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Freckles are clusters of concentrated melaninized cells which are most visible on people with a fair complexion. Freckles do not have an increased number of the melanin-producing cells, or melanocytes, but instead have melanocytes that overproduce melanin granules changing the coloration of the outer skin cells; as such, freckles are different from lentigines and moles, which are caused by accumulation of melanocytes in a small area. Freckles can appear on all types of skin tones. Of the six Fitzpatrick skin types, they are most common on skin tone 1 and 2, which belong to North Europeans. However, it can be found in all ethnicities; the formation of freckles is caused by exposure to sunlight. The exposure to UV-B radiation activates melanocytes to increase melanin production, which can cause freckles to become darker and more visible; this means that one who has never developed freckles may develop them following extended exposure to sunlight. Freckles are predominantly found on the face, although they may appear on any skin exposed to the sun, such as arms or shoulders.

Distributed concentrations of melanin may cause freckles to multiply and cover an entire area of skin, such as the face. Freckles are rare on infants, more found on children before puberty. Upon exposure to the sun, freckles will reappear if they have been altered with creams or lasers and not protected from the sun, but do fade with age in some cases. Freckles are not a skin disorder, but people with freckles have a lower concentration of photo-protective melanin, are therefore more susceptible to the harmful effects of UV radiation, it is suggested that people whose skin tends to freckle should avoid overexposure to sun and use sunscreen. The presence of freckles is related to rare alleles of the MC1R gene, though it does not differentiate whether an individual will have freckles if they have one or two copies of this gene. Individuals with no copies of the MC1R do sometimes display freckles. So, individuals with a high number of freckling sites have one or more of variants of the MC1R gene.

Of the variants of the MC1R gene Arg151Cys, Arg160Trp, Asp294His are the most common in the freckled subjects. The MC1R gene is associated with red hair more than with freckles. Most red-haired individuals have two variants of the MC1R gene and all have one; the variants that cause red hair are the same. Freckling can be found in areas, such as Japan, where red hair is not seen; these individuals have the variant Val92Met, found in Caucasians, although it has minimal effects on their pigmentation. The R162Q allele has a disputed involvement in freckling; the variants of the MC1R gene that are linked with freckles started to emerge in the human genotype when humans started to leave Africa. The variant Val92Met arose somewhere between 250,000 and 100,000 years ago, long enough for this gene to be carried by humans into central Asia. Arg160Trp is estimated to have arisen around 80,000 years ago while Arg151Cys and Asp294His have been estimated to arise around 30,000 years ago; the wide variation of the MC1R gene exists in people of European descent because of the lack of strong environmental pressures on the gene.

The original allele of MC1R is coded for dark skin with a high melanin content in the cells. The high melanin content is protective in areas of high UV light exposure; the need was less as humans moved into higher latitudes where incoming sunlight has lower UV light content. The adaptation of lighter skin is needed so that individuals in higher latitudes can still absorb enough UV for the production of vitamin D. Freckled individuals tend to tan less and have light skin, which would have helped the individuals that expressed these genes absorb vitamin D. Ephelides describes a freckle, flat and light brown or red and fades with reduction of sun exposure. Ephelides are more common in those with light complexions, although they are found on people with a variety of skin tones; the regular use of sunblock can inhibit their development. Liver spots look like large freckles. Liver spots are more common in older people. Beauty mark Mole List of Mendelian traits in humans Melanocortin 1 receptor Freckles Ephelides at eMedicine

Ellen Jolin

Ellen Jolin was a Swedish writer and graphic artist. Jolin was born in Sweden, she attended the Royal Swedish Academy of the Académie Julian in Paris. Her instructors included Fredrik Wilhelm Scholander, Kerstin Cardon, Carl Hansen, Jules Joseph Lefebvre. Jolin exhibited her paintings in Paris and Berlin. In 1893 she exhibited her work at the Palace of Fine Arts at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois, she was the aunt of the painter Einar Jolin. Jolin was buried at Solna Cemetery in Stockholm. Images of Jolin's art on artNET images of Jolin's art on Nationalmuseum

Tom Murday

Tom Murday is an Australian rugby union footballer. He is signed to the French club Agen and played for the Queensland Reds in the Super Rugby competition, his usual position is lock, however he can play in the backrow. Murday was raised in Mossman in North Queensland, he played junior club rugby for the Port Douglas Reef Raiders as a teenager, he attended Brisbane Grammar School and played for the Australian Schoolboys rugby team in 2006. Murday was selected for the Australia U20 team that played in the 2008 IRB Junior World Championship in Wales, he joined the RugbyWA Academy that season and toured to the UK with the Force development side. In 2009 and 2010 Murday played with Sunnybank in the Queensland Premier Rugby competition, he moved to the ACT to play for the Tuggeranong Vikings rugby club in 2011 and was selected for the Brumby Runners team that played in the 2012 Pacific Rugby Cup. Murday played for two seasons in New Zealand's ITM Cup with Northland in 2013 and 2014, he was a member of the Blues extended squad, won the World Club 10s title with the Auckland team in 2014.

Returning to Brisbane to join the Queensland Reds, he made his Super Rugby debut against the Western Force at Lang Park on 21 February 2015. Murday signed a two-year deal with French club SU Agen Lot-et-Garonne in mid-2015. profile Blues Profile, archived from the original on 23 January 2015

Hugh Plat

Sir Hugh Plat was an English writer on agriculture and inventor, known from his works The Jewell House of Art and Nature and his major work on gardening Floraes Paradise. Hugh Plat was born in the spring of 1552, baptised at St. James's, Garlickhythe, on 3 May 1552, he was third son, the eldest surviving son, of Richard Plat or Platt, a London brewer who ran the Old Swan brewery in James Street, London. His father owned property in St Pancras, bequeathed much of it to the foundation and endowment of a free school and six almshouses at Aldenham and was buried at St. James's, Garlickhythe, on 28 November 1600. Hugh's mother, was daughter of John Birtles, of Birtles, Cheshire. Plat matriculated as a pensioner of St John's College, Cambridge, on 12 November 1568 and he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts in 1572. Soon afterwards he became a member of Lincoln's Inn, he resided from 1594 at Bishop's Hall, Bethnal Green moving to the neighbouring Kirby's Castle. Both at Bethnal Green and in St Martin's Lane.

He maintained gardens, where he conducted agricultural experiments. For research, he visited Sir Thomas Heneage's estate at Copt Hall and other large properties, he learned metallurgy from blacksmiths, worked with gardeners and farmers to gather information on horticulture and agriculture. In consideration of his services as inventor, Plat was knighted by James I at Greenwich on 22 May 1605. Plat married twice, his second wife, daughter of William Albany of London, was buried in Highgate Chapel, 28 January 1636. Plat left two sons and three daughters by his second marriage, other children by his first. William, the fourth son of his second marriage, was buried in Highgate Chapel on 11 November 1637, beneath an elaborate tomb, he left land to St John's College, where he had been educated as a fellow-commoner. In 1858 William Platt's estate was merged in the general property of the college, the three Platt fellowships, which represented the endowment, became ordinary foundation fellowships. Throughout his lifetime, Plat published ten books based on his personal research and his studies of artisans.

He left behind a volume of handwritten notes that credited the people who helped him with his studies. Amply provided for by his father, he devoted his early years to writing. In 1572 he made his first appearance in print as the author of'The Floures of Philosophie, with Pleasures of Poetrie annexed to them, as wel pleasant to be read as profitable to be followed of al men,; this work was followed by a similar undertaking, entitled'Hvgonis Platti armig. Manuale sententias aliquot Diuinas et Morales complectens partim è Sacris Patribus, partim è Petrarcha philosopho et Poeta celeberrimo decerptas,' London, 1584. 1594. Plat developed an interest in natural science: mechanical inventions, domestic economy—and in agriculture, to which he devoted most of his life, he corresponded with lovers of gardening and agriculture, investigated the effects of various manures. In 1592 Plat exhibited to some privy councilors and chief citizens of London a series of mechanical inventions, next year printed, as a broad-sheet, some account of them in'A brief Apologie of certen new Inventions completed by H. Plat'.

In 1594 there appeared'The Jewell House of Art and Nature, conteining divers rare and profitable Inventions, together with sundry new Experiments in the Art of Husbandry and Moulding. By Hugh Platte of Lincolnes Inn, Gent.' London, 1594. The volume consists of five tracts with separate title-pages. Another edition appeared in 1613, a revised edition, dedicated to Bulstrode Whitelocke, was prepared in 1653 by'D. B.', who added'A Discourse on Minerals, Stones and Rosins.' In 1595 Plat gave further results in'A Discoverie of certain English Wantes which are royally supplied in this Treatise. By H. Plat, of Lincolnes Inne, Esquire,' London 1595. In the same year he issued ` Sundrie Artificiall Remedies against Famine. Written by H. P. Esq. upon thoccasion of this present Dearth,' London. 1596. Other editions followed in 1600 and 1601. Plat collected recipes for preserving fruits, cooking, housewifery and the dyeing of hair. Much of the information was in his'Jewell-house.' A more complete work was Delights for Ladies.

The first part of the volume reappeared posthumously as'A Closet for Ladies and Gentlemen, on the art of Preseruing and Candying. With the manner how to make diverse kinds of Syrupes: and all kinde of Banquetting Stuffes,' London, 1611. In 1603 Plat gave an account of an invention of cheap fuel—i.e. Coal mixed with clay and other substances, kneaded into balls—in a tract called'Of Coal-Balls for Fewell wherein Seacoal is, by the mixture of other

Beech Creek Township, Clinton County, Pennsylvania

Beech Creek Township is a township in Clinton County, United States. The population was 1,015 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 94.5 square miles, of which 94.2 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles, or 0.26%, is water. Bear Swamp East Beech As of the census of 2000, there were 1,010 people, 393 households, 306 families residing in the township; the population density was 10.5 people per square mile. There were 653 housing units at an average density of 6.8/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 98.42% White, 0.10% African American, 0.40% Native American, 0.20% Asian, 0.20% Pacific Islander, 0.50% from other races, 0.20% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.19% of the population. There were 393 households, out of which 31.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.6% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.1% were non-families.

17.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 2.85. In the township the population was spread out, with 23.3% under the age of 18, 6.8% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 27.9% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.7 males. The median income for a household in the township was $37,708, the median income for a family was $40,903. Males had a median income of $27,366 versus $20,417 for females; the per capita income for the township was $16,983. About 6.2% of families and 8.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.4% of those under age 18 and 6.4% of those age 65 or over

Holliday Bickerstaffe Kendall

Holliday Bickerstaff Kendall, was a Primitive Methodist Minister, President of the Conference. Editor and historian, Kendall wrote three separate histories of the Primitive Methodist Church which became to be regarded as the definitive history of the Church, he was born on 2 August 1844 at Wakefield. He was the only child of Rev Charles Sarah Bickerstaffe, he was named after a friend of the family, Rev. Thomas Holliday, his mother's family, Bickerstaffe, he served as a Primitive Methodist Minister from 1864 to 1903. Thomas and Fanny Kendall raised ten sons and one daughter to adulthood, six of the sons became Ministers in the Primitive Methodist Church. There are ten Kendalls listed in Leary, H. B. Kendall's father Charles, five of his uncles joined the United Methodists. Amos immigrated to America and joined the Methodist Episcopal Church South, Henry joined the Congregationalist Methodists and H. B. Kendall's cousin Frederick Dennis. Cousins, Henry George and his brother James Dennis Hird were ordained in the Church of England.

In recognition of the Kendall contribution to Primitive Methodism the Kendall Memorial Chapel was opened in 1885 in the hamlet of Ashby, Lincolnshire the home of the Kendall family since the 1820s. Kendall's family provided a remarkable number of clergy, not only among the Primitive Methodists but in the Church of England. Kendall served in the following Circuits - 1864 – Newcastle 1867 – North Shields 1871 – Sunderland 1874 – Durham 1877 – Spennymoor 1879 – Middlesbrough 1884 – Harrogate 1892 – Editor, 1901 – Folkestone, President of the Conference 1902 – Bournemouth Kendall's own work describes the Primitive Methodist Bookroom in some detail; the minimal reference in Leary, "Editor", covers a decade of work which made Kendall one of the most influential persons of his time in Primitive Methodism. Kendall's lasting claim to fame is the three separate histories of the Primitive Methodist Church; the second of these was commissioned for publication in 1907, the centenary of the first Primitive Methodist Camp Meeting, 31 May 1807.

He is therefore regarded amongst British Methodists as one of the essential sources of information on this subject. H B Kendall's first significant history was published in 1888; this shows a combination of literary style and scholarship which made Kendall a candidate for writing the most substantial of all the histories for the Camp Meeting Centenary. Kendall's skills would have been enhanced by his time as Connexional Editor, retirement would have freed him to do the work; this the shortest work H B Kendall was honoured with being asked to write the major publication celebrating the Camp Meeting Centenary. This detailed work is regarded as the definitive history of Primitive Methodism, it was first published as a set of 14 fascicules of 80 pages each in paper covers breaking in mid-sentence between volumes. There are a few misprints, for example the dates of the first two Ramsor Camp Meetings being given as 1809 when they were 1808; the main printing was in 2 hardback volumes. This has since been reprinted by Tentmaker Publications.

ISBN 1-901670-49-X ISBN 9781901670-49-3 A third history was written during World War I, has his final words "penned when the Great War is over." This is a shorter work. The advantages of this volume are that it provides a more condensed summary of the history, it contains information up to 1918. For example, the sub-headings in chapters II and III allow the reader to date the key events leading up to the adoption of the name Primitive Methodist on 13 February 1812. In this volume, we find the considered judgement of a mature scholar upon the events of history and the people involved. Kendall wrote other books, as well as his necessary editorial contributions to The Primitive Methodist Magazine. One example, copied and made available on the internet is Christ's Kingdom and Church in the Nineteenth Century; this is the text of the fifth Hartley Lecture for June 1901, the start of H. B. Kendall's year as President of the Primitive Methodist Conference, he died on 10 March 1919 in Bournemouth, England.

He was buried in Boscombe Cemetery. ^ There is a variation in the spelling of Bickerstaffe. The spelling in Leary is without the final letter e, but the spelling with the final e is the normal spelling in Kendall family documents. The variations may be within that, normal in the 19th century; the spelling and name used in some Methodist documents was H. Bickerstaffe Kendall, he is referred to as H B Kendall without his Christian names. ^ This volume has been copied to the internet and is available for non-commercial use. See External links below ^ Available through the Englesea Brook Chapel and Museum of Primitive Methodism, or directly from Tentmaker Publications. See External links below Holliday Bickerstaffe Kendall at Find a Grave History of the Primitive Methodist Connexion by Rev. H. B. K