Windows XP is a personal computer operating system produced by Microsoft as part of the Windows NT family of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on August 24, 2001, broadly released for retail sale on October 25, 2001. Development of Windows XP began in the late 1990s as "Neptune", an operating system built on the Windows NT kernel, intended for mainstream consumer use. An updated version of Windows 2000 was originally planned for the business market; as such, Windows XP was the first consumer edition of Windows not to be based on MS-DOS. Upon its release, Windows XP received positive reviews, with critics noting increased performance and stability, a more intuitive user interface, improved hardware support, expanded multimedia capabilities. However, some industry reviewers were concerned by the new licensing model and product activation system. Extended support for Windows XP ended on April 8, 2014, after which the operating system ceased receiving further support or security updates to most users.
As of March 2019, 1.75% of Windows PCs run Windows XP, the OS is still most popular in some countries with up to 38% of the Windows share. In the late 1990s, initial development of what would become Windows XP was focused on two individual products. However, the projects proved to be too ambitious. In January 2000, shortly prior to the official release of Windows 2000, technology writer Paul Thurrott reported that Microsoft had shelved both Neptune and Odyssey in favor of a new product codenamed "Whistler", after Whistler, British Columbia, as many Microsoft employees skied at the Whistler-Blackcomb ski resort; the goal of Whistler was to unify both the consumer and business-oriented Windows lines under a single, Windows NT platform: Thurrott stated that Neptune had become "a black hole when all the features that were cut from were re-tagged as Neptune features. And since Neptune and Odyssey would be based on the same code-base anyway, it made sense to combine them into a single project". At PDC on July 13, 2000, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be released during the second half of 2001, unveiled the first preview build, 2250.
The build notably introduced an early version of Windows XP's visual styles system. Microsoft released the first beta build of Whistler, build 2296, on October 31, 2000. Subsequent builds introduced features that users of the release version of Windows XP would recognise, such as Internet Explorer 6.0, the Microsoft Product Activation system and the Bliss desktop background. On February 5, 2001, Microsoft announced that Whistler would be known as Windows XP, where XP stands for "eXPerience". In June 2001, Microsoft indicated that it was planning to, in conjunction with Intel and other PC makers, spend at least 1 billion US dollars on marketing and promoting Windows XP; the theme of the campaign, "Yes You Can", was designed to emphasize the platform's overall capabilities. Microsoft had planned to use the slogan "Prepare to Fly", but it was replaced due to sensitivity issues in the wake of the September 11 attacks. On August 24, 2001, Windows XP build. During a ceremonial media event at Microsoft Redmond Campus, copies of the RTM build were given to representatives of several major PC manufacturers in briefcases, who flew off on decorated helicopters.
While PC manufacturers would be able to release devices running XP beginning on September 24, 2001, XP was expected to reach general, retail availability on October 25, 2001. On the same day, Microsoft announced the final retail pricing of XP's two main editions, "Home" and "Professional". While retaining some similarities to previous versions, Windows XP's interface was overhauled with a new visual appearance, with an increased use of alpha compositing effects, drop shadows, "visual styles", which changed the appearance of the operating system; the number of effects enabled are determined by the operating system based on the computer's processing power, can be enabled or disabled on a case-by-case basis. XP added ClearType, a new subpixel rendering system designed to improve the appearance of fonts on liquid-crystal displays. A new set of system icons was introduced; the default wallpaper, Bliss, is a photo of a landscape in the Napa Valley outside Napa, with rolling green hills and a blue sky with stratocumulus and cirrus clouds.
The Start menu received its first major overhaul in XP, switching to a two-column layout with the ability to list and display used applications opened documents, the traditional cascading "All Programs" menu. The taskbar can now group windows opened by a single application into one taskbar button, with a popup menu listing the individual windows; the notification area hides "inactive" icons by default. A "common tasks" list was added, Windows Explorer's sidebar was updated to use a new task-based design with lists of common actions. Fast user switching allows additional users to log into a Windows XP machine without existing users having to close their programs and loggin
Windows Aero is a design language introduced in the Windows Vista operating system. The changes made in the Aero interface affected many elements of the Windows interface, including the incorporation of a new look, along with changes in interface guidelines reflecting appearance and the phrasing and tone of instructions and other text in applications. Windows Aero was in force during the development of Windows Vista and Windows 7. In 2012, with the development of Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012, Microsoft moved on to a design language codenamed "Metro"; the Aero interface was unveiled for Windows Vista as a complete redesign of the Windows interface, replacing Windows XP's "Luna" theme. Until the release of Windows Vista Beta 1 in July 2005, little had been shown of Aero in public or leaked builds. Previous user interfaces were Plex, featured in Longhorn builds 3683–4042. Microsoft started using the Aero theme in public builds in build 5048; the first build with full-featured Aero was build 5219.
Build 5270 contained an implementation of the Aero theme, complete, according to sources at Microsoft, though a number of stylistic changes were introduced between and the operating system's release. Windows Aero incorporated the following features in Windows Vista. Aero Glass theme: The main component of Aero, it is the successor of Windows XP's "Luna" and changes the look and feel of graphical control elements, including but not limited to buttons, radio buttons, progress bars and default Windows icons. Message boxes are changed. Windows Flip improvements: Windows Flip in Windows Vista now shows a live preview of each open window instead of the application icons. Windows Flip 3D: Windows Flip 3D renders live images of open windows, allowing one to switch between them while displaying them in a three-dimensional view. Taskbar live thumbnails – Hovering over the taskbar button of a window displays a preview of that window in the taskbar. Desktop Window Manager – Due to the significant impact of the new changes on hardware and performance, Desktop Window Manager was introduced to achieve hardware acceleration, transferring the duty of UI rendering from CPU to graphic subsystem.
DWM in Windows Vista required compatible hardware. Task Dialogs: Dialog boxes meant to help communicate with the user and receive simple user input. Task Dialogs are more complex than traditional message boxes that only bear a message and a set of command buttons. Task Dialogs may have expandable sections, checkboxes, progress bars and graphical elements. Windows Aero is revised in Windows 7, with several UI changes, such as a more touch friendly interface, many new visual effects and features including pointing device gestures: Aero Peek: Hovering over a taskbar thumbnail shows a preview of the entire window. Aero Peek is available through the "Show desktop" button at the right end of the taskbar, which makes all open windows transparent for a quick view of the desktop. A similar feature was patented during Windows Vista development. Aero Shake: Shaking a window minimizes all other windows. Shaking it again brings them back. Aero Snap: Dragging a window to the right or left side of the desktop causes the window to fill the respective half of the screen.
Snapping a window to the top of the screen maximizes it. Windows can be resized by stretching them to touch the top or bottom of the screen, which increases their vertical screen estate, while retaining their width, these windows can slide horizontally if moved by the title bar, or pulled off, which returns the window to its original height. In spite of the "Aero" moniker, this feature is available; this feature is available on Windows 10. Touch UI enhancements: Windows Aero was revised to be more touch-friendly. For example, touch gestures and support for high DPI on displays were added. Title bars of maximized windows remain transparent instead of becoming opaque; the outline of non-maximized windows is white, rather than having a cyan outline on the right side and bottom. When hovering over the taskbar button of an open program, the button glows the dominant RGB color of its icon, with the effect following the mouse cursor. Progress indicators are present in taskbar buttons. For example, downloading a program through Internet Explorer causes the button to fill with color as the operation progresses.
Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012 adopted the Metro design language, which did not inherit all elements of Aero. The Aero Glass theme was replaced by solid colored theme. Transparency effects were removed from the interface, aside from the taskbar, which maintains transparency but no longer has a blur effect. Flip 3D was removed. Pre-release versions of Windows 8 used an updated version of Aero Glass with a flatter, squared look, but the Glass theme was removed for the final version. For the first time since the release of Windows 95, Microsoft revised its user interface guidelines, covering aesthetics, common controls such as buttons and radio buttons, task dialogs, common dialogs, control panels, fonts, user notifications, the "tone" of text used. On Windows Vista and Windows 7 computers that meet certain hardware and software requirements, the Aero Glass theme is used by default incorporating various animation and transparency effects into the desktop using hardware acceleration and the Desktop Window Manager
An operating system is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is executed directly by the hardware and makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers; the dominant desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 82.74%. MacOS by Apple Inc. is in second place, the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place. In the mobile sector, use in 2017 is up to 70% of Google's Android and according to third quarter 2016 data, Android on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent and a growth rate 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple's iOS with 12.1 percent and a per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.
Linux distributions are dominant in supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems, such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. A single-tasking system can only run one program at a time, while a multi-tasking operating system allows more than one program to be running in concurrency; this is achieved by time-sharing, where the available processor time is divided between multiple processes. These processes are each interrupted in time slices by a task-scheduling subsystem of the operating system. Multi-tasking may be characterized in co-operative types. In preemptive multitasking, the operating system slices the CPU time and dedicates a slot to each of the programs. Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris and Linux—as well as non-Unix-like, such as AmigaOS—support preemptive multitasking. Cooperative multitasking is achieved by relying on each process to provide time to the other processes in a defined manner. 16-bit versions of Microsoft Windows used cooperative multi-tasking.
32-bit versions of both Windows NT and Win9x, used preemptive multi-tasking. Single-user operating systems have no facilities to distinguish users, but may allow multiple programs to run in tandem. A multi-user operating system extends the basic concept of multi-tasking with facilities that identify processes and resources, such as disk space, belonging to multiple users, the system permits multiple users to interact with the system at the same time. Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may include accounting software for cost allocation of processor time, mass storage and other resources to multiple users. A distributed operating system manages a group of distinct computers and makes them appear to be a single computer; the development of networked computers that could be linked and communicate with each other gave rise to distributed computing. Distributed computations are carried out on more than one machine; when computers in a group work in cooperation, they form a distributed system.
In an OS, distributed and cloud computing context, templating refers to creating a single virtual machine image as a guest operating system saving it as a tool for multiple running virtual machines. The technique is used both in virtualization and cloud computing management, is common in large server warehouses. Embedded operating systems are designed to be used in embedded computer systems, they are designed to operate on small machines like PDAs with less autonomy. They are able to operate with a limited number of resources, they are compact and efficient by design. Windows CE and Minix 3 are some examples of embedded operating systems. A real-time operating system is an operating system that guarantees to process events or data by a specific moment in time. A real-time operating system may be single- or multi-tasking, but when multitasking, it uses specialized scheduling algorithms so that a deterministic nature of behavior is achieved. An event-driven system switches between tasks based on their priorities or external events while time-sharing operating systems switch tasks based on clock interrupts.
A library operating system is one in which the services that a typical operating system provides, such as networking, are provided in the form of libraries and composed with the application and configuration code to construct a unikernel: a specialized, single address space, machine image that can be deployed to cloud or embedded environments. Early computers were built to perform a series of single tasks, like a calculator. Basic operating system features were developed in the 1950s, such as resident monitor functions that could automatically run different programs in succession to speed up processing. Operating systems did not exist in their more complex forms until the early 1960s. Hardware features were added, that enabled use of runtime libraries and parallel processing; when personal computers became popular in the 1980s, operating systems were made for them similar in concept to those used on larger computers. In the 1940s, the earliest electronic digital systems had no operating systems.
Electronic systems of this time were programmed on rows of mechanical switches or by jumper wires on plug boards. These were special-purpose systems that, for example, generated ballistics tables for the military or controlled the pri
Micro stuttering is a term used in computing to describe a quality defect that manifests as irregular delays between frames rendered by the GPU, causing the instantaneous frame rate of the longest delay to be lower than the frame rate reported by benchmarking applications, such as 3DMark, as they calculate the average frame rate over a longer time interval. In lower frame rates when this effect may be apparent the moving video appears to stutter, resulting in a degraded gameplay experience in the case of a video game though the frame rate seems high enough to provide a smooth experience. Single-GPU configurations do not suffer from this defect in most cases and can in some cases output a subjectively smoother video compared to a multi-GPU setup using the same video card model. Micro stuttering is inherent to multi-GPU configurations using alternate frame rendering, such as nVidia SLi and AMD CrossFireX but can exist in certain cases in single-gpu systems; the effects of micro stuttering varies depending on the driver optimizations.
Beyond dual-GPU setups, CrossFireX/SLI setups do not seem to be as affected by micro-stuttering. As of May 2012, with the latest release of hardware and drivers from nVidia and AMD, AMD's Radeon HD 7000 series is more affected by micro stuttering than nVidia's GeForce 600 Series. In tests performed in Battlefield 3, a configuration with two GeForce GTX 680 in SLi-mode showed a 7% variation in frame delays, compared to 5% for a single GTX 680. A configuration with two Radeon HD 7970 in CrossFireX-mode, on the other hand, showed an 85% variation in frame delays, compared to 7% for a single card, indicating large amounts of micro stuttering; these results are reflected in the perceptual experience. The software program RadeonPro can be used to reduce or eliminate the effects of micro-stuttering when using AMD graphics cards in CrossFire. Jitter Rendering Video card Graphics processing unit AMD CrossFireX nVidia SLi Micro-Stuttering And GPU Scaling In CrossFire And SLI – Tom's Hardware Inside the second: A new look at game benchmarking – Tech Report How To Fix CrossFire Micro-Stuttering – ShareNoesis
Pentium 4 is a brand by Intel for an entire series of single-core CPUs for desktops and entry-level servers. The processors were shipped from November 20, 2000, until August 8, 2008. All Pentium 4 CPUs are based on the NetBurst architecture; the Pentium 4 Willamette introduced SSE2, while the Prescott introduced SSE3. Versions introduced Hyper-Threading Technology; the first Pentium 4-branded processor to implement 64-bit was the Prescott, but this feature was not enabled. Intel subsequently began selling 64-bit Pentium 4s using the "E0" revision of the Prescotts, being sold on the OEM market as the Pentium 4, model F; the E0 revision adds eXecute Disable to Intel 64. Intel's official launch of Intel 64 in mainstream desktop processors was the N0 stepping Prescott-2M. Intel marketed a version of their low-end Celeron processors based on the NetBurst microarchitecture, a high-end derivative, intended for multi-socket servers and workstations. In 2005, the Pentium 4 was complemented by the dual-core-brands Pentium D and Pentium Extreme Edition.
In benchmark evaluations, the advantages of the NetBurst microarchitecture were unclear. With optimized application code, the first Pentium 4s outperformed Intel's fastest Pentium III, as expected, but in legacy applications with many branching or x87 floating-point instructions, the Pentium 4 would match or run slower than its predecessor. Its main downfall was a shared unidirectional bus; the NetBurst microarchitecture consumed more power and emitted more heat than any previous Intel or AMD microarchitectures. As a result, the Pentium 4's introduction was met with mixed reviews: Developers disliked the Pentium 4, as it posed a new set of code optimization rules. For example, in mathematical applications, AMD's lower-clocked Athlon outperformed the Pentium 4, which would only catch up if software was re-compiled with SSE2 support. Tom Yager of Infoworld magazine called it "the fastest CPU - for programs that fit in cache". Computer-savvy buyers avoided Pentium 4 PCs due to their price premium, questionable benefit, initial restriction to Rambus RAM.
In terms of product marketing, the Pentium 4's singular emphasis on clock frequency made it a marketer's dream. The result of this was that the NetBurst micro architecture was referred to as a marchitecture by various computing websites and publications during the life of the Pentium 4, it was called "NetBust," a term popular with reviewers who reflected negatively upon the processor's performance. The two classical metrics of CPU performance are clock speed. While IPC is difficult to quantify due to dependence on the benchmark application's instruction mix, clock speed is a simple measurement yielding a single absolute number. Unsophisticated buyers would consider the processor with the highest clock speed to be the best product, the Pentium 4 had the fastest clock speed; because AMD's processors had slower clock speeds, it countered Intel's marketing advantage with the "megahertz myth" campaign. AMD product marketing used a "PR-rating" system, which assigned a merit value based on relative performance to a baseline machine.
At the launch of the Pentium 4, Intel stated that NetBurst-based processors were expected to scale to 10 GHz after several fabrication process generations. However, the clock speed of processors using the NetBurst micro architecture reached a maximum of 3.8 GHz. Intel had not anticipated a rapid upward scaling of transistor power leakage that began to occur as the die reached the 90 nm lithography and smaller; this new power leakage phenomenon, along with the standard thermal output, created cooling and clock scaling problems as clock speeds increased. Reacting to these unexpected obstacles, Intel attempted several core redesigns and explored new manufacturing technologies, such as using multiple cores, increasing FSB speeds, increasing the cache size, using a longer instruction pipeline along with higher clock speeds; these solutions failed, from 2003 to 2005, Intel shifted development away from NetBurst to focus on the cooler-running Pentium M microarchitecture. On January 5, 2006, Intel launched the Core processors, which put greater emphasis on energy efficiency and performance per clock cycle.
The final NetBurst-derived products were released in 2007, with all subsequent product families switching to the Core microarchitecture. Pentium 4 processors have an integrated heat spreader that prevents the die from accidentally being damaged when mounting and unmounting cooling solutions. Prior to the IHS, a CPU shim was sometimes used by people worried about damaging the core. Overclockers sometimes removed the IHS from Socket 423 and Socket 478 chips to allow for more direct heat transfer. On processors using the Socket LGA 775 interface, the IHS is directly soldered to the die or dies, making it difficult to remove. Willamette, the project codename for the first NetBurst microarchitecture implementation, experienced long delays in the completion of its design process; the project was started in 1998. At that time, the Willamette core was expected to operate at frequencies up to about 1 GHz. However, the Pentium III was released. Due to the radical differences between the P6 and NetBurst microarchitectures, Intel could not market Willamette as a Pentium III, so it was marketed as the Pentium 4.
On November 20, 2000, Intel released the Willame
Video capture is the process of converting an analog video signal—such as that produced by a video camera, DVD player, or television tuner—to digital video and sending it to local storage or to external circuitry. The resulting digital data are referred to as a digital video stream, or more simply video stream. Depending on the application, a video stream may be recorded as computer files, or sent to a video display, or both. Special electronic circuitry is required to capture video from analog video sources. At the system level this function is performed by a dedicated video capture device; such devices employ integrated circuit video decoders to convert incoming video signals to a standard digital video format, additional circuitry to convey the resulting digital video to local storage or to circuitry outside the video capture device, or both. Depending on the device, the resulting video stream may be conveyed to external circuitry via a computer bus or a communication interface such as USB, Ethernet or WiFi, or stored in mass-storage memory in the device itself.
TV tuner cards, which employ video capture circuitry to capture broadcast television Uncompressed video Convergence Culture. Where Old and New Media Collide, Buying Into American Idol, Henry Jenkins, 2006 New York University Press
Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed and sold by Microsoft. Each family caters to a certain sector of the computing industry. Active Windows families include Windows Embedded. Defunct Windows families include Windows Mobile and Windows Phone. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985, as a graphical operating system shell for MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces. Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market with over 90% market share, overtaking Mac OS, introduced in 1984. Apple came to see Windows as an unfair encroachment on their innovation in GUI development as implemented on products such as the Lisa and Macintosh. On PCs, Windows is still the most popular operating system. However, in 2014, Microsoft admitted losing the majority of the overall operating system market to Android, because of the massive growth in sales of Android smartphones.
In 2014, the number of Windows devices sold was less than 25 %. This comparison however may not be relevant, as the two operating systems traditionally target different platforms. Still, numbers for server use of Windows show one third market share, similar to that for end user use; as of October 2018, the most recent version of Windows for PCs, tablets and embedded devices is Windows 10. The most recent versions for server computers is Windows Server 2019. A specialized version of Windows runs on the Xbox One video game console. Microsoft, the developer of Windows, has registered several trademarks, each of which denote a family of Windows operating systems that target a specific sector of the computing industry; as of 2014, the following Windows families are being developed: Windows NT: Started as a family of operating systems with Windows NT 3.1, an operating system for server computers and workstations. It now consists of three operating system subfamilies that are released at the same time and share the same kernel: Windows: The operating system for mainstream personal computers and smartphones.
The latest version is Windows 10. The main competitor of this family is macOS by Apple for personal computers and Android for mobile devices. Windows Server: The operating system for server computers; the latest version is Windows Server 2019. Unlike its client sibling, it has adopted a strong naming scheme; the main competitor of this family is Linux. Windows PE: A lightweight version of its Windows sibling, meant to operate as a live operating system, used for installing Windows on bare-metal computers, recovery or troubleshooting purposes; the latest version is Windows PE 10. Windows IoT: Initially, Microsoft developed Windows CE as a general-purpose operating system for every device, too resource-limited to be called a full-fledged computer. However, Windows CE was renamed Windows Embedded Compact and was folded under Windows Compact trademark which consists of Windows Embedded Industry, Windows Embedded Professional, Windows Embedded Standard, Windows Embedded Handheld and Windows Embedded Automotive.
The following Windows families are no longer being developed: Windows 9x: An operating system that targeted consumers market. Discontinued because of suboptimal performance. Microsoft now caters to the consumer market with Windows NT. Windows Mobile: The predecessor to Windows Phone, it was a mobile phone operating system; the first version was called Pocket PC 2000. The last version is Windows Mobile 6.5. Windows Phone: An operating system sold only to manufacturers of smartphones; the first version was Windows Phone 7, followed by Windows Phone 8, the last version Windows Phone 8.1. It was succeeded by Windows 10 Mobile; the term Windows collectively describes any or all of several generations of Microsoft operating system products. These products are categorized as follows: The history of Windows dates back to 1981, when Microsoft started work on a program called "Interface Manager", it was announced in November 1983 under the name "Windows", but Windows 1.0 was not released until November 1985.
Windows 1.0 was to achieved little popularity. Windows 1.0 is not a complete operating system. The shell of Windows 1.0 is a program known as the MS-DOS Executive. Components included Calculator, Cardfile, Clipboard viewer, Control Panel, Paint, Reversi and Write. Windows 1.0 does not allow overlapping windows. Instead all windows are tiled. Only modal dialog boxes may appear over other windows. Microsoft sold as included Windows Development libraries with the C development environment, which included numerous windows samples. Windows 2.0 was released in December 1987, was more popular than its predecessor. It features several improvements to the user memory management. Windows 2.03 changed the OS from tiled windows to overlapping windows. The result of this change led to Apple Computer filing a suit against Microsoft alleging infringement on Apple's copyrights. Windows 2.0