In law, fraud is deliberate deception to secure unfair or unlawful gain, or to deprive a victim of a legal right. Fraud itself can be a wrong, a criminal wrong or it may cause no loss of money, property or legal right. The purpose of fraud may be monetary gain or other benefits, a hoax is a distinct concept that involves deliberate deception without the intention of gain or of materially damaging or depriving a victim. In common law jurisdictions, as a wrong, fraud is a tort. Proving fraud in a court of law is said to be difficult. In cases of a fraudulently induced contract, fraud may serve as a defense in an action for breach of contract or specific performance of contract. Fraud may serve as a basis for a court to invoke its equitable jurisdiction, in common law jurisdictions, as a criminal offence, fraud takes many different forms, some general and some specific to particular categories of victims or misconduct. The elements of fraud as a crime similarly vary, section 380 of the Criminal Code provides the general definition for fraud in Canada,380. In addition to the penalties outlined above, the court can issue a prohibition order under s.380.2. It can also make an order under s.380.3. The Canadian courts have held that the offence consists of two elements, A prohibited act of deceit, falsehood or other fraudulent means. The Supreme Court of Canada has held that deprivation is satisfied on proof of detriment, prejudice or risk of prejudice, it is not essential that there be actual loss. Deprivation of confidential information, in the nature of a secret or copyrighted material that has commercial value, has also been held to fall within the scope of the offence. The BBC World Service reported in 2012 that the value lost through fraud in the UK was £66 billion a year. According to a review by the UK anti-fraud charity Fraud Advisory Panel business fraud accounted for £144bn, the FAP has been particularly critical of the support available from the police to victims of fraud in the UK outside of London. In July 2016 it was reported that fraudulent activity levels in the UK increased in the 10 years to 2016 from £52 billion to £193bn. This figure would be an estimate, since as the former commissioner of the City of London Police, Adrian Leppard, has said. Donald Toon, director of the NCAs economic crime command, stated in July 2016, Fraud affects one in ten people in the UK
The highly decorated fake uniform worn by a man impersonating a "Marine" caught by two gunnery sergeants at Times Square in New York City, N.Y.
A possibly fraudulent "work from home" advertisement.
A fraudulent Manufacturer's Suggested Retail Price on a speaker.