent. After his retirement in 1895, he moved to Florence in Italy, transferring to Zürich at the outbreak of the First World War, where he died in 1917. Brentano is best known for his reintroduction of the concept of intentionality—a concept derived from scholastic philosophy—to contemporary philosophy in his lectures and in his work Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkt.

While simplistically summarised as "aboutness" or the relationship between mental acts and the external world, Brentano defined it as the main characteristic of mental phenomena, by which they could be distinguished from physical phenomena. Every mental phenomenon, is directed at an object; every belief, desire etc. has an object that they are about: the believed, the desired. Brentano used the expression "intentional inexistence" to indicate the status of the objects of thought in the mind; the property of being intentional, of having an intentional object, was the key feature to distinguish psychological phenomena and physical phenomena, because, as Brentano defined it, physical phenomena lacked the ability to generate original intentionality, could only facilitate an intentional relationship in a second-hand manner, which he labeled derived intentionality. Brentano introduced a distinction between genetic psychology and descriptive psychology: in his terminology, genetic psychology is the study of psychological phenomena from a third-person point of view, which involves the use of empirical experiments.

The aim of descriptive psychology, on the other hand, is to describe consciousness from a first-person point of view. The latter approach was further developed by the phenomenological tradition, he is well known for claiming that Wahrnehmung ist Falschnehmung, to say perception is erroneous. In fact he maintained that external, sensory perception could not tell us anything about the de facto existence of the perceived world, which could be illusion. However, we can be sure of our internal perception; when I hear a tone, I cannot be sure that there is a tone in the real world, but I am certain that I do hear. This awareness, of the fact that I hear, is called internal perception. External perception, sensory perception, can only yield hypotheses about the perceived world, but not truth. Hence he and many of his pupils thought that the natural sciences could only yield hypotheses and never universal, absolute truths as in pure logic or mathematics. However, in a reprinting of his Psychologie vom Empirischen Standpunkte, he recanted this previous view.

He attempted to do so without reworking the previous arguments within that work but it has been said that he was wholly unsuccessful. The new view states.

List of universities with BDSM clubs

Universities having BDSM clubs are a modern phenomenon in USA. Some of these student-clubs dedicated to BDSM are recognized and funded by their university or college administration. Following is a list of universities which have BDSM education providing student clubs: USA Brown University California State University, Northridge Columbia University's BDSM club Conversio Virium Cornell University Durham University Harvard University Iowa State University's BDSM club Cuffs. Indiana University Bloomington Kent State University MIT Mount Holyoke College Northwestern University Ohio State University Pennsylvania State University Princeton University San Francisco State University Stanford University Stony Brook University Tufts University UC Berkeley University of California, Los Angeles University of California, Santa Barbara University of Chicago University of Connecticut University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of Pennsylvania University of South Carolina University of Southern California University of Wisconsin–Madison Washington University in St. Louis Wesleyan University Yale UniversityAdditionally, there are many American universities which do not have a dedicated BDSM club but conduct educational activities on BDSM for students, for ex.

University of South Florida St. Petersburg; some American universities - such as Texas Tech University, Indiana University and Michigan State University have professors who research and take curriculum classes on BDSM. A few U. S. university presses, such as that of Duke University, Indiana University and University of Chicago, have published books on BDSM written by professors. Canada McGill University University of Calgary York University United Kingdom Birmingham University Dundee University Imperial College London University of East Anglia University of Lincoln University of Portsmouth University of YorkBelgium Ghent UniversityFinland University of HelsinkiTaiwan National Taiwan Normal University National Taiwan University BDSM in culture and media BDSM and the law Bondage positions and methods Erotic humiliation LGBT Risk-aware consensual kink Sex club Sex education Sexual revolution

Curious Punishments of Bygone Days

Curious Punishments of Bygone Days is a history book published in 1896. It was printed by Herbert S. Stone & Company. Earle was a historian of Colonial America, she writes in her introduction: In ransacking old court records, newspapers and letters for the historic foundation of the books which I have written on colonial history, I have found and noted much of interest that has not been used or referred to in any of those books. An accumulation of notes on old-time laws and penalties has evoked this volume; as the title suggests, the subject of the chapters is various archaic punishments. Morse seems to make a distinction between stocks for the feet, in the Stocks chapter, stocks for the head, described in the Pillory article- which itself clashes with the modern day understanding of a pillory as a whipping post. Foreword The Bilboes The Ducking Stool The Stocks The Pillory Punishments of Authors and Books The Whipping Post The Scarlet Letter Branks and Gags Public Penance Military Punishments Branding and Maiming Text of Curious Punishments of Bygone Days.

One in a Million (Guns N' Roses song)

"One in a Million" is a song by American rock band Guns N' Roses. It is the eighth track on the album G N' R Lies and was released in 1988; the lyrics describe Guns N' Roses singer Axl Rose's experience of getting hustled in the Greyhound bus station upon first arriving in Los Angeles. The song's lyrics caused great controversy among many different groups, accusations of homophobia and racism were leveled against Guns N' Roses' lead singer and song lyricist, Axl Rose. Music critic Jon Pareles noted that: With "One in a Million" on "G'n' R Lies," the band tailored its image to appeal to white, nativist prejudices, denouncing blacks and gays while coyly apologizing "to those who may take offense" in the album notes. In a 1989 Rolling Stone interview, Rose explained the lyrics "I used words like police and niggers because you're not allowed to use the word'nigger.' Why can black people go up to each other and say,'Nigger,' but when a white guy does it all of a sudden it's a big put-down. I don't like boundaries of any kind.

I don't like being told what I can't say. I used the word'nigger' because it's a word to describe somebody, a pain in your life, a problem; the word'nigger' doesn't mean black. Doesn't John Lennon have a song'Woman Is the Nigger of the World'? There's a rap group, N. W. A. - Niggers With Attitude. I mean, they're proud of that word. More power to them. Guns N' Roses ain't bad.... N. W. A. is bad! Mr. Bob Goldthwait said the only reason we put these lyrics on the record was because it would cause controversy and we'd sell a million albums. Fuck him! Why'd he put us in his skit? We don't just do something to get the controversy, the press."The cover of the GN'R Lies EP, designed as a mock-tabloid newspaper front page contained an advance apology for the song, suggesting controversy was anticipated. A small "article" entitled "One in a Million", credited to Rose, ended: "This song is simple and generic or generalized, my apologies to those who may take offense."In response to the following accusations of homophobia, Rose stated that he was "pro-heterosexual" and "I'm not against them doing what they want to do as long as it's not hurting anybody else and they're not forcing it upon me", spoke of negative experiences in his past, such as a friendly man who let him crash on his hotel room floor and tried to rape him.

He softened this stance, insisted that he was not homophobic, pointing out that some of his icons, such as Freddie Mercury and Elton John, as well as David Geffen, the head of his record label, were bisexual or gay. Axl Rose was accused of being biased against police due to the negative lyrics in the song which mention them. Rose responded by claiming when he was a teenager he was once mistaken for a girl by two police officers, who proceeded to make sexual comments towards him, infuriating him so much he attacked the officers, resulting in his arrest. Others - including some of his peers in the music industry - accused him of racism for the use of the word'niggers' in the song; when Guns N' Roses and Living Colour supported The Rolling Stones for a concert in Los Angeles in 1989, Living Colour guitarist Vernon Reid publicly commented on "One in a Million" during his band's set. After hearing this, Rose in turn suggested they play the song for their opening act "just to piss them off." By 1992, Rose seemed to have gained new perspective on the song and its lyrics.

In one interview, he added, "I was pissed off about some black people. I wanted to insult those particular black people."In his final public comments about "One in a Million" in 1992, Rose stated, "It was a way for me to express my anger at how vulnerable I felt in certain situations that had gone down in my life."The song was not included on a 2018 box-set reissue of Appetite for Destruction, which otherwise included the remaining songs recorded for G N' R Lies on a bonus disc. Before the release of Lies, the other members of the band tried in vain to make Rose drop the track from the record. Fellow GN'R member Slash, whose mother is black, noted that he did not condone the song but did not condemn his bandmate, commenting in a 1991 interview with Rolling Stone: "When Axl first came up with the song and wanted to do it, I said I didn't think it was cool... I don't regret doing'One in a Million', I just regret what we've been through because of it and the way people have perceived our personal feelings."In 1988, rhythm guitarist Izzy Stradlin told rock critic Nick Kent that the lyrics reflected the poor race relations of inner city Los Angeles.

In a 2019 interview, McKagan said the song was misinterpreted, stating "One thing about Axl is if you’re going to try to compete with him intellectually, you’ve lost, because he’s a super smart guy... He's a super sensitive dude; when we did that song, I was still drinking but he was way ahead of us with his vision of, ‘Something’s gotta be said.’ That was the most hardcore way to say it. So flash-forward to now. So many people have misinterpreted that song that we removed it... Nobody got it.” W. Axl Rose – lead vocals, piano Slash – lead acoustic guitar Izzy Stradlin – rhythm guitar Duff "Rose" McKagan – rhythm acoustic guitar Steven Adlerpercussion

2017 Kent County Council election

The 2017 Kent County Council election was held on 4 May 2017 as part of the 2017 local elections in the United Kingdom. All 81 councillors were elected, from 72 electoral divisions, each of which returned either one or two county councillors by first-past-the-post voting for a four-year term of office. Ward boundary changes took effect at this election, after a review of the county by the Local Government Boundary Commission for England. Kent saw a large turnover of councillors. Of the 81 councillors elected in 2017, 39 had not served in the previous council; the Conservative Party retained control. UKIP the second largest party on the council lost all of their seats. Liberal Democrats regained status as the second largest party, which they had been 2009-2013. A notable triumph for Liberal Democrats was Antony Hook winning the Faversham division, considered a "safe" Conservative seat. Antony Hook's campaign increased the Liberal Democrat vote share from 4% in 2013 to a winning 43%. Faversham saw the largest turnout of any seat.

Labour lost seats, including those of their Leader Roger Truelove and previous leaders Gordon Cowan and Dr. Mike Eddy. Labour vote share fell but they retained status as 3rd party. There are five single-member constituencies and one multi-member constituency within the District of Swale, which elect a total of seven councillors to Kent County Council; the electoral map of Swale was redrawn as a result of boundary changes which saw the old Swale Central multi-member ward split to create Sittingbourne North and Sittingbourne South, both single member divisions. Sheerness and Sheppey Divisions were merged to create the new Multi-member Sheppey Division. Swale District includes the Division of Faversham which saw Liberal Democrat Antony Hook winning the Faversham division, considered a "safe" Conservative seat. Antony Hook's campaign increased the Liberal Democrat vote share from 4% in 2013 to a winning 43%. Faversham saw the largest turnout of any seat. Boundary changes meant that Below are the results: There are five single-member constituencies and one multi-member constituency within the District of Tonbridge and Malling, which elect a total of seven councillors to Kent County Council.

Below are the results

Electoral district of Pastoral District of Maneroo

The Electoral district of Pastoral District of Maneroo was an electorate of the New South Wales Legislative Council at a time when some of its members were elected and the balance were appointed by the Governor. It was a new electorate created in 1851 by the expansion of the Legislative Council to 54, 18 to be appointed and 36 elected; the district covered the Maneroo region now known as Monaro in the south east of New South Wales. To its north was the Electoral district of Counties of Murray and St Vincent. Polling was to occur in the towns of Goulburn, Eden and Bombala. In 1856 the unicameral Legislative Council was abolished and replaced with an elected Legislative Assembly and an appointed Legislative Council; the district was represented by the Legislative Assembly electorate of Maneroo. Arthur Jeffreys resigned in February 1854