Turda is a city and Municipality in Cluj County, situated on the Arieș River. There is evidence of human settlement in the area dating to the Middle Paleolithic, some 60,000 years ago; the Dacians established a town that Ptolemy in his Geography calls Patreuissa, a corruption of Patavissa or Potaissa, the latter being more common. It was conquered by the Romans, who kept the name Potaissa, between AD 101 and 106, during the rule of Trajan, together with parts of Decebal's Dacia; the name Potaissa is first recorded on a Roman milliarium discovered in 1758 in the nearby Aiton commune. Milliarium of Aiton is an ancient Roman milestone dating from 108 AD, shortly after the Roman conquest of Dacia, showing the construction of the road from Potaissa to Napoca, by demand of the Emperor Trajan, it indicates the distance of 10,000 feet to Potaissa. This is the first epigraphical attestation of the settlements of Napoca in Roman Dacia; the complete inscription is: "Imp/ Caesar Nerva/ Traianus Aug/ Germ Dacicus/ pontif maxim/ pot XII cos V/ imp VI p p fecit/ per coh I Fl Vlp/ Hisp mil c R eq/ a Potaissa Napo/cam / m p X".
It was recorded in vol. III, the 1627, Berlin, 1863; this milliarium is an attestation of the road known to be built by Cohors I Hispanorum miliaria. The castrum established was named Potaissa too and became a municipium a colonia. Potaissa was the basecamp of the Legio V Macedonica from 166 to 274; the Potaissa salt mines were worked in the area since prehistoric times. After the Hungarian conquest, the Turda salt mines were first mentioned in 1075, they were closed in 1932 but have been reopened for tourism. Saxons settled in the area in the 11th century; the town was destroyed during the Tartar invasion in 1241–1242. Andrew III of Hungary gave royal privileges to the settlement; these privileges were confirmed by the Angevins of Hungary. The Hungarian Diet was held here by Matthias Corvinus. In the 16th century, Turda was the residence of the Transylvanian Diet, too; the 1558 Diet of Turda declared free practice of both the Lutheran religions. In 1563 the Diet accepted the Calvinist religion, in 1568 it extended freedom to all religions, declaring that "It is not allowed to anybody to intimidate anybody with captivity or expelling for his religion" – a freedom unusual in medieval Europe.
This Edict of Turda is the first attempt at legislating general religious freedom in Christian Europe. In 1609 Gabriel Báthori granted new privileges to Turda; these were confirmed by Gabriel Bethlen. In the battle of Turda, Ahmed Pasha defeated George II Rákóczi in 1659. In 1918, Transylvania was absorbed by Romania, Turda with it. In 1944, the Battle of Turda took place here, between German and Hungarian forces on one side and Soviet and Romanian forces on the other, it was the largest battle fought in Transylvania during World War II. Turda has a continental climate, characterised by cold winters; the climate is influenced by the city's proximity to the Apuseni Mountains, as well as by urbanisation. Some West-Atlantic influences are present during autumn. Winter temperatures are below 0 °C though they drop below −10 °C. On average, snow covers the ground for 65 days each winter. In summer, the average temperature is 18 °C, despite the fact that temperatures sometimes reach 35 °C to 40 °C in mid-summer in the city centre.
Although average precipitation and humidity during summer is low, there are infrequent yet heavy and violent storms. During spring and autumn, temperatures vary between 13 °C to 18 °C, precipitation during this time tends to be higher than in summer, with more frequent yet milder periods of rain. According to the last Romanian census from 2011 there were 47,744 people living within the city. Of this population, 84.7% are ethnic Romanians, while 8.98% are ethnic Hungarians, 6.03% ethnic Roma and 0.4% others. Andreea Cacovean Emilian Dolha Moise Dragoș Étienne Hajdú Baruch Kimmerling Ecaterina Orb-Lazăr Aladár Lászlóffy Csaba Lászlóffy Camil Mureşanu Mona Muscă Ion Raţiu Septimiu Sever Salina Turda Cheile Turzii Decree of Turda Universitas Valachorum List of Transylvanian Saxon localities Ancient history of Transylvania, History of Transylvania Franziska Tesaurus Edict of Torda Turda is twinned with: Angoulême Hódmezővásárhely Santa Susanna Torda "INP - Museums and Collections in Romania". Cimec.ro.
Retrieved October 8, 2017. "Turda - Romania". Britannica.com. Retrieved October 8, 2017. Official site TurdaTurism.ro Fundatia Potaissa
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
The Apahida necropolis is an archeological site in Apahida, Romania. Two graves have been discovered here, a third one may have existed. One of the graves was discovered in 1889, its artifacts are in Budapest; the second was unearthed in 1968, 300 m from the first, during an excavation for the installation of concrete poles. Its grave goods are now on display in the National Museum of Romanian History; the second grave dates to c. 475 and was the tomb of a Gepid king, based on the inscription on a gold ring called Omharus. At Apahida, near Cluj-Napoca, three princely tombs attributed to Gepids were found in 1889, 1968 and 1979 respectively. Located on the right bank of the Someșul Mic River and near the former Roman road that ran between Napoca and camps on Someș River, the tombs occupy an area no greater than 500 m2; the discovery of the first tomb in 1889 was made while taking gravel from a neighbouring area of Apahida. Some of the artifacts were recovered for the Transylvanian Museum by H. Finály, another two pieces were purchased by the Hungarian National Museum on the antiquities market in 1897.
From the inventory of the tomb were preserved many objects of gold, a cruciform brooch with onion-shaped cufflinks, a bracelet with thickened ends, three rings, a belt buckle and a second smaller buckle, five pendants with bells, two silver mugs, a gold band and several appliques used to decorate or repair vessels. The second tomb discovery was made by chance, in October 1968, by workers digging the foundation for a transmission tower. Gold pieces with a total weight of approx. 900 g were found. During the excavations the upper part of the tomb was destroyed, leaving only the lower part thereof to be studied by archaeologists; the artifacts recovered by the Transylvanian History Museum in Cluj-Napoca were transferred to Bucharest, during the establishment in 1971 of the National Museum of History. In 1979, a 6-year-old child discovered a large gold buckle in the earth excavated during the construction of the local post; the buckle is the only piece preserved from a third tomb. The piece was taken over in 1980 by the National Bank of Romania, in 2002 was transferred to the National Museum of History.
Romania in the Early Middle Ages Kingdom of the Gepids
Potaissa was a castra in the Roman province of Dacia, located in today's Turda, Romania. The Dacians established a town that Ptolemy in his Geography calls Patreuissa, a corruption of Patavissa or Potaissa, the latter being more common, it was conquered by the Romans, who kept the name Potaissa, between AD 101 and 106, during the rule of Trajan, together with parts of Decebal's Dacia. The name Potaissa is first recorded on a Roman milliarium discovered in 1758 in the nearby Aiton commune. Milliarium of Aiton is an ancient Roman milestone dating from 108 AD, shortly after the Roman conquest of Dacia, showing the construction of the road from Potaissa to Napoca, by demand of the Emperor Trajan, it indicates the distance of 10,000 feet to Potaissa. This is the first epigraphical attestation of the settlements of Napoca in Roman Dacia; the complete inscription is: "Imp/ Caesar Nerva/ Traianus Aug/ Germ Dacicus/ pontif maxim/ pot XII cos V/ imp VI p p fecit/ per coh I Fl Vlp/ Hisp mil c R eq/ a Potaissa Napo/cam / m p X".
It was recorded in vol. III, the 1627, Berlin, 1863; this milliarium is an attestation of the road known to be built by Cohors I Hispanorum miliaria. The castrum established was named Potaissa too and became a municipium a colonia. Potaissa was the basecamp of the Legio V Macedonica from 166 to 274; the Potaissa salt mines were worked in the area since prehistoric times. Porolissum Napoca Apulum List of castra in Dacia Roman Dacia History of Romania Media related to Potaissa castrum at Wikimedia Commons Roman castra from Romania - Google Maps / Earth
Romania in the Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages in Romania started with the withdrawal of the Roman troops and administration from Dacia province in the 270s. In the next millennium a series of peoples, most of whom only controlled two or three of the nearly ten historical regions that now form Romania, arrived. During this period and culture underwent fundamental changes. Town life came to an end in Dacia with the Roman withdrawal, in Scythia Minor – the other Roman province in the territory of present-day Romania – 400 years later. Fine vessels made on fast potter's wheels disappeared and hand-made pottery became dominant from the 450s. Burial rites changed more than once from cremation to inhumation and vice versa until inhumation became dominant by the end of the 10th century; the East Germanic Goths and Gepids, who lived in sedentary communities, were the first new arrivals. The Goths dominated Moldavia and Wallachia from the 290s, parts of Transylvania from the 330s, their power collapsed under attacks by the nomadic Huns in 376.
The Huns controlled Eastern and Central Europe from around 400, but their empire disintegrated in 454. Thereafter the regions west of the Carpathian Mountains – Banat, Crişana, Transylvania – and Oltenia were dominated by the Gepids. Within a century, the lands east of the mountains became important centers of the Antes and Sclavenes. Hydronyms and place names of Slavic origin prove the one-time presence of Early Slavs in the regions west of the Carpathians; the nomadic Avars subjugated the Gepids in 568 and dominated the Carpathian Basin up until around 800. The Bulgars established a powerful empire in the 670s which included Dobruja and other territories along the Lower Danube. Bulgaria adopted the Eastern Orthodox variant of Christianity in 864. An armed conflict between Bulgaria and the nomadic Hungarians forced the latter to depart from the Pontic steppes and began the conquest of the Carpathian Basin around 895, their invasion gave rise to the earliest reference, recorded some centuries in the Gesta Hungarorum, to a polity ruled by a Romanian duke named Gelou.
The same source makes mention of the presence of the Székelys in Crişana around 895. The first contemporaneous references to Romanians – who used to be known as Vlachs – in the regions now forming Romania were recorded in the 12th and 13th centuries. References to Vlachs inhabiting the lands to the south of the Lower Danube abound in the same period. Banat, Crişana and Transylvania were integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary in the 11th century; these regions were subject to plundering raids by the nomadic Pechenegs and Cumans, who dominated the lowlands east of the mountains. Hungarian monarchs promoted the immigration of Western European colonists to Transylvania from the 1150s; the colonists' descendants, who were known as Transylvanian Saxons from the early 13th century, received collective privileges in 1224. Because of the settlement of the Saxons in their former territories, the Székelys were moved to the easternmost zones of the kingdom; the emergence of the Mongol Empire in the Eurasian Steppes in the first decades of the 13th century had lasting effects on the history of the region.
The Mongols subjugated the Cumans in the 1230s and destroyed many settlements throughout the Kingdom of Hungary in 1241 and 1242, bringing the Early Middle Ages to an end. Contacts between the Roman Empire – which developed into the largest empire in the history of Europe – and the natives of the regions now forming Romania commenced in the 2nd century BC; these regions were inhabited by Dacians and other peoples whose incursions posed a threat to the empire. The Romans attempted to secure their frontiers by various means, including the creation of buffer zones, they decided that the annexation of the lands of these fierce "barbarians" was the best measure. The territory of the Getae between the river Danube and the Black Sea was the first region to be incorporated into the empire, it was attached to the Roman province of Moesia in 46 AD. The Lower Danube marked the boundary between the empire and "Barbaricum" until Emperor Trajan decided to expand the frontiers over territories controlled by the Dacian Kingdom.
He achieved his goal through two military campaigns, the second of which ended with the annihilation of the Dacian state and the establishment of the province of Dacia in 106. It included Oltenia and large portions of Banat and Wallachia. Many colonists "from all over the Roman world" arrived and settled in the new province in the following decades. Dacia was situated over the empire's natural borders, it was surrounded by native tribes inhabiting the regions of Crișana, Maramureș, Moldavia, which are now integral part of Romania, but were never annexed by the Romans. Dacia province was plundered by neighboring tribes, including the Carpians and Sarmatians from the 230s, by the Goths from the 250s; as the frontiers were to be shortened for defensive purposes, the withdrawal of the Roman legions from Dacia began in the 260s. The province ceased to exist under Emperor Aurelian who "withdrew the Romans from the cities and countryside of Dacia". Garrisons stationed in Drobeta and Sucidava remained on the northern bank of the river.
Romanians speak a language originating from the dialects of the Roman provinces north of the "Jireček Line". This line divided, in Roman times, the predominantly Greek-speaking southern provinces from those where Latin was the principal language of communication; the emergence of Proto-Romanian from Vulgar Latin is first demonstrated by the words "torna, frater" recorded in connection with an Eastern Roman military action in 587 or 588. The soldier shouting them "in his native tongue" spoke an Eastern Romance dial
A frigidarium is a large cold pool at the Roman baths. When entering the bath house, one would go through the apodyterium, where they would store their clothes. After the caldarium and the tepidarium, which were used to open the pores of the skin, the frigidarium would be reached; the cold water would close the pores. There would be a small pool of cold water or sometimes a large swimming pool; the water could be kept cold by using snow. The frigidarium was located on the northern side of the baths; the largest examples of frigidarium were both in Rome: that of the Baths of Caracalla, located soon after the entrance, measures 58 x 24 m, that of the Baths of Diocletian, covered by a cross vault. Some, like one in Pompeii, had a circular plan. Italy had simple baths without tubs. Increasing Hellenization of Italy led to the development of public baths. Individual standing hot water tubs were replaced by collective pools and the development of hypocaust heating; this led to various types of heated rooms including caldarium, laconicum/sudatorium, the frigidarium.
The Baths of Trajan contained a double apse and were "paved with a remarkable mosaic representing the Triumph of Bacchus and the Dionysiac cycle." The mosaic is now at the Bardo National Museum in Tunis. Palestrina Tepidarium Caldarium Frigidarium Baths of the Forum Pitts, M. 2006. Roman pool may be for early Christian baptism. British Archaeology 91: 8
Almandine known incorrectly as almandite, is a species of mineral belonging to the garnet group. The name is a corruption of alabandicus, the name applied by Pliny the Elder to a stone found or worked at Alabanda, a town in Caria in Asia Minor. Almandine is an iron alumina garnet, of deep red color, inclining to purple, it is cut with a convex face, or en cabochon, is known as carbuncle. Viewed through the spectroscope in a strong light, it shows three characteristic absorption bands. Almandine is one end-member of a mineral solid solution series, with the other end member being the garnet pyrope; the almandine crystal formula is: Fe3Al23. Magnesium substitutes for the iron with pyrope-rich composition. Almandine, Fe2+3Al2Si3O12, is the ferrous iron end member of the class of garnet minerals representing an important group of rock-forming silicates, which are the main constituents of the Earth's crust, upper mantle and transition zone. Almandine crystallizes in the cubic space group Ia3d, with unit-cell parameter a ≈ 11.512 Å at 100 K.
Almandine is antiferromagnetic with the Néel temperature of 7.5 K. It contains two equivalent magnetic sublattices. Almandine occurs rather abundantly in the gem-gravels of Sri Lanka, whence it has sometimes been called Ceylon-ruby; when the color inclines to a violet tint, the stone is called Syriam garnet, a name said to be taken from Syriam, an ancient town of Pegu. Large deposits of fine almandine-garnets were found, some years ago, in the Northern Territory of Australia, were at first taken for rubies and thus they were known in trade for some time afterwards as Australian rubies. Almandine is distributed. Fine rhombic dodecahedra occur in the schistose rocks of the Zillertal, in Tyrol, are sometimes cut and polished. An almandine in which the ferrous oxide is replaced by magnesia is found at Luisenfeld in German East Africa. In the United States there are many localities. Fine crystals of almandine embedded in mica-schist occur near Wrangell in Alaska; the coarse varieties of almandine are crushed for use as an abrasive agent.
Connecticut has almandine garnet as its state gemstone