Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Henriette, Countess Rossi, was a German operatic soprano of great international renown. She possessed a sweet-toned, lyrical voice and was a brilliant exponent of florid singing, Sontag was born at Koblenz, Germany as Gertrude Walpurgis Sontag. She made her début at the age of 15, in 1823 she sang at Leipzig in Carl Maria von Webers Der Freischütz and in December of that year created the title role in his Euryanthe. Her success was immediate, and in 1824 she went to the Königstädter Theater and she was invited to be the soprano soloist in the first performances of Beethovens Symphony No.9 and Missa Solemnis on 7 May 1824, she was only 18 years old at the time. In 1827, she was engaged at the Paris Italian Opera, and she was hired by the Italian Opera in Mexico City, where on 17 May 1854, she intoned for the first time the words of the Mexican national anthem, written by poet Francisco González Bocanegra. One month later, she was stricken with cholera and died at the age of 48 and her last appearance, fourteen days before her death, was in the role of Desdemona of Rossinis Otello.
She is buried in Germany at St. Marienthal Abbey. On she carols and higher, like a lark at heavens gate, so soft, so clear, so distinct that, like the silver bell from the altar. But her principal merit, in our eyes, is the absence of rant—the substitute of genius—in any shape whatever and she always SINGS, and does not depend on mere strength of lungs—erroneously called power. She never strains her delicate organ—that sweet instrument so susceptible of every shade of expression, the full text of University Musical Encyclopedia – Great Vocalists, Henriette Sontag at Wikisource Guadalupe Jiménez Codinach, La guía del Himno Nacional Mexicano, Artes de México, pp.88,90. W. Berger, Berühmte Frauen This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, James, ed. Sontag. London and New York, Frederick Warne, media related to Henriette Sontag at Wikimedia Commons
Caroline Bauer was a German actress of the Biedermeier era who used the name Lina Bauer. Caroline Philippina Augusta Bauer was born in Heidelberg, Germany to Heinrich Bauer and her siblings were Lottchen and Louis. She was during a time in 1828-1829 the mistress of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. In mid-1829 she and her returned to Berlin and she resumed her career as an actress. She competed with Charlotte von Hagn, the audiences were divided into Bauerians and Hagnerians. Many years later, in her memoirs, she declared that she had engaged into a marriage with him. There was no proof of these affirmations which, if true, there was on the contrary a strong denial by her cousin, the son of Leopolds secretary, baron Christian Friedrich Freiherr von Stockmar. Her second husband was Wladyslaw Plater, they were married in 1843 and her cousin, Marie Bauer was married to Marian Langiewicz, leader of the Polish Insurrection of 1863, they were married in Switzerland. She died by suicide in Kilchberg, Switzerland, sporn,1943 Caroline Bauer and the Coburgs,2009 Caroline Bauers story
Steel engraving is a technique for printing illustrations based on steel instead of copper. It has been used in artistic printmaking, although it was much used for reproductions in the 19th century. Steel engraving was introduced in 1792 by Jacob Perkins, an American inventor, for banknote printing, the new technique only partially replaced the other commercial techniques of that time such as woodcut, wood engraving, copper engraving and lithography. All the illustrations in the Encyclopædia Britannica of 1911 are steel engravings, Engraving is done with a burin, which is a small bar of hardened steel with a sharp point. It is pushed along the plate to produce thin furrowed lines and this is followed by the use of a scraper to remove any burs, since they would be an impediment during the subsequent inking process. Steel plates are very hard for this technique, which is used on softer copper plates. So steel engraving used etching, where acid creates the lines in the plates in the pattern made by removing a thin coating of acid-resistant ground by tools.
Roulettes of different types were used together with the burin and needle to create densely packed marks which appear as tonal to the eye, true burin engraving was generally used to finish the etched image. First a broad, general outline is made on the plate before starting the detailed image, Engraving will produce a printed reverse or mirror image of the image on the plate. Steel plates can be hardened to ensure that they can print thousands of times with little wear. From about 1860 the steel-facing of copper plates became widely used and it can be very difficult to distinguish between engravings on steel and steel-faced copper, other than by date. The most reliable way of distinguishing between unfaced copper engraving and steel or steel-faced engraving is the lightness and delicacy of the lines in the latter. Until around 1820 copper plates were the medium used for engraving. Copper, being a metal, was easy to carve or engrave. Engravers reworked a worn plate by retracing the previous engraving to sharpen the image again, another advantage to using copper is that it is a soft metal and can be corrected or updated with a reasonable amount of effort.
For this reason, copper plates were the medium of printing for mapmakers. During the 1820s steel began to copper as the preferred medium of commercial publishers for illustration. Steel engraving produced plates with shaper, more distinct lines, the harder steel plates produced much longer wearing dies that could strike thousands of copies before they would need any repair or refurbishing engraving
Johann Nepomuk Hummel
Johann Nepomuk Hummel was an Austrian composer and virtuoso pianist. His music reflects the transition from the Classical to the Romantic musical era, Hummel was born in Pressburg, Kingdom of Hungary, a part of the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy. He was named after St John of Nepomuk, at the age of eight, he was offered music lessons by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who was impressed with his ability. Hummel was taught and housed by Mozart for two free of charge and made his first concert appearance at the age of nine at one of Mozarts concerts. Hummels father took him on a European tour, arriving in London where he received instruction from Muzio Clementi and where he stayed for four years before returning to Vienna. In 1791 Joseph Haydn, who was in London at the time as young Hummel, composed a sonata in A-flat major for Hummel. When Hummel finished, Haydn reportedly thanked the man and gave him a guinea. The outbreak of the French Revolution and the following Reign of Terror caused Hummel to cancel a tour through Spain.
Instead, he returned to Vienna, giving concerts along his route, upon his return to Vienna he was taught by Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Joseph Haydn, and Antonio Salieri. At about this time, young Ludwig van Beethoven arrived in Vienna and lessons from Haydn and Albrechtsberger, thus becoming a fellow student. Beethovens arrival was said to have nearly destroyed Hummels self-confidence, though he recovered without much harm, the two mens friendship was marked by ups and downs, but developed into reconciliation and mutual respect. Hummel visited Beethoven in Vienna on several occasions with his wife Elisabeth, at Beethovens wish, Hummel improvised at the great mans memorial concert. It was at this event that he made friends with Franz Schubert, since both composers had died by the time of the sonatas first publication, the publishers changed the dedication to Robert Schumann, who was still active at the time. In 1804, Hummel became Konzertmeister to Prince Esterházys establishment at Eisenstadt and he remained in the service of Prince Esterházy for seven years altogether before being dismissed in May 1811 for neglecting his duties.
He returned to Vienna where, after spending two years composing, he married the opera singer Elisabeth Röckel in 1813, the following year, at her request, was spent touring Russia and the rest of Europe. One of them, became a landscape painter. During Hummels stay in Weimar he made the city into a European musical capital, inviting the best musicians of the day to visit and he brought one of the first musicians pension schemes into existence, giving benefit concert tours when the retirement fund ran low. Hummel was one of the first to agitate for musical copyright to combat intellectual piracy, in 1825, the Parisian music-publishing firm of Aristide Farrenc announced that it had acquired the French publishing rights for all future works by Hummel
Johann Fischbach was an Austrian painter. He was the son of one of Count Breunerschens stewards and his art studies began at the Academy of Fine Arts Vienna, where he studied under Joseph Mössmer and won the Grand Prize for landscape painting in 1821. He moved to Salzburg in 1840 and set up a studio there and he was instrumental in creating the Salzburg Art Society and a small Academy that numbered Josef Mayburger and Hans Makarts father among its students. In 1851, he built his own villa in Aigen and it is still known as the Fischbachvilla. Together with Moritz von Schwind and Ludwig Richter, he is considered one of the most important representatives of the Austrian Biedermeier style, landscapes were his speciality, but he produced genre art, portraits and still lifes. Friedrich Pecht, Johann, Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie,7, Duncker & Humblot, Vol.1, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Vienna 1957, p.319. Fischbach, Johann, in Constant von Wurzbach, Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, Vol.4, artNet, Four pages of paintings by Fischbach Niederösterreich Personen Lexikon, Brief biography of Fischbach Literature by and about Johann Fischbach in the German National Library catalogue
Etching is traditionally the process of using strong acid or mordant to cut into the unprotected parts of a metal surface to create a design in intaglio in the metal. In modern manufacturing, other chemicals may be used on other types of material, as a method of printmaking, it is, along with engraving, the most important technique for old master prints, and remains in wide use today. In a number of variants such as microfabrication etching and photochemical milling it is a crucial technique in much modern technology. In traditional pure etching, a plate is covered with a waxy ground which is resistant to acid. The artist scratches off the ground with an etching needle where he or she wants a line to appear in the finished piece. The échoppe, a tool with an oval section, is used for swelling lines. The plate is dipped in a bath of acid, technically called the mordant or etchant. The acid bites into the metal where it is exposed, leaving behind lines sunk into the plate, the remaining ground is cleaned off the plate.
The plate is inked all over, and the ink wiped off the surface, the plate is put through a high-pressure printing press together with a sheet of paper. The paper picks up the ink from the lines, making a print. The process can be repeated many times, typically several hundred impressions could be printed before the shows much sign of wear. The work on the plate can be added to by repeating the whole process, Etching has often been combined with other intaglio techniques such as engraving or aquatint. The process as applied to printmaking is believed to have been invented by Daniel Hopfer of Augsburg, Hopfer was a craftsman who decorated armour in this way, and applied the method to printmaking, using iron plates. Apart from his prints, there are two examples of his work on armour, a shield from 1536 now in the Real Armeria of Madrid. The switch to copper plates was made in Italy. On the other hand, the handling of the ground and acid need skill and experience, prior to 1100 AD, the New World Hohokam independently utilized the technique of acid etching in marine shell designs.
Jacques Callot from Nancy in Lorraine made important technical advances in etching technique and he developed the échoppe, a type of etching-needle with a slanting oval section at the end, which enabled etchers to create a swelling line, as engravers were able to do. Callot appears to have responsible for an improved, recipe for the etching ground
Friedrich von Amerling
Friedrich von Amerling was an Austro-Hungarian portrait painter in the court of Franz Josef. He was born in Vienna and was court painter between 1835 and 1880, with Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller he is one of the outstanding Austrian portrait painters of the 19th century. He was the son of the gold- and silversmith Franz Amerling and he studied from 1815 to 1824 at the academy of the arts in Vienna, before journeying to Prague where he studied at the Academy until 1826. He spent 1827 and 1828 in London, where he was influenced by the portrait painter Sir Thomas Lawrence. Further journeys led him to Paris, where he studied with Horace Vernet, and Rome, he returned to Vienna, where after 1828 he worked for the Austrian court. He received the Reichel prize of the academy in Vienna in 1829, in 1878 Amerling was elevated to the nobility and was called Friedrich Ritter von Amerling. As one of the most outstanding artists of Vienna he received numerous important men of letters, in 1858 he acquired the Gumpendorf castle in Vienna and equipped it after his taste with valuable art treasures.
The building was called, in the vernacular, Amerlingschloessl. Apart from numerous other honours, he received the Orden der Eisernen Krone in 1879, upon his death in 1887, a street in Vienna was designated the Amerlingstrasse in his name. He was buried in the Viennese central cemetery, where he is commemorated with a monument designed by Johannes Benk, the same artist created the Amerling monument in the Viennese city park, dedicated in 1902. In 1948 the Austrian post office issued a stamp on the 60th anniversary of Friedrich von Amerlings death. On 3 March 2008 the Österreichische Post issued another Amerling stamp and this time it was one of a series commemorating the Liechtenstein Museum in Vienna and featured Princess Marie Franziska of Liechtenstein. Amerling created over 1000 works, mostly portraits and he was the most popular portrait painter of the high aristocracy and the large middle class of the Biedermeier period. The years from 1830 to 1850 represent the point of his work. His style has points of similarity to that of Ingres, combining clarity of outline with rich coloration, Amerlings work was exhibited in Vienna in 2003.
Most of his remains in Austria. List of Austrian artists and architects
His nickname of LAiglon was awarded posthumously and was popularized by the Edmond Rostand play, LAiglon. When Napoleon I abdicated on 4 April 1814, he named his son as Emperor, the coalition partners that had defeated him refused to acknowledge his son as successor, thus Napoleon I was forced to abdicate unconditionally a number of days later. Although Napoleon II never actually ruled France, he was briefly the titular Emperor of the French in 1815 after the fall of his father. When his cousin Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte became the emperor by founding the Second French Empire in 1852, he called himself Napoleon III to acknowledge Napoleon II. Napoleon was born on 20 March 1811 at the Tuileries Palace, son of Napoleon I, on the same day he was ondoyed by Joseph Fesch with his full name of Napoleon François Charles Joseph. The baptism, inspired by the ceremony of Louis, Grand Dauphin of France, was held on 9 June 1811 in the Notre Dame de Paris cathedral. He was put in the care of Louise Charlotte Françoise Le Tellier de Montesquiou, a descendant of François-Michel le Tellier, Marquis de Louvois, who was named Governess of the Children of France.
Affectionate and intelligent, the governess assembled a collection of books intended to give the infant a strong grounding in religion, philosophy. As the eldest legitimate son of Napoleon I, he was already constitutionally the Prince Imperial and heir apparent, three years later, the First French Empire, to which he was the heir, collapsed. Napoleon saw his wife and their son for the last time on 24 January 1814. On 4 April 1814, Napoleon abdicated in favour of his son after the Six Days Campaign. The three-year-old became Emperor of the French under the name of Napoleon II. However, on 6 April 1814, Napoleon I fully abdicated and renounced not only his own rights to the French throne, on 29 March 1814, accompanied by her suite, Marie Louise left the Tuileries Palace with her son. Their first stop was the Château de Rambouillet, fearing the advancing enemy troops, on 23 April, escorted by an Austrian regiment and son left Rambouillet and France forever, for their exile in Austria. In 1815, after his defeat at Waterloo, Napoleon I abdicated for the time in favour of his four-year-old son.
The day after Napoleons abdication, a Commission of Government of five members took the rule of France, awaiting the return of King Louis XVIII, the Commission held power for two weeks, but never formally summoned Napoleon II as Emperor or appointed a regent. The entrance of the Allies into Paris on 7 July brought an end to his supporters wishes. Napoleon II was residing in Austria with his mother and was never aware at the time that he had been proclaimed Emperor on his fathers abdication