World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
Self-elimination of the Austrian Parliament
The "self-elimination of Parliament" was an event that occurred in Austria on March 4, 1933, when all three presidents of the National Council resigned after irregularities occurred during a session concerning a strike by the railway workers. The Chancellor of Austria Engelbert Dollfuss from the Christian Social party, dissolved and succeeded by the Fatherland Front on May 20, 1933, seized the opportunity to create an authoritarian government. After the railway workers learned that their salaries were going to be paid in three installments, the workers went on strike on Wednesday, March 1, 1933; this was the subject of the heated debate in the National Council on March 4, 1933. There were three proposals; the proposal from the Christian Social party, the majority at the time, was to impose disciplinary measures. The Greater German People's Party and the Social Democratic Workers' Party were both against disciplinary measures in their proposals; the proposal of the Social Democrats was therefore rejected.
The proposal of the GDVP, was accepted with 81 yes votes and 80 no votes. At 8:40 pm the session was interrupted and continued at 9:35 pm. After the session was resumed, the president and Chairman of the National Council Karl Renner, a Social Democrat, announced that the vote had some irregularities because of the Members Scheibein and Abram, who were both Social Democrats, it turned out that Abram cast one ballot for himself and another ballot, which carried Abram's name, for Scheibein, not in the room at the time when the voting process occurred. This resulted in an uproar and the Christian Socialists demanded a new vote. Karl Renner, who saw himself incapable of continuing the session, resigned as president of the National Council to be able to participate in next vote and therefore secure an additional vote for the Social Democrats; the second president Rudolf Ramek, a Christian Socialist, took over as Chairman. He demanded that the vote should be repeated; this resulted in another uproar.
Ramek stepped down as president and the third president Sepp Straffner from the GDVP became Chairman of the National Council before stepping down. The resignation of Renner and Straffner left the house without a speaker. Therefore, the session could not be closed and the National Council was incapable of acting; the Members left the chamber as consequence. The events of March 4, 1933 were an unexpected help for Dollfuss, who intended to rule as an authoritarian. Dollfuss declared that the parliament had "eliminated itself" and that this situation was a crisis "not provided for in the constitution"; this gave the Chancellor the opportunity to establish an authoritarian government without a parliament. What appeared to be a "self-elimination of parliament" was, in fact, a coup d'état, since Dollfuss was determined to ensure that the National Council would never come together again. On March 7, the federal government stated that it was not affected by the crisis and declared itself in power, it announced that the "Wartime Economy Authority Law", an emergency law, passed in 1917, would be used as a basis to rule.
The first section of this law reads as follows:The government is empowered for the duration of the extraordinary conditions brought about by the war to make provision through decree for the necessary measures for promoting and revitalizing economic activities, for warding off economic damages, supplying the population with food and other necessities. On March 15, 1933, the Greater German People's Party and the Social Democratic Workers' Party of Austria, which formed the opposition at that time, tried to continue the session, aborted on March 4, they were, stopped by the police by order of the government and threatened the use of armed force. The resigning and third president of the National Council of the GDVP, Sepp Straffner, canceled his own withdrawal and was sitting with Members of the National Council for the SDAP and GDVP in the parliamentary chamber; the other Members of the National Council were not allowed in the parliament, surrounded by the law enforcement. The Members who were in the parliament were escorted out by the police.
Over a million people signed a petition to ask sitting Austrian President Wilhelm Miklas to recall the government of Dollfuss and initiate new elections to reinstate the National Council. The constitution gave Miklas the power to do so. However, the president did not act. To ensure that the parliament would never "eliminate itself" again, a new law was introduced in 1975 that would give the position of Chairman to the oldest Member of the National Council, if the three presidents were not able to execute their duties as Chairmen
Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald was a Nazi concentration camp established on Ettersberg hill near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937. It was the largest of the concentration camps within Germany's 1937 borders. Many actual or suspected communists were among the first internees. Prisoners from all over Europe and the Soviet Union—Jews and other Slavs, the mentally ill and physically disabled, political prisoners, Romani people, criminals and prisoners of war—worked as forced labor in local armaments factories; the insufficient food and poor conditions, as well as deliberate executions, led to 56,000 deaths at Buchenwald of the 250,000 prisoners who passed through the camp. The camp gained notoriety when it was liberated by the United States Army in 1945. From 1945 to 1950, the camp was used by the Soviet occupation authorities as an internment camp, NKVD special camp Nr. 2. Today the remains of Buchenwald serve as permanent exhibition and museum; the Schutzstaffel established Buchenwald concentration camp at the beginning of July 1937.
The camp was to be named Ettersberg, after the hill in Thuringia upon whose north slope the camp was established. The proposed name was deemed inappropriate, because it carried associations with several important figures in German culture Enlightenment writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Instead the camp was to be named Buchenwald, in reference to the beech forest in the area. However, Holocaust researcher James E. Young wrote that SS leader chose the site of the camp to erase the cultural legacy of the area. After the area of the camp was cleared of trees, only one large oak remained one of Goethe's Oaks. On the main gate, the motto Jedem das Seine, was inscribed; the SS interpreted this to mean the "master race" had a right to destroy others. The camp, designed to hold 8,000 prisoners, was intended to replace several smaller concentration camps nearby, including Bad Sulza and Lichtenburg. Compared to these camps, Buchenwald had a greater potential to profit the SS because the nearby clay deposits could be made into bricks by the forced labor of prisoners.
The first prisoners arrived on 15 July 1937, had to clear the area of trees and build the camp's structures. By September, the population had risen to 2,400 following transfers from Bad Sulza and Lichtenburg. Buchenwald’s first commandant was SS-Obersturmbannführer Karl-Otto Koch, who ran the camp from 1 August 1937 to July 1941, his second wife, Ilse Koch, became notorious as Die Hexe von Buchenwald for her cruelty and brutality. In February 1940 Koch, to his and his wife's delight, had an indoor riding hall built by the prisoners who died by the dozen due to the harsh conditions of the construction site; the hall was built inside the camp, near the canteen, so that oftentimes Ilse Koch could be seen riding in the morning to the beat of the prisoner orchestra. Koch himself was imprisoned at Buchenwald by the Nazi authorities for incitement to murder; the charges were lodged by Prince Waldeck and Dr. Morgen, to which were added charges of corruption, black market dealings, exploitation of the camp workers for personal gain.
Other camp officials were charged, including Ilse Koch. The trial resulted in Karl Koch being sentenced to death for disgracing both himself and the SS. Ilse Koch was sentenced to a term of four years' imprisonment after the war, her sentence was reduced to two years and she was set free. She was subsequently arrested again and sentenced to life imprisonment by the post-war German authorities; the second commandant of the camp, between 1942 and 1945, was Hermann Pister. He was tried in 1947 and sentenced to death, but 28 September 1948 he died in Landsberg Prison of a heart attack before the sentence could be carried out; the number of women held in Buchenwald was somewhere between 500 and 1,000. The first female inmates were twenty political prisoners; the SS fired the SS woman on duty in the brothel for corruption. The majority of women prisoners, arrived in 1944 and 1945 from other camps Auschwitz, Ravensbrück, Bergen Belsen. Only one barracks was set aside for them. All the women prisoners were shipped out to one of Buchenwald's many female satellite camps in Sömmerda, Buttelstedt, Mühlhausen, Gelsenkirchen, Lippstadt, Weimar and Penig, to name a few.
No female guards were permanently stationed at Buchenwald. Ilse Koch served as head supervisor of 22 other female guards and hundreds of women prisoners in the main camp. More than 530 women served as guards in the vast Buchenwald system of subcamps and external commands across Germany. Only 22 women served/trained compared to over 15,500 men; the first subcamps of Buchenwald were established in 1941 so that the prisoners could work in nearby SS industries. In 1942, the SS began to use its forced labor supply for armaments production; because it was more economical to rent out prisoners to private firms, subcamps were set up ne
Nazi Germany is the common English name for Germany between 1933 and 1945, when Adolf Hitler and his Nazi Party controlled the country through a dictatorship. Under Hitler's rule, Germany was transformed into a totalitarian state that controlled nearly all aspects of life via the Gleichschaltung legal process; the official name of the state was Deutsches Reich until 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945. Nazi Germany is known as the Third Reich, meaning "Third Realm" or "Third Empire", the first two being the Holy Roman Empire and the German Empire; the Nazi regime ended. Hitler was appointed Chancellor of Germany by the President of the Weimar Republic, Paul von Hindenburg, on 30 January 1933; the NSDAP began to eliminate all political opposition and consolidate its power. Hindenburg died on 2 August 1934 and Hitler became dictator of Germany by merging the offices and powers of the Chancellery and Presidency. A national referendum held 19 August 1934 confirmed Hitler as sole Führer of Germany.
All power was centralised in Hitler's person and his word became the highest law. The government was not a coordinated, co-operating body, but a collection of factions struggling for power and Hitler's favour. In the midst of the Great Depression, the Nazis restored economic stability and ended mass unemployment using heavy military spending and a mixed economy. Extensive public works were undertaken, including the construction of Autobahnen; the return to economic stability boosted the regime's popularity. Racism antisemitism, was a central feature of the regime; the Germanic peoples were considered by the Nazis to be the master race, the purest branch of the Aryan race. Discrimination and persecution against Jews and Romani people began in earnest after the seizure of power; the first concentration camps were established in March 1933. Jews and others deemed undesirable were imprisoned, liberals and communists were killed, imprisoned, or exiled. Christian churches and citizens that opposed Hitler's rule were oppressed, many leaders imprisoned.
Education focused on racial biology, population policy, fitness for military service. Career and educational opportunities for women were curtailed. Recreation and tourism were organised via the Strength Through Joy program, the 1936 Summer Olympics showcased Germany on the international stage. Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels made effective use of film, mass rallies, Hitler's hypnotic oratory to influence public opinion; the government controlled artistic expression, promoting specific art forms and banning or discouraging others. The Nazi regime dominated neighbours through military threats in the years leading up to war. Nazi Germany made aggressive territorial demands, threatening war if these were not met, it seized Austria and Czechoslovakia in 1938 and 1939. Germany signed a non-aggression pact with the USSR, invaded Poland on 1 September 1939, launching World War II in Europe. By early 1941, Germany controlled much of Europe. Reichskommissariats took control of conquered areas and a German administration was established in the remainder of Poland.
Germany exploited labour of both its occupied territories and its allies. In the Holocaust, millions of Jews and other peoples deemed undesirable by the state were imprisoned, murdered in Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps, or shot. While the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941 was successful, the Soviet resurgence and entry of the US into the war meant the Wehrmacht lost the initiative on the Eastern Front in 1943 and by late 1944 had been pushed back to the pre-1939 border. Large-scale aerial bombing of Germany escalated in 1944 and the Axis powers were driven back in Eastern and Southern Europe. After the Allied invasion of France, Germany was conquered by the Soviet Union from the east and the other Allies from the west, capitulated in May 1945. Hitler's refusal to admit defeat led to massive destruction of German infrastructure and additional war-related deaths in the closing months of the war; the victorious Allies initiated a policy of denazification and put many of the surviving Nazi leadership on trial for war crimes at the Nuremberg trials.
The official name of the state was Deutsches Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Großdeutsches Reich from 1943 to 1945, while common English terms are "Nazi Germany" and "Third Reich". The latter, adopted by Nazi propaganda as Drittes Reich, was first used in Das Dritte Reich, a 1923 book by Arthur Moeller van den Bruck; the book counted the Holy Roman Empire as the German Empire as the second. Germany was known as the Weimar Republic during the years 1919 to 1933, it was a republic with a semi-presidential system. The Weimar Republic faced numerous problems, including hyperinflation, political extremism, contentious relationships with the Allied victors of World War I, a series of failed attempts at coalition government by divided political parties. Severe setbacks to the German economy began after World War I ended because of reparations payments required under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles; the government printed money to make the payments and to repay the country's war debt, but the resulting hyperinflation led to inflated prices for consumer goods, economic chaos, food riots.
When the government defaulted on their reparations payments in January 1923, French troops occupied German industrial areas along the Ruhr and widespread civil unrest followed. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (National
Lower Austria is the northeasternmost of the nine states of Austria. Since 1986, the capital of Lower Austria has been St. Polten, the most designated capital in Austria. Lower Austria's capital was Vienna though Vienna has not been part of Lower Austria since 1921. With a land area of 19,186 km2 and a population of 1.612 million people, Lower Austria is the country's largest state. Other main cities are Krems an der Donau and Wiener Neustadt. Situated east of Upper Austria, Lower Austria derives its name from its downriver location on the Enns River, which flows from west to east. Lower Austria has an international border, 414 km long, with Slovakia; the state has the second longest external border of all Austrian states. It borders the other Austrian states of Upper Austria and Burgenland as well as surrounding Vienna. Lower Austria is divided into four regions, known as Viertel: Weinviertel or Tertiary Lowland Waldviertel or Bohemian Plateau Mostviertel Industrieviertel; these regions have different geographical structures.
Whilst the Mostviertel is dominated by the foothills of the Limestone Alps with mountains up to 2,000 m high, most of the Waldviertel is a granite plateau. The hilly Weinviertel lies to the northeast, descends to the plains of Marchfeld in the east of the state, is separated by the Danube from the Vienna Basin to the south, which in turn is separated from the Vienna Woods by a line of thermal springs running north to south. Schneeberg Rax Ötscher Dürrenstein Schneealpe Hochkar Gamsstein Stumpfmauer Göller Hochwechsel Gippel Großer Sonnleitstein Großer Zellerhut Gemeindealpe Scheiblingstein Drahtekogel Sonnwendstein Obersberg Königsberg Großer Sulzberg Reisalpe Gahns Tirolerkogel Türnitzer Höger Unterberg Traisenberg Dürre Wand Hohenstein Eisenstein Hohe Wand Großer Peilstein Weinsberg Hocheck Nebelstein Eibl Hohe Mandling Jauerling Anninger Buschberg Other mountains in Lower Austria may be found at Category:Mountains of Lower Austria. Semmering Wechsel The state border with Styria runs over both passes.
All of Lower Austria is drained by the Danube. The only river that flows into the North Sea is the Lainsitz in northern Waldviertel; the most important rivers north of the Danube are the Ysper, Krems, Lainsitz and Thaya. South of the Danube are the Enns, Erlauf, Pielach, Schwechat, Schwarza, Triesting and the Leitha. Ottenstein Reservoir Lunzer See Erlaufsee Erlauf Reservoir Wienerwaldsee Lower Austria is rich in natural caves. Most of the caves are therefore called karst caves. Cavities form in the marble of the Central Alps and the Bohemian Massif. Among the largest caves in Lower Austria are: Ötscherhöhlensystem: 27,003 m long; the history of Lower Austria is similar to the history of Austria. Many castles are located in Lower Austria. Klosterneuburg Abbey, located here, is one of the oldest abbeys in Austria. Before World War II, Lower Austria had the largest number of Jews in Austria. Lower Austria is divided into four regions: Waldviertel, Mostviertel and Weinviertel; the Wachau valley, situated between Melk and Krems in the Mostviertel region, is famous for its landscape and wine.
Administratively, the state is divided into 20 districts, four independent towns. In total, there are 573 municipalities within Lower Austria. Krems an der Donau Sankt Pölten Waidhofen an der Ybbs Wiener Neustadt Amstetten Baden Bruck an der Leitha Gänserndorf Gmünd Hollabrunn Horn Korneuburg Krems-Land Lilienfeld Melk Mistelbach Mödling Neunkirchen Sankt Pölten-Land Scheibbs Tulln an der Donau Waidhofen an der Thaya Wiener Neustadt-Land Zwettl Media related to Lower Austria at Wikimedia Commons Land Niederösterreich Useful information of Lower Austria Lower Austrian Genealogy PhotoGlobe - georeferenced photos of Lower Austria
Wien Westbahnhof railway station
Wien Westbahnhof is a major Austrian railway station, the original starting point of the West railway and a former terminus of international rail services. In 2015, its role changed with the opening of Vienna's new main station and Westbahnhof now is a commuter station and the terminus of private rail operator WESTbahn's intercity service from Salzburg. Locally, Wien Westbahnhof is served by S-Bahn-line S50 and underground lines U3 and U6. Six tram lines converge on Europaplatz in front of the station, although none go into the city centre. There are buses to the airport. Westbahnhof is in Vienna's 15th District on the Gürtel. Mariahilfer Strasse to the immediate south-east provides a direct route into the centre of the city. Westbahnhof is one of the busiest stations of Vienna and used to be of one of several termini for international trains in the city. With the 2015 opening of Wien Hauptbahnhof, all long-distance services of state-owned Austrian Federal Railways were transferred to that station, although private operator WESTbahn maintains its intercity service from Salzburg.
Concomitantly, the frequency of fast regional service along the West railway was increased. The station is the departure point for regional rail lines into the west of Vienna that are included in the Eastern Regional Traffic Authority and belong in part to the Viennese S-Bahn; as some facilities of the station are no longer needed after its demotion, a reduction in the station's size is to be expected and concepts for the utilisation of the surplus space are being considered. Built for the western railway, the station was designed by the architect Moritz Löhr and opened in 1858; the facility was made up of four sections built in a historical style. The main hall was 104 metres long and 27.2 metres wide. It was provided space for four tracks. Intervening peninsular platforms were not yet available; the exit from the hall was flanked by two towers. On the east, a two-story administration building separated the trackage from the Gürtel; the side wings included provision for departures. The southerly departure side consisted of an ornamented portal with steps and three large arches supported by columns, that were crowned with statues.
Access passages to the right of these led to the two two-storey office buildings. Through this portal, one entered the departure platform. On elevated terrain, the departure side offered the most impressive view of the station from the southeast; this motif was repeated in the northerly arrival side. In order to deal with the increased number of passengers, the two towers that flanked the departure gate were moved further apart in a modification that lasted from 1910 to 1912; the roof construction was changed and space for a fifth track was attained. In addition, further covered platforms and departure tracks were provided in the foreground of the tracks in the terminal proper. In April 1945 the station was hit by bombs and burnt down in the course of battles at the end of World War II. After the end of the war, the buildings were by necessity adapted for the needs of rail travel, but a complete reconstruction was decided upon, so the station was torn down in 1949. A statue of namesake of the original railway Empress Elisabeth from the original facade of the station still recalls the old station in the lower hall of the new Westbahnhof.
The rebuilt Westbahnhof was designed by Architects Hartiger & Wöhnhart and opened in 1952. Because only narrow administration wings were built on the sides, space was available for eleven tracks in all, accessed from covered peninsular platforms; the centerpiece of the rebuilt Westbahnhof is the large hall giving on to the Gürtel, divided into a lower and an upper level, reached by two flights of stairs and escalators. The hall is lighted by high windows that are built into the east and west facades above the platform overhangs; the ticket windows are installed beneath the upper hall. On, a pavilion was built in the lower hall that offered a service centre for bookings, hotel reservations and the like. In the 1980s a parking garage was erected on the north side of the station; the Westbahnhof, with its half-timbered roof construction, enjoys protected-monument status. In the course of building the U3 subway line, a large new steel and glass construction was built in 1993, which accommodates some of the station's restaurants and a cafe on several levels.
The underground passage to the subway stations can be reached from the lower level. Various businesses catering to travellers are on both levels of the hall; the police station was closed on April 26, 2006 because further use was not considered reasonable following a vermin infestation. In mid-September 2008 a series of works commenced at Wien West, including the renovation of the listed ticket hall, the removal of the expensive, redundant flag poles outside of the station, the construction of new buildings to the left and right of the main hall, all of which are part of the new BahnhofCity project. To the left, above the park on the corner of Mariahilfer Straße and Neubaugürtel, an office building with a large atrium, on the other side another
The Republikanischer Schutzbund was an Austrian paramilitary organization established in 1923 by the Social Democratic Party to secure power in the face of rising political radicalization after World War I. It had a Czech section associated with the Czechoslovak Social Democratic Workers Party in the Republic of Austria; the Republikanischer Schutzbund was one of many paramilitary forces to organize after the fall of the Austria-Hungary Empire. This one in particular was a branch of the Social Democratic Workers' Party, its purpose was to defend the party and to maintain the balance of power amidst increasing radicalization of politics in Austria. This includes a good amount of saber rattling between the Schutzbund and the conservative Heimwehr, as encouraged by the SDAPÖ newspaper, the Arbeiter Zeitung. On January 30 of 1927, a veterans' group clashed with the Schutzbund, leaving one veteran and one child killed by the right-wing Heimwehr; the results of the trial led to the July Revolt of 1927.
By June 1933, Federal Chancellor Engelbert Dollfuß banned the Schutzbund. On February 11, 1934, the Heimwehr commander in Vienna Emil Fey called for the disarmament of the Schutzbund. Upon raiding Hotel Schiff in Linz, the Linz Schutzbund commander Richard Bernaschek resisted, resulting in armed conflict known as the Austrian Civil War. List of defunct paramilitary organizations List of paramilitary organizations Paramilitary Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold, paramilitary organization of the German SPD