Tanglewood is a music venue in the towns of Lenox and Stockbridge in the Berkshire Hills of western Massachusetts. It has been the summer home of the Boston Symphony Orchestra since 1937. Tanglewood is home to three music schools: the Tanglewood Music Center, Days in the Arts and the Boston University Tanglewood Institute. Besides classical music, Tanglewood hosts the Festival of Contemporary Music and popular artists and frequent appearances by James Taylor, John Williams, the Boston Pops; the history of Tanglewood begins with a series of concerts held on August 23, 25 and 26, 1934 at the Interlaken estate of Daniel Hanna, about a mile from today’s festival site. A few months earlier and conductor Henry Kimball Hadley had scouted the Berkshires for a site and support for his dream of establishing a seasonal classical music festival, he found an capable patron in Gertrude Robinson Smith. Within a few months they had organized a series of concerts featuring the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, where Hadley once had been the Associate Conductor.
Staged in an amphitheater built on the estate's show horse ring, the first concert was attended by Sara Delano Roosevelt, the President's mother. Heartened by the success of this effort and Hadley organized another well received series of concerts in Interlaken the following summer. After two seasons featuring the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, the Boston Symphony Orchestra, under the direction of Conductor Serge Koussevitzky was invited to perform at the 1936 festival held at Holmwood, the home of Margaret Vanderbilt in nearby Lenox; the BSO gave its first concert in the Berkshires on August 13, 1936. For nearly eighty years the BSO has remained the crown jewel of the music festival. In 1937 the festival site was moved to "Tanglewood", an estate donated by Mrs. Gorham Brooks and Miss Mary Aspinwall Tappan, daughter of William Tappan and Caroline Sturgis. "Tanglewood" took its name from Tanglewood Tales, written by Nathaniel Hawthorne, while he lived in a cottage located on the estate. On August 12, 1937 a decisive moment in Tanglewood’s history occurred during a thunderstorm that interrupted a performance of Richard Wagner’s Ride of the Valkyries.
The "Boston Globe" reported that "Gertrude Robinson Smith strode purposefully to the stage when the concert stopped and addressed the record crowd of 5,000, haranguing: “Now do you see why we must have a permanent building for these concerts?’’ In minutes, more than $30,000 was raised." The following year, the Eliel Saarinen-designed, fan-shaped Shed was constructed, with some 5,100 seats, giving the BSO a permanent open-air structure in which to perform. Broad lawns extend beyond the Shed, providing outdoor space for concert goers and sweeping views of Stockbridge Bowl and Monument Mountain in the distance. At the opening ceremony for the Shed on August 4, 1938, Gertrude Robinson Smith's dedication comments were recorded and can be heard today; the Boston Symphony Orchestra has performed in the Koussevitzky Music Shed every summer since, except for the interval 1942–45 when the Trustees canceled the concerts and summer school due to World War II. The Shed was renovated in 1959 with acoustic designs by BBN Technologies.
In 1986 the BSO acquired the adjacent Highwood estate, increasing the property area by about 40%. Seiji Ozawa Hall was built on this newly expanded property. Leonard Bernstein conducted the Boston Symphony at Tanglewood in August 1990 in what proved to be his last concert. Deutsche Grammophon released a live recording of the concert on CD. In addition to hosting world-renowned programs of classical and popular music, Tanglewood provides musical training. In 1940 conductor Serge Koussevitzky initiated a summer school for 300 young musicians, now known as the Tanglewood Music Center. Nearby is the Boston University Tanglewood Institute for high school students and Days in the Arts for middle school students. Other youth-symphony organizations have performed at either the Music Shed or Ozawa Hall, including the Norwalk Youth Symphony, from Norwalk, the Empire State Youth Orchestra, from Albany, New York, the Greater Boston Youth Symphony. Serge Koussevitzky Charles Munch Erich Leinsdorf William Steinberg Seiji Ozawa James Levine Andris Nelsons The Koussevitzky Music Shed was inaugurated in 1938, with major acoustic refurbishment made in 1959.
Unnamed, the Shed was re-dedicated to TMC's founder in 1988. Most BSO and some TMC orchestra concerts are held there. Seiji Ozawa Hall opened in 1994 and is the place where most Tanglewood chamber concerts, as well as TMC orchestra concerts, now take place. Designed by William Rawn Associates, Inc. of Boston, Seiji Ozawa Hall has been ranked one of the two Best Concert Halls in the U. S. built in the past 50 years, one of the four Best Concert Halls built in the U. S. and the 13th Best Concert Hall in the world. Seiji Ozawa Hall has received numerous awards for its architecture, including a National American Institute of Architects Honor Award for Interior Architecture and a National American Institute of Architects Honor Award for Architecture; the acoustics of the hall were designed in conjunction with the architect by R. Lawrence Kirkegaard, of Kirkegaard Associates; the Aaron Copland Library, Chamber Music Hall and additional administrative and practice buildings are spread throughout the Tanglewood grounds.
Joseph Horowitz. Classical Music in America: A History of I
Roger Huntington Sessions was an American composer and writer on music. Sessions was born in Brooklyn, New York, to a family that could trace its roots back to the American revolution, his mother, Ruth Huntington Sessions, was a direct descendent of Samuel Huntington, a signatory of the Declaration of Independence. Roger studied music at Harvard University from the age of 14. There he subsequently edited the Harvard Musical Review. Graduating at age 18, he went on to study at Yale University under Horatio Parker and Ernest Bloch before teaching at Smith College. With the exception of his incidental music to the play The Black Maskers, composed in part in Cleveland in 1923, his first major compositions came while he was traveling Europe with his wife in his mid-twenties and early thirties. Returning to the United States in 1933, he taught first at Princeton University, moved to the University of California, where he taught from 1945 to 1953, returned to Princeton until retiring in 1965, he was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1961.
He was appointed Bloch Professor at Berkeley, gave the Charles Eliot Norton Lectures at Harvard University in 1968–69. He continued to teach on a part-time basis at the Juilliard School from 1966 until 1983. For a list of his notable students, See: List of music students by teacher: R to S#Roger Sessions. In 1968 Sessions was awarded the Edward MacDowell Medal for outstanding contribution to the arts by the MacDowell Colony. Sessions won a special Pulitzer Prize in 1974 citing "his life's work as a distinguished American composer." In 1982 he won the annual Pulitzer Prize for Music for his Concerto for Orchestra, first performed by the Boston Symphony Orchestra on October 23, 1981. He died at the age of 88 in New Jersey, his works written up to 1930 or so are less neoclassical in style. Those written between 1930 and 1940 are harmonically complex; the works from 1946 on are atonal, beginning with the Solo Violin Sonata of 1953, serial—though not employing Viennese twelve-tone technique. Only the first movement and the trio of the scherzo of the Violin Sonata, for example, employ a twelve-tone row the rest employing a scalar-constructed dissonant style.
Sessions's usual method was to use a row to control the full chromaticism and motivic-intervallic cohesion that marks his music from before 1953. He treats his rows with great freedom, however using pairs of unordered complementary hexachords to provide “harmonic” aspects without determining note-by-note melodic succession, or conversely using the row to supply melodic thematic material while composing the subsidiary parts. 3 Chorale Preludes for Organ Symphony No. 1 The Black Maskers Orchestral Suite Piano Sonata No. 1 Violin Concerto String Quartet No. 1 From My Diary Duo for Violin and Piano Piano Sonata No. 2 Symphony No. 2 The Trial of Lucullus, one-act opera String Quartet No. 2 Sonata for Solo Violin Idyll of Theocritus Mass, for unison chorus and organ Piano Concerto Symphony No. 3 String Quintet Symphony No. 4 Divertimento for orchestra Montezuma, opera in three acts Symphony No. 5 Piano Sonata No. 3 Symphony No. 6 Six Pieces for Violoncello Symphony No. 7 Symphony No. 8 Rhapsody for Orchestra Concerto for Violin and Orchestra When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d Three Choruses on Biblical Texts Concertino for Chamber Orchestra Five Pieces for Piano Symphony No. 9 Concerto for Orchestra Duo for Violin and Violoncello, incompleteSome works received their first professional performance many years after completion.
The Sixth Symphony was given its first complete performance on March 4, 1977 by the Juilliard Orchestra in New York City. The Ninth Symphony, commissioned by the Syracuse Symphony Orchestra and Frederik Prausnitz, was premiered on January 17, 1980 by the same orchestra conducted by Christopher Keene. Sessions, Roger. Harmonic Practice. New York: Harcourt, Brace. 1951. LCCN 51008476. Sessions, Roger. Reflections on the Music Life in the United States. New York: Merlin Press. 1956. LCCN 56012976. Sessions, Roger; the Musical Experience of Composer, Listener. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 1950, republished 1958. Sessions, Roger. Questions About Music. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 1970, reprinted New York: Norton, 1971. ISBN 0-674-74350-4. Sessions, Roger. Roger Sessions on Music: Collected Essays, edited by Edward T. Cone. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-691-09126-9 ISBN 0-691-10074-8 Anon. "News Section". Tempo, new series, no. 121: 47–50. ISSN 0040-2982 JSTOR 944497 Cone, Edward, ed. Roger Sessions on Music: Collected Essays.
Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-691-09126-9 and ISBN 0-691-10074-8. Davis, Peter G. "Montezuma's Revenge". New York Magazine: 89–90. Henahan, Donal. "Julliard Gives Sessions'Montezuma'" New York Times. Imbrie, Andrew. "The Symphonies of Roger Sessions". Tempo. Cambridge University Press. New Ser.: 24–32. ISSN 0040-2982. JSTOR 943951. Laufer, Edward C. "Roger Sessions: Montezuma". Perspectives of New Music 4, no. 1: 95–108. Morgan, Robert P. Twentieth-Century Music. New York
Lawrence University is a liberal arts college and conservatory of music in Appleton, United States. Founded in 1847, the school held its first classes on November 12, 1849. Lawrence was the second college in the United States to be founded as a coeducational institution. In a study by the National Science Foundation, Lawrence ranked 28th nationally in the percentage of graduates who go on to earn doctorates in science and engineering. Lawrence is ranked in the top tier of national liberal arts colleges by U. S. News & World Report. Lawrence's first president, William Harkness Sampson, founded the school with Henry R. Colman, using $10,000 provided by philanthropist Amos Adams Lawrence, matched by the Methodist church. Both founders were ordained Methodist ministers; the school was named Lawrence Institute of Wisconsin in its 1847 charter from the Wisconsin Territorial Legislature, but the name was changed to Lawrence University before classes began in November 1849. Its oldest extant building, Main Hall, was built in 1853.
Lawrence University was the second coeducational institution in the country. Lawrence's first period of major growth came during the tenure of alumnus Samuel G. Plantz as president. From 1894 to 1924, when Plantz presided over the school, its student body grew from 200 to 800. From 1913 until 1964, the school was named Lawrence College, to emphasize its small size and liberal arts education focus; the name was changed to Lawrence University. The state of Wisconsin purchased the Milwaukee-Downer property and buildings to expand the campus of the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee; the university designated two entities: Lawrence College for Men and Downer College for Women. This separation has not lasted in any material form, though degrees are still conferred "on the recommendation of the Faculty of Lawrence and Downer Colleges" and the university by-laws still make the distinction. During World War II, Lawrence College was one of 131 colleges and universities in the nation that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission.
The Lawrence Conservatory of Music referred to as "the Con", was founded in 1874. Lawrence offers two degrees: a Bachelor of Music, it offers a five-year dual degree program, where students can receive both B. A. and B. Mus. Degrees. Freshman Studies at Lawrence is a mandatory two-term class, in which all students study the same selected 11 classic works of literature and music. President Nathan M. Pusey is credited with initiating the program in 1945, although Professor Waples chaired the Freshman Studies Committee and was responsible for implementing the program; the program continues to this day, despite being temporarily suspended in 1975. In 2005 Lawrence University initiated a capital campaign called "More Light!", which aimed at raising $150 million. By October 2011 the college had raised $160,272,839, with the conclusion event held on October 28, 2011. Lawrence University is part of a consortium of liberal arts college libraries; the traditions and heritage of Milwaukee-Downer are woven into the Appleton campus, from the grove of hawthorn trees between Brokaw and Colman halls, to the sundial on the back of Main Hall, to the bestowing upon each class a class color and banner.
The Lawrence Dean of Women was referred to as the "Dean of Downer", but when the offices of Dean of Men and Dean of Women were merged to form the Dean of Students, the substantive duties of the "Dean of Downer" came to an end. For many years the women's choir was called the Downer Chorus. At one time the BA was conferred upon women in the name of "Downer College of Lawrence University" and upon men in the name of "Lawrence College of Lawrence University". A. degrees are conferred in the name of "Lawrence & Downer Colleges of Lawrence University." 1849–1853 William Harkness Sampson, principal 1853–1859 Edward Cooke, president 1859–1865 Russell Zelotes Mason, president 1865–1879 George McKendree Steele, president 1879–1889 Elias DeWitt Huntley, president 1883–1889 Bradford Paul Raymond, president 1889–1893 Charles Wesley Gallagher, president 1893–1894 L. Wesley Underwood, acting president 1894–1924 Samuel G. Plantz, president 1925–1937 Henry Merritt Wriston, president 1937–1943 Thomas Nichols Barrows, president 1944–1953 Nathan Marsh Pusey, president 1954–1963 Douglas Maitland Knight, president 1963–1969 Curtis William Tarr, president 1969–1979 Thomas S. Smith, president 1979–2004 Richard Warch, president 2004–2013 Jill Beck, president 2013–present Mark Burstein, president 1895–1921 Ellen Sabin 1921–1951 Lucia Russell Briggs 1951–1964 John Johnson Lawrence University operates on a trimester calendar.
The academic year runs from mid-September to mid-June. The student/faculty ratio at Lawrence is 9:1. Lawrence grants Bachelor of Bachelor of Music degrees, with a double degree possible. Lawrence offers a number of cooperative degree programs in areas such as engineering, health sciences and environmental studies; the college offers majors in most of the liberal arts. The school offers the option of interdisciplinary areas of study and allows students to design their own majors. All students are required to take Freshman Studies, which introduces students to broad areas of study and provides a common academic experience for the college. Lawrence's freshman studies program focuses on a mixture of Great Books and more contemporary, influential works; the 2013–2014 list included Plato's Repu
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The MIT Press traces its origins back to 1926 when MIT published under its own name a lecture series entitled Problems of Atomic Dynamics given by the visiting German physicist and Nobel Prize winner, Max Born. Six years MIT's publishing operations were first formally instituted by the creation of an imprint called Technology Press in 1932; this imprint was founded by James R. Killian, Jr. at the time editor of MIT's alumni magazine and to become MIT president. Technology Press published eight titles independently in 1937 entered into an arrangement with John Wiley & Sons in which Wiley took over marketing and editorial responsibilities. In 1962 the association with Wiley came to an end; the press acquired its modern name after this separation, has since functioned as an independent publishing house. A European marketing office was opened in 1969, a Journals division was added in 1972.
In the late 1970s, responding to changing economic conditions, the publisher narrowed the focus of their catalog to a few key areas architecture, computer science and artificial intelligence and cognitive science. In January 2010 the MIT Press published its 9000th title, in 2012 the Press celebrated its 50th anniversary, including publishing a commemorative booklet on paper and online; the press co-founded the distributor TriLiteral LLC with Yale University Press and Harvard University Press. TriLiteral was acquired by LSC Communications in 2018. MIT Press publishes academic titles in the fields of Art and Architecture; the MIT Press is a distributor for such publishers as Zone Books and Semiotext. In 2000, the MIT Press created CogNet, an online resource for the study of the brain and the cognitive sciences; the MIT Press co-owns the distributor TriLiteral LLC with Harvard University Press and Yale University Press. In 1981 the MIT Press published its first book under the Bradford Books imprint, Brainstorms: Philosophical Essays on Mind and Psychology by Daniel C.
Dennett. In 2018, the Press and the MIT Media Lab launched the Knowledge Futures Group to develop and deploy open access publishing technology and platforms; the MIT Press operates the MIT Press Bookstore showcasing both its front and backlist titles, along with a large selection of complementary works from other academic and trade publishers. The retail storefront was located next to a subway entrance to Kendall/MIT station in the heart of Kendall Square, but has been temporarily moved to 301 Massachusetts Avenue in Cambridge, Massachusetts, a short distance north of the MIT Museum near Central Square. Once extensive construction around its former location is completed, the Bookstore is planned to be returned to a site adjacent to the subway entrance; the Bookstore offers customized selections from the MIT Press at many conferences and symposia in the Boston area, sponsors occasional lectures and book signings at MIT. The Bookstore is known for its periodic "Warehouse Sales" offering deep discounts on surplus and returned books and journals from its own catalog, as well as remaindered books from other publishers.
The Press uses a colophon or logo designed by its longtime design director, Muriel Cooper, in 1962. The design is based on a highly-abstracted version of the lower-case letters "mitp", with the ascender of the "t" at the fifth stripe and the descender of the "p" at the sixth stripe the only differentiation, it served as an important reference point for the 2015 redesign of the MIT Media Lab logo by Pentagram. The Arts and Humanities Economics International Affairs and Political Science Science and Technology The Image of the City by Kevin Lynch', 1960 Experiencing Architecture by Steen Eiler Rasmussen', 1962 Beyond The Melting Pot: The Negroes, Puerto Ricans, Jews and Irish of New York City by Nathan Glazer and Daniel P. Moynihan', 1963 The Character of Physical Law by Richard Feynman', 1967 Bauhaus: Weimar, Berlin, Chicago by Hans M. Wingler', 1969 The Subjection Of Women, by John Stuart Mill', 1970 Theory of Colours by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe', 1970 Learning From Las Vegas by Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown and Steven Izenour', 1972 The Theory of Industrial Organization by Jean Tirole', 1988 Made in America: Regaining the Productive Edge by Michael L. Dertouzos, Robert M. Solow and Richard K.
Lester', 1989 Introduction to Algorithms by Thomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson and Ronald L. Rivest', 1990 Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man by Marshall McLuhan', 1994 The Society of the Spectacle, by Guy Debord', 1994 Financial Modeling by Simon Benninga', 1997 Out of the Crisis, by W. Edwards Deming', 2000 The Elusive Quest for Growth: Economists' Adventures and Misadventures in the Tropics by William R. Easterly', 2001 The Language of New Media by Lev Manovich', 2001 The Laws of Simplicity by John Maeda', 2006 101 Things I Learned in Architecture School by Matthew Frederick', 2007 Deep Learning by Ian Goodfellow, Yoshua Bengio and Aaron Courville', 2016 Dimensionism: Modern Art in the Age of Einstein, 2018 Official Website MIT Press Journals Homepage The MIT PressLog
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley is a public research university in Berkeley, California. It was founded in 1868 and serves as the flagship institution of the ten research universities affiliated with the University of California system. Berkeley has since grown to instruct over 40,000 students in 350 undergraduate and graduate degree programs covering numerous disciplines. Berkeley is one of the 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, with $789 million in R&D expenditures in the fiscal year ending June 30, 2015. Today, Berkeley maintains close relationships with three United States Department of Energy National Laboratories—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory—and is home to many institutes, including the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and the Space Sciences Laboratory. Through its partner institution University of California, San Francisco, Berkeley offers a joint medical program at the UCSF Medical Center.
As of October 2018, Berkeley alumni, faculty members and researchers include 107 Nobel laureates, 25 Turing Award winners, 14 Fields Medalists. They have won 9 Wolf Prizes, 45 MacArthur Fellowships, 20 Academy Awards, 14 Pulitzer Prizes and 207 Olympic medals. In 1930, Ernest Lawrence invented the cyclotron at Berkeley, based on which UC Berkeley researchers along with Berkeley Lab have discovered or co-discovered 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. During the 1940s, Berkeley physicist J. R. Oppenheimer, the "Father of the Atomic Bomb," led the Manhattan project to create the first atomic bomb. In the 1960s, Berkeley was noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. In the 21st century, Berkeley has become one of the leading universities in producing entrepreneurs and its alumni have founded a large number of companies worldwide. Berkeley is ranked among the top 20 universities in the world by the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, the U.
S. News & World Report Global University Rankings, it is considered one of the "Public Ivies", meaning that it is a public university thought to offer a quality of education comparable to that of the Ivy League. In 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus in order to re-sell it in subdivided lots to raise funds; the effort failed to raise the necessary funds, so the private college merged with the state-run Agricultural and Mechanical Arts College to form the University of California, the first full-curriculum public university in the state. Upon its founding, The Dwinelle Bill stated that the "University shall have for its design, to provide instruction and thorough and complete education in all departments of science and art, industrial and professional pursuits, general education, special courses of instruction in preparation for the professions". Ten faculty members and 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869.
Frederick H. Billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the new site for the college north of Oakland be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley. In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, became the first president. With the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students where it held its first classes. Beginning in 1891, Phoebe Apperson Hearst made several large gifts to Berkeley, funding a number of programs and new buildings and sponsoring, in 1898, an international competition in Antwerp, where French architect Émile Bénard submitted the winning design for a campus master plan. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento becoming the University of California, Davis. In 1919, Los Angeles State Normal School became the southern branch of the University, which became University of California, Los Angeles. By 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard.
Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958. In the 1930s, Ernest Lawrence helped establish the Radiation Laboratory and invented the cyclotron, which won him the Nobel physics prize in 1939. Based on the cyclotron, UC Berkeley scientists and researchers, along with Berkeley Lab, went on to discover 16 chemical elements of the periodic table – more than any other university in the world. In particular, during World War II and following Glenn Seaborg's then-secret discovery of plutonium, Ernest Orlando Lawrence's Radiation Laboratory began to contract with the U. S. Army to develop the atomic bomb. UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley was a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. By 1942, the American Council on Education ranked Berkeley second only to Harvard in the number of distinguished departments.
During the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members led by Edward C. Tolman were dismissed. In 1952, the University of California became; each campus was give
Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky was a Russian-born composer and conductor. He is considered one of the most important and influential composers of the 20th century. Stravinsky's compositional career was notable for its stylistic diversity, he first achieved international fame with three ballets commissioned by the impresario Serge Diaghilev and first performed in Paris by Diaghilev's Ballets Russes: The Firebird and The Rite of Spring. The latter transformed the way in which subsequent composers thought about rhythmic structure and was responsible for Stravinsky's enduring reputation as a musical revolutionary who pushed the boundaries of musical design, his "Russian phase" which continued with works such as Renard, the Soldier's Tale and Les Noces, was followed in the 1920s by a period in which he turned to neoclassical music. The works from this period tended to make use of traditional musical forms, drawing on earlier styles from the 18th century. In the 1950s, Stravinsky adopted serial procedures.
His compositions of this period shared traits with examples of his earlier output: rhythmic energy, the construction of extended melodic ideas out of a few two- or three-note cells and clarity of form, of instrumentation. Stravinsky was born on 17 June 1882 in Oranienbaum, a suburb of Saint Petersburg, the Russian imperial capital, was brought up in Saint Petersburg, his parents were Fyodor Stravinsky, a well-known bass at the Kiev opera house and the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg, Anna, a native of Kiev, one of four daughters of a high-ranking official in the Kiev Ministry of Estates. Fyodor, born into a mixed Polish-Russian family, was "descended from a long line of Polish grandees and landowners." It is believed that Stravinsky’s ancestry is traceable back to the 17th and 18th centuries, to the bearers of the Soulima and Strawinski Coat of Arms. Stravinsky's family branch most came from Stravinskas, polonized Lithuanian land owners, nobles of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. According to Stravinsky himself, his family had a Soulima-Stravinsky surname, the name "Stravinsky" originated from the word "Strava", one of the variants of the Streva River in Lithuania.
It is still unclear when the Soulima part of the surname was dropped. Stravinsky recalled his schooldays as being lonely saying that "I never came across anyone who had any real attraction for me". Stravinsky began piano lessons as a young boy, attempting composition. In 1890, he saw a performance of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Sleeping Beauty at the Mariinsky Theatre. By age fifteen, he had mastered Mendelssohn's Piano Concerto in G minor and finished a piano reduction of a string quartet by Glazunov, who considered Stravinsky unmusical and thought little of his skills. Despite his enthusiasm for music, his parents expected him to study law. Stravinsky enrolled at the University of Saint Petersburg in 1901, but he attended fewer than fifty class sessions during his four years of study. In the summer of 1902, Stravinsky stayed with composer Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and his family in the German city of Heidelberg, where Rimsky-Korsakov, arguably the leading Russian composer at that time, suggested to Stravinsky that he should not enter the Saint Petersburg Conservatoire but instead study composing by taking private lessons, in large part because of his age.
Stravinsky's father died of cancer that year, by which time his son had begun spending more time on his musical studies than on law. The university was closed for two months in 1905 in the aftermath of Bloody Sunday: Stravinsky was prevented from taking his final law examinations and received a half-course diploma in April 1906. Thereafter, he concentrated on studying music. In 1905, he began to take twice-weekly private lessons from Rimsky-Korsakov, whom he came to regard as a second father; these lessons continued until Rimsky-Korsakov's death in 1908. In 1905, Stravinsky was engaged to his cousin Katherine Gavrylivna Nosenko, whom he had known since early childhood. In spite of the Orthodox Church's opposition to marriage between first cousins, the couple married on 23 January 1906: their first two children and Ludmila, were born in 1907 and 1908, respectively. In February 1909, two of Stravinsky's orchestral works, the Scherzo fantastique and Feu d'artifice were performed at a concert in Saint Petersburg, where they were heard by Serge Diaghilev, at that time involved in planning to present Russian opera and ballet in Paris.
Diaghilev was sufficiently impressed by Fireworks to commission Stravinsky to carry out some orchestrations and to compose a full-length ballet score, The Firebird. From 1890 until 1914 the composer visited Ustilug, a town in the modern Volyn Oblast, Ukraine, he spent most of his summers there. In 1907, Stravinsky designed and built his own house in Ustilug, which he called "my heavenly place". In this house, Stravinsky worked on seventeen of his early compositions, among them Feu d'artifice, The Firebird and The Rite of Spring. Renovated, the house is now a Stravinsky house-museum open to the public. Many documents and photographs are on display there, a Stravinsky Festival is held annually in the nearby town of Lutsk. Stravinsky became an overnight sensation following the success of the Firebird's premiere in Paris on 25 June 1910; the composer had travell
György Sándor Ligeti was a Hungarian-Austrian composer of contemporary classical music. He has been described as "one of the most important avant-garde composers in the latter half of the twentieth century" and "one of the most innovative and influential among progressive figures of his time". Born in Transylvania, Romania, he lived in Communist Hungary before emigrating to Austria in 1956, he became an Austrian citizen in 1968. In 1973 he became professor of composition at the Hamburg Hochschule für Musik und Theater, where he worked until retiring in 1989, he died in Vienna in 2006. Restricted in his musical style by the authorities of Communist Hungary, only when he reached the west in 1956 could Ligeti realise his passion for avant-garde music and develop new compositional techniques. After experimenting with electronic music in Cologne, his breakthrough came with orchestral works such as Atmosphères, for which he used a technique he dubbed micropolyphony. After writing his "anti-anti-opera" Le Grand Macabre, Ligeti shifted away from chromaticism and towards polyrhythm for his works.
He is best known by the public through the use of his music in film soundtracks. Although he did not directly compose any film scores, excerpts of pieces composed by him were taken and adapted for film use; the sound design of Stanley Kubrick's films the music of 2001: A Space Odyssey, drew from Ligeti's work and contained pieces by other classical composers. Ligeti was born in 1923 at Dicsőszentmárton, in the Romanian region of Transylvania, to Dr. Sándor Ligeti and Dr. Ilona Somogyi, his family was Hungarian Jewish. He was the grandnephew of the violinist Leopold Auer and cousin of Hungarian philosopher Ágnes Heller. Ligeti recalled that his first exposure to languages other than Hungarian came one day while listening to a conversation among the Romanian-speaking town police. Before that he had not known, he moved to Cluj with his family. He did not return to the town of his birth until the 1990s. In 1940, Northern Transylvania was annexed by Hungary following the Second Vienna Award, Cluj became part of Hungary.
In 1941 Ligeti received his initial musical training at the conservatory in Cluj, during the summers with Pál Kadosa in Budapest. In 1944, Ligeti's education was interrupted when he was sent to a forced labor brigade by the Horthy regime during events of the Holocaust, his brother, age 16, was deported to the Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp and both of his parents were sent to Auschwitz. His mother was the only other person to survive in his immediate family. Following World War II, Ligeti returned to his studies in Budapest, graduating in 1949 from the Franz Liszt Academy of Music, he studied under Ferenc Farkas, Zoltán Kodály and Sándor Veress. He conducted ethnomusicological research into the Hungarian folk music of Transylvania. However, after a year he returned to Franz Liszt Academy in Budapest, this time as a teacher of harmony and musical analysis, he had secured this position with the help of Kodály, held it from 1950 to 1956. As a young teacher, Ligeti took the unusual step of attending the lectures of an older colleague, the conductor and musicologist Lajos Bárdos.
He was a conservative Christian. The composer acknowledged Bárdos's advice in the prefaces to his two harmony textbooks. Due to the restrictions of the communist government, communications between Hungary and the West by had become difficult, Ligeti and other artists were cut off from recent developments outside the Eastern Bloc. In December 1956, two months after the Hungarian revolution was violently suppressed by the Soviet Army, Ligeti fled to Vienna with his ex-wife Vera Spitz, he would not see Hungary again for fourteen years, when he was invited there to judge a competition in Budapest. On his rushed escape to Vienna, he left most of his Hungarian compositions in Budapest, some of which are now lost, he took only. He said, "I considered my old music of no interest. I believed in twelve-tone music!" He took Austrian citizenship in 1968. A few weeks after arriving in Vienna, Ligeti left for Cologne. There he met several key avant-garde figures and learned more contemporary musical styles and methods.
These people included the composers Karlheinz Stockhausen and Gottfried Michael Koenig, both working on groundbreaking electronic music. During the summer, he attended the Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik in Darmstadt. Ligeti worked in the Cologne Electronic Music Studio with Stockhausen and Koenig and was inspired by the sounds he heard there. However, he produced little electronic music of his own, instead concentrating on instrumental works which contain electronic-sounding textures. After about three years' working with them, he fell out with the Cologne School, this being too dogmatic and involving much factional in-fighting: "there were a lot of political fighting because different people, like Stockhausen, like Kagel wanted to be first, and I have no ambition to be first or to be important."Between 1961 and 1971 he was guest professor for composition in Stockholm. In 1972 he became composer-in-residence at Stanford University in the United States. In 1973 Ligeti became professor of composition at the Hamburg Hochschule für Musik und Theater retiring in 1989.
While he was living in Hamburg, his wife Vera remained in Vienna with their son, who also became a co