Nathaniel S. Hardy Jr.
Nathaniel Sidney Hardy Jr. is an American musician and keyboardist. Hardy is known for his contributions as a keyboardist for Chic, his work with acts such as Run-DMC, Madonna and Crystal Waters. Hardy was born on April 1964 in Baltimore, Maryland, he attented Cherry Hill Junior High School, started out as a member of the school's marching band while growing up in the "Projects" of Cherry Hill. He joined the band in the seventh grade to keep out of trouble when his brother Gershwin brought home a trombone, his music teacher Mr. Keenan suggested. Upon playing the Bass Cello, Nathaniel decided it was to troublesome to carry the cello home for practice and switched over to playing trombone alongside his brother. Nathaniel continued to play the trombone until the ninth grade under the direction on his new music teacher Miss Catherine Snyder. Once while watching neighborhood friends play instruments, he noticed his brother was acting like he was playing an organ his mother had bought, while the other band members were performing on his brother's friend Weldon Harris' porch, when they all stopped playing everyone knew that his brother was faking it.
That is. He worked numerous jobs saving up money to buy both stereo equipment, he taught himself by reading books. In 1980, Nathaniel was approached by a childhood friend Thomas Lee Brown, III, a junior high school friend Terrance Balfour to front a local band that he started called "Savior Faire"; the band was signed to RCA Records with Nathaniel fronting as lead vocalist. Nathaniel and Terrance would write for artist such as Kurtis Blow, Run-D. M. C. and other rap acts from some contacts. After less than two years with RCA, the band was dropped by RCA for failing to reach 500,000 units in sales and contract disputes. Nathaniel was able to maintain all rights to his music since he was the only one that did not spend any money, when he was able to give back the advance that the record company had fronted him. In 1981, Nathaniel was introduced to Tony Thompson at a party when he suggested he would introduce him to both Nile Rodgers and Bernard Edwards. Nathaniel was invited to join a number of Chic session recordings with Deborah Harry, Carly Simon, on Madonna's Like a Virgin album, considered a re-united Chic, featuring band members Bernard Edwards, Nile Rodgers, Tony Thompson, Robert Sabino.
S. Navy he continued to write music with Bobby Brown, Teddy Riley, The Basement Boys, Crystal Waters. In late 2008, Nathaniel started using the name The Nathaniel Hardy Project. "Sucker M. C.'s" – Run-DMC Nathaniel S. Hardy, Jr. and Terrance Balfour "Gypsy Woman" – Crystal Waters "Two Can Play That Game" – Bobby Brown Nothing Last Forever! – The Nathaniel Hardy Project I Love You More! – The Nathaniel Hardy Project Shut the Hell Up! – The Nathaniel Hardy Project Ahhhh Yeah!!! – The Nathaniel Hardy Project feat. Faith R. Hardy-Molina I Got the Boom, Boom! – The Nathaniel Hardy Project I Have You – The Nathaniel Hardy Project The Craziest By Far!!! – The Nathaniel Hardy Project Crazy! – The Nathaniel Hardy Project Moonlight in Baltimore – The Nathaniel Hardy Project When Tomorrow Comes! – The Nathaniel Hardy Project Chic biography at Billboard Magazine Chic biography at Rolling Stone Magazine https://www.allmusic.com/artist/p949257 Change – www.jacquespetrus.com "Change US albums chart history". Allmusic.com.
Compact disc is a digital optical disc data storage format, co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982. The format was developed to store and play only sound recordings but was adapted for storage of data. Several other formats were further derived from these, including write-once audio and data storage, rewritable media, Video Compact Disc, Super Video Compact Disc, Photo CD, PictureCD, CD-i, Enhanced Music CD; the first commercially available audio CD player, the Sony CDP-101, was released October 1982 in Japan. Standard CDs have a diameter of 120 millimetres and can hold up to about 80 minutes of uncompressed audio or about 700 MiB of data; the Mini CD has various diameters ranging from 60 to 80 millimetres. At the time of the technology's introduction in 1982, a CD could store much more data than a personal computer hard drive, which would hold 10 MB. By 2010, hard drives offered as much storage space as a thousand CDs, while their prices had plummeted to commodity level. In 2004, worldwide sales of audio CDs, CD-ROMs and CD-Rs reached about 30 billion discs.
By 2007, 200 billion CDs had been sold worldwide. From the early 2000s CDs were being replaced by other forms of digital storage and distribution, with the result that by 2010 the number of audio CDs being sold in the U. S. had dropped about 50% from their peak. In 2014, revenues from digital music services matched those from physical format sales for the first time. American inventor James T. Russell has been credited with inventing the first system to record digital information on an optical transparent foil, lit from behind by a high-power halogen lamp. Russell's patent application was filed in 1966, he was granted a patent in 1970. Following litigation and Philips licensed Russell's patents in the 1980s; the compact disc is an evolution of LaserDisc technology, where a focused laser beam is used that enables the high information density required for high-quality digital audio signals. Prototypes were developed by Sony independently in the late 1970s. Although dismissed by Philips Research management as a trivial pursuit, the CD became the primary focus for Philips as the LaserDisc format struggled.
In 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the Red Book CD-DA standard was published in 1980. After their commercial release in 1982, compact discs and their players were popular. Despite costing up to $1,000, over 400,000 CD players were sold in the United States between 1983 and 1984. By 1988, CD sales in the United States surpassed those of vinyl LPs, by 1992 CD sales surpassed those of prerecorded music cassette tapes; the success of the compact disc has been credited to the cooperation between Philips and Sony, which together agreed upon and developed compatible hardware. The unified design of the compact disc allowed consumers to purchase any disc or player from any company, allowed the CD to dominate the at-home music market unchallenged. In 1974, Lou Ottens, director of the audio division of Philips, started a small group with the aim to develop an analog optical audio disc with a diameter of 20 cm and a sound quality superior to that of the vinyl record.
However, due to the unsatisfactory performance of the analog format, two Philips research engineers recommended a digital format in March 1974. In 1977, Philips established a laboratory with the mission of creating a digital audio disc; the diameter of Philips's prototype compact disc was set at 11.5 cm, the diagonal of an audio cassette. Heitaro Nakajima, who developed an early digital audio recorder within Japan's national public broadcasting organization NHK in 1970, became general manager of Sony's audio department in 1971, his team developed a digital PCM adaptor audio tape recorder using a Betamax video recorder in 1973. After this, in 1974 the leap to storing digital audio on an optical disc was made. Sony first publicly demonstrated an optical digital audio disc in September 1976. A year in September 1977, Sony showed the press a 30 cm disc that could play 60 minutes of digital audio using MFM modulation. In September 1978, the company demonstrated an optical digital audio disc with a 150-minute playing time, 44,056 Hz sampling rate, 16-bit linear resolution, cross-interleaved error correction code—specifications similar to those settled upon for the standard compact disc format in 1980.
Technical details of Sony's digital audio disc were presented during the 62nd AES Convention, held on 13–16 March 1979, in Brussels. Sony's AES technical paper was published on 1 March 1979. A week on 8 March, Philips publicly demonstrated a prototype of an optical digital audio disc at a press conference called "Philips Introduce Compact Disc" in Eindhoven, Netherlands. Sony executive Norio Ohga CEO and chairman of Sony, Heitaro Nakajima were convinced of the format's commercial potential and pushed further development despite widespread skepticism; as a result, in 1979, Sony and Philips set up a joint task force of engineers to design a new digital audio disc. Led by engineers Kees Schouhamer Immink and Toshitada Doi, the research pushed forward laser and optical disc technology. After a year of experimentation and discussion, the task force produced the Red Book CD-DA standard. First published in 1980, the stand
Omar Hakim is an American jazz, jazz fusion and pop music drummer, producer and composer. He has worked with David Bowie, Madonna, Dire Straits, Kate Bush, George Benson, Miles Davis, Daft Punk, Mariah Carey, Celine Dion. A graduate of the New York School of Music and Art, Omar Hakim began his career recording with various pop and soul groups, his father, Hasan Hakim, had played trombone for Count Basie. Hakim credits jazz vibraphonist Mike Mainieri with giving him his first break in 1980. Hakim first came to major attention as a member of Weather Report. Hakim played drums on David Bowie's most commercially successful album, 1983's Let's Dance, as well as the follow-up, Tonight, in 1984. Bowie described Hakim as "a fascinating drummer, with impeccable timing" and "always fresh in his approach". In the mid-1980s, Hakim joined Dire Straits as drummer while recording their fifth album Brothers in Arms. Hakim temporarily replaced the band’s then-permanent drummer Terry Williams, when his performance was felt to be unsuitable for the desired sound of the album after most of the album tracks had been recorded.
Hakim re-recorded all the drum tracks on the album in two days and left for other commitments. Hakim and Williams are both credited on the album. Hakim was part of the band for Sting's first solo album, The Dream of the Blue Turtles, appearing in the film Bring on the Night. By this time, Hakim was teaching himself to program drum machines, which put him in greater demand as a pop, R&B session musician, landed him work with Madonna. Meanwhile, he continued his work as a jazz fusion drummer. In December 1989, Hakim released his first solo album, Rhythm Deep, which occupied a middle ground between jazz, R&B, pop, gave him a chance to showcase his vocal abilities as well; the results earned Hakim a Grammy nomination in early 1990. During the 1990s, Hakim continued to improve his skills in the realm of electronic percussion, keeping abreast of new technologies, he performed on albums by Mariah Carey, Celine Dion, Jewel, among other pop stars, kept his jazz work going as well, though it had tapered off by the middle of the decade.
In 2000, Hakim released his second solo CD, The Groovesmith, produced and mixed in his personal recording studio "The OH-Zone". In 2010, Hakim formed a band with wife Rachel Z called "The Trio of OZ" and they recorded and toured extensively internationally behind their successful eponymous release. In 2014, he released his third album, entitled. Hakim played drums for the Kate Bush 22-night residency called Before the Dawn in London from August 26 – October 1, 2014 at the Hammersmith Apollo. On June 18, 2015, Journey announced that Hakim would replace longtime drummer Deen Castronovo on their North American tour after Castronovo was arrested for domestic violence in Salem, Oregon. Omar was featured on the cover of Modern Drummer Magazine in 2014. Omar was featured on the cover of DrumHead Magazine in 2017. Omar became the Chairman of the Percussion Department of Berklee College of Music in 2017, replacing the previous Department Chair, John Ramsey. Between 1988 and 1989 Hakim appeared as the house band drummer in The Sunday Night Band during the first half season of the acclaimed music performance program Sunday Night on NBC late-night television.
After being temporarily replaced by drummer J. T. Lewis for the remainder of that season, Hakim reappeared in the band for the second season in the fall of 1989, when the program returned under the new name Night Music. Rhythm Deep The Groovesmith The Omar Hakim Experience With Victor Bailey 1989 Bottom's Up 1999 Low Blow 2001 That's RightWith David Bowie 1983 Let's Dance 1984 Tonight 1989 Blue Jean 1989 Sound + Vision 1990 ChangesbowieWith Chic 1999 Live at the Budokan 2002 In Japan 2006 Night in AmsterdamWith Miles Davis 1986 Tutu 1987 Music from Siesta 1989 AmandlaWith Dire Straits 1985 Brothers in Arms 1988 Money for Nothing compilation 1998 Sultans of Swing: The Very Best of Dire Straits compilation 2005 The Best of Dire Straits & Mark Knopfler: Private Investigations compilationWith Najee 1986 Najee's Theme 1990 Tokyo Blue 1992 Just an Illusion 2000 Love Songs 2003 EmbraceWith Lee Ritenour 1988 Festival 1995 Larry & Lee 2005 World of BrazilWith Special EFX 1988 Confidential 1988 Double Feature 1990 Just Like Magic 1991 Peace of the World 2013 GenesisWith Weather Report 1984 Domino Theory 1984 Sportin' Life 1985 This Is This!
2002 Live and Unreleased 2006 Forecast: Tomorrow 2011 Live in Cologne 1983With others
Rhythm and blues
Rhythm and blues abbreviated as R&B, is a genre of popular music that originated in African American communities in the 1940s. The term was used by record companies to describe recordings marketed predominantly to urban African Americans, at a time when "urbane, jazz based music with a heavy, insistent beat" was becoming more popular. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, drums, one or more saxophones, sometimes background vocalists. R&B lyrical themes encapsulate the African-American experience of pain and the quest for freedom and joy, as well as triumphs and failures in terms of relationships and aspirations; the term "rhythm and blues" has undergone a number of shifts in meaning. In the early 1950s, it was applied to blues records. Starting in the mid-1950s, after this style of music contributed to the development of rock and roll, the term "R&B" became used to refer to music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music.
In the 1960s, several British rock bands such as the Rolling Stones, the Who and the Animals were referred to and promoted as being R&B bands. Their mix of rock and roll and R&B is now known as "British rhythm and blues". By the 1970s, the term "rhythm and blues" changed again and was used as a blanket term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed, becoming known as "contemporary R&B", it combines elements of rhythm and blues, soul, hip hop, electronic music. Popular R&B vocalists at the end of the 20th century included Prince, R. Kelly, Stevie Wonder, Chaka Khan, Whitney Houston, Mariah Carey. In the 21st century, R&B has remained a popular genre becoming more pop orientated and alternatively influenced with successful artists including Usher, Bruno Mars, Chris Brown, Justin Timberlake, The Weeknd, Frank Ocean and Khalid. Although Jerry Wexler of Billboard magazine is credited with coining the term "rhythm and blues" as a musical term in the United States in 1948, the term was used in Billboard as early as 1943.
It replaced the term "race music", which came from within the black community, but was deemed offensive in the postwar world. The term "rhythm and blues" was used by Billboard in its chart listings from June 1949 until August 1969, when its "Hot Rhythm & Blues Singles" chart was renamed as "Best Selling Soul Singles". Before the "Rhythm and Blues" name was instated, various record companies had begun replacing the term "race music" with "sepia series". Writer and producer Robert Palmer defined rhythm & blues as "a catchall term referring to any music, made by and for black Americans", he has used the term "R&B" as a synonym for jump blues. However, AllMusic separates it from jump blues because of R&B's stronger gospel influences. Lawrence Cohn, author of Nothing but the Blues, writes that "rhythm and blues" was an umbrella term invented for industry convenience. According to him, the term embraced all black music except classical music and religious music, unless a gospel song sold enough to break into the charts.
Well into the 21st century, the term R&B continues in use to categorize music made by black musicians, as distinct from styles of music made by other musicians. In the commercial rhythm and blues music typical of the 1950s through the 1970s, the bands consisted of piano, one or two guitars, bass and saxophone. Arrangements were rehearsed to the point of effortlessness and were sometimes accompanied by background vocalists. Simple repetitive parts mesh, creating momentum and rhythmic interplay producing mellow and hypnotic textures while calling attention to no individual sound. While singers are engaged with the lyrics intensely so, they remain cool, in control; the bands dressed in suits, uniforms, a practice associated with the modern popular music that rhythm and blues performers aspired to dominate. Lyrics seemed fatalistic, the music followed predictable patterns of chords and structure; the migration of African Americans to the urban industrial centers of Chicago, New York City, Los Angeles and elsewhere in the 1920s and 1930s created a new market for jazz and related genres of music.
These genres of music were performed by full-time musicians, either working alone or in small groups. The precursors of rhythm and blues came from jazz and blues, which overlapped in the late-1920s and 1930s through the work of musicians such as the Harlem Hamfats, with their 1936 hit "Oh Red", as well as Lonnie Johnson, Leroy Carr, Cab Calloway, Count Basie, T-Bone Walker. There was increasing emphasis on the electric guitar as a lead instrument, as well as the piano and saxophone. In 1948, RCA Victor was marketing black music under the name "Blues and Rhythm". In that year, Louis Jordan dominated the top five listings of the R&B charts with three songs, two of the top five songs were based on the boogie-woogie rhythms that had come to prominence during the 1940s. Jordan's band, the Tympany Five, consisted of him on saxophone and vocals, along with musicians on trumpet, tenor saxophone, piano and drums. Lawrence Cohn described the music as "grittier than his boogie-era jazz-tinged blues". Robert Palmer described it as "urbane, jazz-based music with a heavy, insistent beat".
Jordan's music, along with that of Big Joe Turner, Roy Brown, Billy Wright, Wynonie Harris, is now referred to as jump blues. Paul Gayten, Roy Brown, others had had hits in the style now referred to as rhythm and blu
I Want Your Love (Chic song)
"I Want Your Love" is a song by American band Chic from their second album C'est Chic. Featuring a solo lead vocal by Alfa Anderson, the song became a successful follow-up to their iconic hit single "Le Freak". In the United States, "I Want Your Love" reached number one on the Billboard Dance Club Songs in November 1978 and number five on the Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs chart in June 1979, it peaked at number seven on the Billboard Hot 100 in May 1979 and remained on the chart for 19 weeks. In the United Kingdom, it reached number four on the UK Singles chart and spent 11 weeks on the chart. " swirls around a tricky horn-and-strings riff that builds and builds until the track levitates," Rolling Stone wrote. AllMusic's Jason Birchmeier called the song a "timeless floor-filler" and a "dancefloor anthem." Amy Hanson from AllMusic: "Chic's smooth, up-tempo follow-up to their searing disco epic "Le Freak," "I Want Your Love" was a chart-topper in its own right in early 1979. And while it may not have been as commercially heart-stopping as the former, it was a stunning, better, example of just how Bernard Edwards and Nile Rodgers could magic a song together.
"Simple, yet extraordinarily textured, this is Rodgers' autobiographical and bittersweet lament of an unrequited love. Dominant here is the song's four-note riff, which plays out across the intro on bells before being swept up in the lilting strings which drive the melody. Echoed by both horns and vocals, the melancholy refrain "I want your love, I need your love" was the passionate repetition that made the song so endearing an unending circle -- a sonic masterpiece." 7" vinyl singleA. "I Want Your Love" – 3:28 B. " Bone" – 3:4112" vinyl singleA. "I Want Your Love" – 6:53 B. " Bone" – 3:41 Singer/musician Jody Watley recorded "I Want Your Love" as part of her 2006 album The Makeover. Watley's version was released as a single in 2007 and reached #1 on the Hot Dance Music/Club Play chart for the week of June 16, 2007; the Watley cover was featured Nile Rodgers on guitar. Bernard Edwards, Chic's co-founder, had produced a massive hit for Watley in the form of her 1987 single "Don't You Want Me". US Digital Download"I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" US CD single"I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" UK CD single"I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" "I Want Your Love" List of number-one dance singles of 1978 List of number-one dance singles of 2007 Lyrics of this song at MetroLyrics
Nile Gregory Rodgers Jr. is an American record producer, musician, composer and guitarist. The co-founder of Chic, he has written and performed on records that have cumulatively sold more than 500 million albums and 75 million singles worldwide, he is a Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductee, a three-time Grammy Award-winner, the chairman of the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Known for his "chucking" guitar style, Rolling Stone wrote in 2014 that "the full scope of Nile Rodgers' career is still hard to fathom."Formed as the Big Apple Band in 1970 with bassist Bernard Edwards, Chic released their self-titled debut album in 1977. It included the hit singles "Dance, Dance" and "Everybody Dance"; the 1978 album C'est Chic produced the hits "I Want Your Love" and "Le Freak", with the latter selling more than 7 million singles worldwide. The song "Good Times" from the 1979 album Risque was a number one single on the pop and soul charts, became one of the most-sampled songs of all time, "ushering in" hip-hop via The Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight", inspiring Queen's "Another One Bites the Dust", anchoring the Daft Punk hit "Around the World".
With Edwards, Rodgers wrote and produced music for other artists, including the songs "He's the Greatest Dancer" and "We Are Family" for Sister Sledge and "I'm Coming Out" for Diana Ross. After Chic's 1983 breakup Rodgers produced "a string of the post-disco era's biggest albums and singles", including David Bowie's Let's Dance, "Original Sin" by INXS, Duran Duran's "The Reflex" and "Notorious", Madonna's Like a Virgin, he worked with artists including The B-52s, Jeff Beck, Mick Jagger, The Vaughan Brothers, Bryan Ferry, Christina Aguilera, Lady Gaga, Daft Punk, winning three Grammy Awards in 2014 for his work on their album Random Access Memories. Rodgers was born in New York City, on September 19, 1952, to Beverly Goodman, she became pregnant the first time she had sex, gave birth to Rodgers when she was 14. His biological father, Nile Rodgers Sr. – a traveling percussionist who specialized in Afro-Cuban beats – was present as Rodgers grew up. In 1959, Goodman married Bobby Glanzrock, who Rodgers described in his 2011 autobiography as a "beatnik PhD, whose observations had angles that would make Miles Davis contemplate his cool."
Richard Pryor, Thelonious Monk, Lenny Bruce visited their home in Greenwich Village. Glanzrock and Goodman were addicted to heroin, Rodgers began using drugs at 13. Before learning to play the guitar at 16, Rodgers played the clarinet; as a teenager, he played guitar with African, Latin and Boogaloo bands. He became a subsection leader of the Lower Manhattan branch of the New York Black Panther Party as a teenager. Rodgers met bassist Bernard Edwards in 1970 while working as a touring musician for the Sesame Street stage show. Together they formed The Big Apple Band, worked as back-up musicians for the vocal group New York City. New York City's one hit allowed them to tour extensively opening for The Jackson 5 on the American leg of their first world tour in 1973; the band dissolved after their second album failed to yield a hit, but Nile and Bernard joined forces with drummer Tony Thompson, worked and recorded as a funk rock band called The Boys, which played numerous gigs up and down the East Coast.
Although there was label interest, record companies passed on the band after discovering its members were black, believing that black rock artists would be too hard to promote. As the Big Apple Band and Edwards worked with Ashford & Simpson, Luther Vandross, many others. Since another New York artist, Walter Murphy, had a band called The Big Apple Band and Edwards were forced to change their band's name to avoid confusion. Thus, in 1977 the band was renamed as Chic. Inspired by Roxy Music, Chic developed a sound, a fusion of jazz and funk grooves with melodies and lyrics with a European influence. Between gigs, they recorded the song "Dance, Dance", with then-boss Luther Vandross on vocals. Released by Buddah Records, it was an instant hit when it was re-released by Atlantic in the summer of 1977. Atlantic picked up an album option with Rodgers and Edwards, who wrote more songs, Chic's self-titled debut was released in November; the band scored numerous top ten hits and helped propel disco to new levels of popularity, with "Le Freak", "I Want Your Love", "Everybody Dance", "Dance, Dance", "My Forbidden Lover", "Good Times" becoming club/pop/R&B standards.
"Le Freak" was Atlantic Records' only triple platinum selling single at the time, "Good Times" shot to No. 1 in August 1979 in spite of that year's "Disco Sucks" movement protesting that style of music. The success of Chic's first singles led Atlantic to offer Rodgers and Edwards the opportunity to produce any act on its roster, they chose Sister Sledge, whose 1979 album, We Are Family, peaked at No. 3 and remained on the charts well into 1980. The first two singles, "He's the Greatest Dancer" and the title cut "We Are Family" both reached No. 1 on the R&B chart, No. 6 and No. 2 on the Pop chart. In April 2018, "We Are Family"; the 1979 disco backlash derailed Chic, Edwards retreated from work, while Rodgers' drug use accelerated. Rodgers and Edwards delivered their final Atlantic album under contract, Believer, in 1982, they completed one of their last projects together in 1980, writing and producing the album Diana for Diana Ross, which yielded the hits "Upside Down" and "