Clinton Presidential Center
The William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park is the presidential library of Bill Clinton, the 42nd President of the United States, it is located in Little Rock and includes the Clinton Presidential Library, the offices of the Clinton Foundation, the University of Arkansas Clinton School of Public Service. It is the thirteenth presidential library to have been completed in the United States, the eleventh to be operated by the National Archives and Records Administration, the third to comply with the Presidential Records Act of 1978, it is situated on 17 acres of land located next to the Arkansas River and Interstate 30 and was designed by architectural firm Polshek Partnership, LLP with exhibition design by Ralph Appelbaum Associates. The main building cantilevers over the Arkansas River, echoing Clinton's campaign promise of "building a bridge to the 21st century". With a 68,698-square-foot floor plan, the library itself is the largest presidential library in terms of physical area, although the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library has the greatest space overall, due to its addition of the 90,000 square feet Air Force One Pavilion in 2005.
The archives are the largest as well, containing 2 million photographs, 80 million pages of documents, 21 million e-mail messages, 79,000 artifacts from the Clinton presidency. The Clinton Library is the most expensive, with all funding coming from 112,000 private donations; the museum showcases artifacts from Clinton's two terms as president and includes full-scale replicas of the Clinton-era Oval Office and Cabinet Room. Preliminary planning for the library began in 1997, while groundbreaking for the complex occurred on December 5, 2001. Early estimates put the library's cost at about $125 million. In 2001, the Clinton Foundation hoped to gather $200 million in donations to cover project costs. In the end, the entire project cost $165 million in private funding, with an additional $11.5 million of land given by the City of Little Rock to construct and covers 152,000 square feet within a 28 acres park. Fund-raising for the center was led by Terry McAuliffe, a friend of Clinton's who had contributed to the Clinton-Gore campaign in 1995.
Clinton himself was prohibited by law from soliciting donations for the center, but he did host private events relating to the library. There were no other legal restrictions on donations, the Clinton Foundation was able to accept unlimited private donations, all of which were tax deductible. $10 million of contributions came from Saudi Arabia. However, the Clinton Foundation declined to release a full donor list, similar to the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library. Donations exceeding $1 million were given from various other foreign governments, as well as foreign individuals. Various American organizations contributed millions of dollars to the foundation; the Clinton Presidential Center was dedicated on November 18, 2004. Although it was raining, the ceremony was attended by 30,000 people and included a 20-minute speech made by Clinton, who had undergone bypass surgery, it included performances by Bono, the African Drum Ballet and the Philander Smith Collegiate Choir, as well as an invocation given by Floyd Flake and video tribute from Nelson Mandela.
Four U. S. presidents were on the same stage together. All three other presidents spoke at the event as well. Overall, the ceremony featured six speakers. On November 17, 2009, the library's fifth anniversary saw Clinton giving a speech to 1,000 people, urging for the passage of health-care reform and the reduction of energy use, he mentioned the center and school as places where discussion on such topics could take place. The five-story main building comprises 20,000 square feet of exhibition space, the Great Hall, Forty Two, classrooms. A 2,000-square-foot private penthouse used by Clinton is located on the top floor of the main building, one level above the public museum area. In 2007 the Clinton Foundation installed on the rooftop of the Presidential library the private "Rooftop Garden" with a golf course; the organization of the exhibits within the main building was inspired by the famous Long Room in the Old Library at Trinity College, which Clinton first saw when he was a Rhodes Scholar.
The Cadillac One used during Clinton's presidency is housed on the first floor. On the second floor, the main gallery houses a 110-foot timeline, representing each of Clinton's years as President. There is an 80-seat theater, the Great Hall, the replicas of the Oval Office and Cabinet Room; the restaurant is located in the basement. Between November 18, 2000 and January 27, 2001, eight Lockheed C-5 Galaxy missions that moved 602 tonnes of President Bill Clinton's papers, gifts and other official materials from Andrews Air Force Base to Little Rock Air Force Base. Commercial trucks transported the cargoes from the base to the National Archives storage facility in Little Rock, where they were to remain until completion of the Clinton presidential library in 2004; the archives are housed in a building south of and connected to the main building, which contains NARA fac
In the United States, the presidential library system is a nationwide network of 13 libraries administered by the Office of Presidential Libraries, part of the National Archives and Records Administration. These are repositories for preserving and making available the papers, records and other historical materials of every President of the United States from Herbert Hoover to George W. Bush. In addition to the library services, museum exhibitions concerning the presidency are displayed. Although recognized as having historical significance, before the mid-20th century, presidential papers and effects were understood to be the private property of the president. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the 32nd president, proposed to leave his papers to the public in a building donated by him on his Hyde Park estate. Since a series of laws have established the public keeping of documents and the presidential library system. While not sanctioned and maintained by the NARA, libraries have been organized for several presidents who preceded Hoover and the official start of the Presidential Library Office.
The library planned for Barack Obama will partner with the NARA in a "new model", digitizing and making available documents, but without NARA running a new separate facility. For every president since Herbert Hoover, presidential libraries have been established in each president's home state in which documents, gifts of state and museum exhibits are maintained that relate to the former president's life and career both political and professional; each library provides an active series of public programs. When a president leaves office, the National Archives and Records Administration establishes a presidential materials project to house and index the documents until a new presidential library is built and transferred to the federal government; the first presidential library is the Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, dedicated on June 30, 1941; the George W. Bush Presidential Center became the thirteenth on May 1, 2013; the presidential library system is made up of thirteen presidential libraries operated by the NARA.
Libraries and museums have been established for earlier presidents, but they are not part of the NARA presidential library system, are operated by private foundations, historical societies, or state governments, including the James K. Polk, William McKinley, Rutherford Hayes, Calvin Coolidge, Abraham Lincoln and Woodrow Wilson libraries. For example, the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is owned and operated by the state of Illinois; the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace was not part of the presidential library system. While the Nixon Presidential Materials Staff, which administers the Nixon presidential materials under the terms of the Presidential Recordings and Materials Preservation Act, is part of NARA, a private foundation operated the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace. In January 2004, Congress passed legislation that provided for the establishment of a federally operated Richard Nixon Presidential Library in Yorba Linda. In March 2005, the Archivist of the United States and John Taylor, the director of the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace Foundation, exchanged letters on the requirements to allow the Nixon Library to become the twelfth federally funded Presidential library operated by the NARA by 2007.
On October 16, 2006, Dr. Timothy Naftali began his tenure as the first federal director of the Richard Nixon Library and Birthplace, in the winter of 2006 NARA began to transfer the 30,000 presidential gifts from the Nixon Presidential Materials Staff in College Park, Maryland to the facility. On July 11, 2007, the Nixon Foundation deeded the Library and Birthplace to the government of the United States. On the same day, the newly renamed federal Richard Nixon Presidential Library and Museum opened. In May 2012, on the fiftieth anniversary of the founding of the Ulysses S. Grant Foundation, it selected Mississippi State University as the permanent location for Ulysses S. Grant's presidential library. Historian John Simon edited Grant's letters into a 32-volume scholarly edition published by Southern Illinois University Press. On April 30, 2013, both chambers of the North Dakota Legislative Assembly passed a bill appropriating $12 million to Dickinson State University to award a grant to the Theodore Roosevelt Center for construction of a building to be named the Theodore Roosevelt Presidential Library.
To access these funds, the Theodore Roosevelt Center must first raise $3 million from non-state sources. Dickinson State University is home to the Theodore Roosevelt Digital Library which has formed partnerships with the Library of Congress and Harvard University, among other institutions, they have over 25,000 items online. In May 2017, it was announced that the Barack Obama Presidential Center, the planned location of the Presidential library of Barack Obama, would not be part of the NARA system, making Obama the first president since Calvin Coolidge not to have a federally funded facility. Instead, in a "new model" the nonprofit Obama Foundation will partner with the NARA on digitization and making documents available; the Chicago Park District began related construction in August and suspended it in September 2018. It was announced. All presidential papers were considered the personal property of the president; some took them at the end of their terms, others destroyed them, many papers were scattered.
Though many pre-Hoover collections now reside in the Manuscript Division of the Library of Congress, others are split among other libraries, historical societies, private colle
Adams National Historical Park
Adams National Historical Park Adams National Historic Site, in Quincy, preserves the home of Presidents of the United States John Adams and John Quincy Adams, of U. S. Ambassador to Great Britain, Charles Francis Adams, of the writers and historians Henry Adams and Brooks Adams; the national historical park's eleven buildings tell the story of five generations of the Adams family including Presidents, First Ladies, U. S. Ministers, historians and family members who supported and contributed to their success. In addition to Peacefield, home to four generations of the Adams family, the park's main historic features include the John Adams Birthplace, the nearby John Quincy Adams Birthplace, the Stone Library, containing more than 14,000 historic volumes in 12 languages. There is an off-site Visitors Center less than a mile away. Scheduled tours of the houses are offered in season, by guided tour only, using a tourist trolley provided by the Park Service between sites. Access to United First Parish Church, where the Adamses worshipped and are buried, is provided by the congregation for which they ask a small donation.
The church is across the street from the Visitors Center. This house is the birthplace of John Adams. In 1720 it was purchased by Sr. the father of the future second president. The younger Adams lived here until 1764, it is a few feet from the John Quincy Adams Birthplace home, where Abigail Adams moved. The house where John and Abigail Adams and their family lived during the time he was working on the Declaration of Independence and the Revolutionary War is the 1767 birthplace of their son, John Quincy Adams; the younger Adams grew up in the home, he and his family lived in it for a time in life. The Old House was constructed in 1731 for Leonard Vassall, a sugar planter, was used as his summer house; the house stood empty for some time before it, along with 75 acres, was purchased by Adams on September 23, 1787, for 600 pounds. The Adams family moved in the next year and occupied it until 1927, when it was sold to the Adams Memorial Society; the National Park Service acquired it in 1947, has been a National Historic Site since.
The Stone Library, completed in 1870 on the grounds of Peacefield, houses personal papers and over 14,000 books which belonged to John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Charles Francis Adams, Henry Adams, Brooks Adams. In his will, John Quincy Adams requested that the library be built out of stone so that it would be fireproof; the Library holds John Adams' copy of George Washington's Farewell Address as well as the Mendi Bible, a bible presented to John Quincy Adams in 1841 by the freed Mendi captives who had mutinied on the schooner La Amistad and who Adams had defended before the United States Supreme Court. Henry Adams wrote his nine volume The History of the United States of America 1801–1817 in the library; the church where both Presidents and their First Ladies are entombed in the Adams Crypt has never been administered by the National Park service. It is owned by the active congregation of Unitarian Universalists. In the past ten years, the congregation has used $2 million of its own resources to preserve the building.
December 9, 1946 — The Old House at Peacefield was designated the Adams Mansion National Historic Site November 26, 1952 — The site was renamed Adams National Historic Site and an adjoining parcel of land was added. December 19, 1960 — the birthplaces of both presidents were designated National Historic Landmarks. October 15, 1966 — The entire historic site was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. December 30, 1970 — The owned United First Parish Church was designated a National Historic Landmark. November 2, 1998 — The historic site was redesignated Adams National Historical Park. National Register of Historic Places listings in Quincy, Massachusetts Hugh, Howard. Houses of the Founding Fathers. Artisan. ISBN 1-57965-275-1. Official NPS website: Adams National Historical Park "Life Portrait of John Adams", from C-SPAN's American Presidents: Life Portraits, broadcast from Adams National Historical Park, March 22, 1999 "Writings of Henry Adams", broadcast from Adams National Historical Park from C-SPAN's American Writers Secretary Kerry, Chinese State Councilor Yang Wave to Tourists Following Tour of Adams Historic Site in Massachusetts
Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum
The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum documents the life of the 16th U. S. President, Abraham Lincoln, the course of the American Civil War. Combining traditional scholarship with 21st-century showmanship techniques, the museum ranks as one of the most visited presidential libraries, its library, in addition to housing an extensive collection on Lincoln houses the collection of the Illinois State Historical Library, founded by the state in 1889. The library and museum is located in the state capital of Springfield, is overseen as an agency of state government, it is not affiliated with the U. S. National Archives and its system of libraries; the museum contains life-size dioramas of Lincoln's boyhood home, areas of the White House, the presidential box at Ford's Theatre, the settings of key events in Lincoln's life, as well as pictures and other memorabilia. Original artifacts are changed from time to time, but the collection includes items like the original hand written Gettysburg Address, a signed Emancipation Proclamation, his glasses and shaving mirror, Mary Todd Lincoln's music box, items from her White House china, her wedding dress, more.
The permanent exhibits are divided into two different stages of the president's life, called "Journey One: The Pre-Presidential Years", "Journey Two: The Presidential Years", a third, the "Treasures Gallery". Temporary exhibits rotate periodically. Past exhibits have dealt with the Civil Stephen A. Douglas; as of February 2014, a collection of Annie Leibovitz's photography, including photos of Lincoln's items, is on display. One of the museum's permanent exhibits, Campaign of 1860, includes modern-style television updates on the campaign's progress from the late Meet the Press anchor Tim Russert. Another of the permanent exhibits, "The Civil War in Four Minutes," displays a large animated map which displays the changing battle lines of the Civil War in four minutes. In addition to its exhibits, the Lincoln Museum runs two special effects theater shows, Lincoln's Eyes and Ghosts of the Library; the "Under His Hat: Discovering Lincoln's Story From Primary Sources", is the home of the Lincoln Collection Digitization Project, a thematic online resource that features a 360-degree online view of his hat.
Burbank, California-based BRC Imagination Arts, led by Bob Rogers, was responsible for all of the permanent exhibits and presentations, theaters, lifelike figures and full-immersion historical settings. The Lincoln Presidential Library is a research library which houses books and artifacts related to Lincoln's life and the American Civil War. In addition to the works associated with Lincoln and his era, the library houses the collection of the Illinois State Historical Library and serves as a premier repository of books, pamphlets and other materials of historical interest pertaining to the history of the state of Illinois. While the library is open to the public, its rare collection is non-circulating. A reading room, named the Steve Neal Reading Room in honor of Illinois historical journalist Steve Neal, is open to the public; the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum was administered by the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, until it was made into an independent state agency in 2017.
Historian and former director of several presidential libraries, Richard Norton Smith, served as the museum and library's Founding Executive Director. In 2010, Eileen R. Mackevich, MBE, was appointed director by Illinois Governor Pat Quinn. Mackevich served as the Executive Director of the national Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission, she was active as a broadcast journalist and talk show host on Chicago public radio, was the co-founder of the Chicago Humanities Festival. Mackevich's objectives were to raise money, attract more international interest, she served until in 2015. In 2016, Governor Bruce Rauner appointed Alan Lowe as director of the library, he served as Director of the George W. Bush Presidential Center in Dallas, Texas before accepting his position at the ALPLM; as First Lady of Illinois, Lura Lynn Ryan became a major fundraiser and the Library's first chairwoman. She launched the fundraising for the library by raising $250,000. Ryan organized a program in which Illinois schoolchildren collected pennies for the construction of the presidential library, which raised $47,000 dollars.
Ryan was appointed to the 14-member Abraham Lincoln Bicentennial Commission by the Speaker of the United States House of Representatives to commemorate the 200th birthday of former U. S. President Abraham Lincoln in 2009, she served on the commission from 2001 to 2010. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in Springfield, Illinois, in the historic downtown section, near many other Lincoln cultural sites; the presidential library opened on October 14, 2004, the museum opened on April 19, 2005. Until 1970, Ford's Theatre in Washington, D. C. was designated as the "Lincoln Museum". The buildings which now house the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum are in three separate structures; each structure encompasses one city block. Two of the buildings, the museum and the library, are separated by a street and connected above the street level by an enclosed walkway; the entrance of each building features a rotunda, reflective of the dome on the Old State Capitol State Historic Site in Springfield, where Lincoln served four terms as a legislator.
Both structures were designed by the architectural firm HOK. The third building, the former Springfield Union Station, had been adapted to serve as the museum's visitor center. However, since early 2014, the station has, housed
Second Continental Congress
The Second Continental Congress was a convention of delegates from the Thirteen Colonies that started meeting in the spring of 1775 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It succeeded the First Continental Congress, which met in Philadelphia between September 5, 1774, October 26, 1774; the Second Congress moved incrementally towards independence. It adopted the Lee Resolution which established the new country on July 2, 1776, it agreed to the United States Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776; the Congress acted as the de facto national government of the United States by raising armies, directing strategy, appointing diplomats, making formal treaties such as the Olive Branch Petition. The Second Continental Congress came together on May 11, 1775 reconvening the First Continental Congress. Many of the 56 delegates who attended the first meeting were in attendance at the second, the delegates appointed the same president and secretary. Notable new arrivals included John Hancock of Massachusetts.
Within two weeks, Randolph was summoned back to Virginia to preside over the House of Burgesses. Henry Middleton was elected as president to replace Randolph. Hancock was elected president on May 24. Delegates from twelve of the Thirteen Colonies were present when the Second Continental Congress convened. Georgia had not participated in the First Continental Congress and did not send delegates to the Second. On May 13, 1775, Lyman Hall was admitted as a delegate from the Parish of St. John's in the Colony of Georgia, not as a delegate from the colony itself. On July 4, 1775, revolutionary Georgians held a Provincial Congress to decide how to respond to the American Revolution, that congress decided on July 8 to send delegates to the Continental Congress, they arrived on September 13. The First Continental Congress had sent entreaties to King George III to stop the Coercive Acts; the Second Continental Congress met on May 10, 1775 to plan further responses if the British government had not repealed or modified the acts.
For the first few months of the war, the Patriots carried on their struggle in an ad-hoc and uncoordinated manner. They had seized arsenals, driven out royal officials, besieged the British army in the city of Boston. On June 14, 1775, the Congress voted to create the Continental Army out of the militia units around Boston and appointed George Washington of Virginia as commanding general. On July 6, 1775, Congress approved a Declaration of Causes outlining the rationale and necessity for taking up arms in the Thirteen Colonies. On July 8, they extended the Olive Branch Petition to the British Crown as a final attempt at reconciliation. Silas Deane was sent to France as a minister of the Congress, American ports were reopened in defiance of the British Navigation Acts; the Continental Congress had no explicit legal authority to govern, but it assumed all the functions of a national government, such as appointing ambassadors, signing treaties, raising armies, appointing generals, obtaining loans from Europe, issuing paper money, disbursing funds.
The Congress had no authority to levy taxes and was required to request money and troops from the states to support the war effort. Individual states ignored these requests. Congress was moving towards declaring independence from the British Empire in 1776, but many delegates lacked the authority from their home governments to take such a drastic action. Advocates of independence moved to have reluctant colonial governments revise instructions to their delegations, or replace those governments which would not authorize independence. On May 10, 1776, Congress passed a resolution recommending that any colony with a government, not inclined toward independence should form one that was. On May 15, they adopted a more radical preamble to this resolution, drafted by John Adams, which advised throwing off oaths of allegiance and suppressing the authority of the Crown in any colonial government that still derived its authority from the Crown; that same day, the Virginia Convention instructed its delegation in Philadelphia to propose a resolution that called for a declaration of independence, the formation of foreign alliances, a confederation of the states.
The resolution of independence was delayed for several weeks, as advocates of independence consolidated support in their home governments. On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee offered a resolution before the Congress declaring the colonies independent, he urged Congress to resolve "to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign Alliances" and to prepare a plan of confederation for the newly independent states. Lee argued that independence was the only way to ensure a foreign alliance, since no European monarchs would deal with America if they remained Britain's colonies. American leaders had rejected the divine right of kings in the New World, but recognized the necessity of proving their credibility in the Old World. Congress formally adopted the resolution of independence, but only after creating three overlapping committees to draft the Declaration, a Model Treaty, the Articles of Confederation; the Declaration announced the states' entry into the international
George Washington in the French and Indian War
George Washington's military experience began in the French and Indian War with a commission as a major in the militia of the British Province of Virginia. In 1753 Washington was sent as an ambassador from the British crown to the French officials and Indians as far north as present-day Erie, Pennsylvania; the following year he led another expedition to the area to assist in the construction of a fort at present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Before reaching that point, he and some of his men, ambushed a French scouting party, its leader was killed. This peacetime act of aggression is seen as one of the first military steps leading to the global Seven Years' War; the French responded by attacking fortifications Washington erected following the ambush, forcing his surrender. Released on parole and his troops returned to Virginia. In 1755 he participated as a volunteer aide in the ill-fated expedition of General Edward Braddock, where he distinguished himself in the retreat following the climactic Battle of Monongahela.
He served from 1755 until 1758 as colonel and commander of the Virginia Regiment, directing the provincial defenses against French and Indian raids and building the regiment into one of the best-trained provincial militias of the time. He led the regiment as part of the 1758 expedition of General John Forbes that drove the French from Fort Duquesne, during which he and some of his companies were involved in a friendly fire incident. Unable to get a commission in the British Army, Washington resigned from the provincial militia and took up the life of a Virginia plantation owner. Washington gained valuable military skills during the war, acquiring tactical and logistical military experience, he acquired important political skills in his dealings with the British military establishment and the provincial government. His military exploits, although they included some notable failures, made his military reputation in the colonies such that he became a natural selection as the commander in chief of the Continental Army following the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War in 1775.
His successes in military and political spheres during that conflict led to his election as the first President of the United States of America. Born into a well-to-do Virginia family in Bridges Creek near Fredericksburg in 1732, Washington was schooled locally until the age of 15, his father's sudden death occurred. This eliminated the possibility of schooling in England, his mother rejected attempts to place him in the Royal Navy. Thanks to the connection by marriage of his half-brother Lawrence to the wealthy Fairfax family, Washington was appointed surveyor of Culpeper County in 1749. Washington's brother had purchased an interest in the Ohio Company, a land acquisition and settlement company whose objective was the settlement of Virginia's frontier areas, including the Ohio Country, territory north and west of the Ohio River, its investors included Virginia's Royal Governor, Robert Dinwiddie, who appointed Washington a major in the provincial militia in February 1753. The Ohio Country was occupied by a variety of Indian tribes that were nominally under the suzerainty of the Iroquois Confederacy based in what is now northwestern New York.
The area was the subject of several conflicting claims by British and French colonies. The British provinces of Virginia and Pennsylvania both claimed the area, traders from Pennsylvania had been trading with the Indians at least since the early 1740s. In 1752, representatives of the Ohio Company reached an agreement with the local Indian leaders allowing the construction of a fort and a small settlement at the confluence of the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers, for the establishment of some settlements south of the Ohio River; the French were alarmed by these developments, in 1753 began the construction of a series of fortifications in the uppermost headwaters of the Ohio River, intending to extend the line of forts downriver and deny British traders and settlers access to the territory. When news of this reached Virginia, Governor Dinwiddie sought advice from the British government in London, he received orders to send a messenger to the French, reiterating British claims and demanding that they stop construction of their forts and quit the territory.
Governor Dinwiddie chose Major Washington 21 years old, for the trek into the Ohio Country to assess the French military situation, to deliver the British demands. He was a good choice despite his youth because he was familiar with the frontier from survey work, had good health, both government and Ohio Company leaders trusted Washington. Although he had no frontier warfare experience, neither did most other Virginians. Washington departed from Williamsburg at the end of October 1753. In Fredericksburg he picked up Jacob Van Braam, a family friend who spoke French, before heading into the Virginia highlands. There he was joined by Christopher Gist, an Ohio Company agent, familiar with the territory, a few backwoodsmen to assist with expedition logistics; when the expedition arrived at the site of the proposed fort, Washington noted that the site was well chosen, having "the entire Command of the Monongahela". The expedition proceeded on to Logstown, a large Indian settlement a short way down the Ohio River.
After parleying with the Indians, the Mingo "Half King" Tanacharison and three of his men agreed to accompany the British expedition to meet with the French. Washington learned that many of the Ohio tribes were as unhappy about the British plans for settli
John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum
The John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library and museum of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, it is located on Columbia Point in the Dorchester neighborhood of Boston, next to the University of Massachusetts at Boston, the Edward M. Kennedy Institute for the United States Senate, the Massachusetts Archives and Commonwealth Museum. Designed by the architect I. M. Pei, the building is the official repository for original papers and correspondence of the Kennedy Administration, as well as special bodies of published and unpublished materials, such as books and papers by and about Ernest Hemingway; the library and museum is part of the Presidential Library System, administered by the Office of Presidential Libraries, a part of the National Archives and Records Administration. The library and Museum were dedicated in 1979 by 39th President Jimmy Carter and members of the Kennedy family, it can be reached from nearby Interstate 93 or via shuttle bus or walk from the JFK/UMass stop on the Boston Subway's Red Line.
During a weekend visit to Boston on October 19, 1963, President Kennedy, along with John Carl Warnecke — the architect who would design the President's tomb in Arlington — viewed several locations offered by Harvard as a site for the library and museum. At the time there were only four other Presidential Libraries: the Hoover Presidential Library, the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, the Truman Library, the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library, they were all scattered around the country in small towns from New York to Iowa. Kennedy had not decided on any design concept yet, but he felt that the existing presidential libraries were placed too "far away from scholarly resources."Kennedy chose a plot of land next to the Harvard Graduate School of Business Administration. The building would face the Charles River, a few feet away, on the other side of which, the dormitories that included Winthrop House where Kennedy spent his upperclassman days. Since Kennedy encouraged his administration to save effects of both personal and official nature, the complex would not just be a collection of the President's papers, but "a complete record of a Presidential era."
Therefore, the building would have the word "museum" appended to its name: John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum. After President Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, his family and friends discussed how to construct a library that would serve as a fitting memorial. A committee was formed to advise Kennedy's widow Jacqueline; the group deliberated for months, visited with architects from around the world including Pietro Belluschi and others from the United States, Brazil's Lucio Costa, Italy's Franco Albini. Mrs. Kennedy and others met with the candidates together at the Kennedy Compound in Hyannis and visited several in their offices; the committee conducted a secretive process whereby the architects voted anonymously for the most capable of their colleagues. Progress on the building began shortly after his death. On January 13, 1964, Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy announced that a taped oral-history project was to be undertaken for inclusion in the library; the project would feature administration staff, friends and politicians from home and abroad.
The Attorney General announced that Eugene R. Black, Sr. agreed to serve as chairman of the board of trustees and that $1 million of Black's $10 million goal had been given to the trust by the Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation; the death of the President was still fresh in the hearts and minds of the American public and by March of that year $4.3 million had been pledged, including 18,727 unsolicited donations from the public. Large donations came from the Hispanic world with Venezuela pledging $100,000 and Governor of Puerto Rico Luis Muñoz Marín offering the same; the oral-history project began recording, starting with Jacqueline Kennedy and Robert Kennedy. Projected to consist of interviews with 150 people, 178 had agreed to participate and the total number of expected participants doubled to 300, with just one person declining to take part. By this time fourteen architects were named to serve on a design advisory committee: Over the following months pledges continued to funnel in for the building still being conceptualized by the various architects.
Some notable donations include $900,000 handed over to Postmaster General John A. Gronouski on July 9, 1964, it was the sum of a campaign encompassing 102 Federal agencies. Gronouski said many of the Federal employee contributions were in the form of a $5 withholding each payday for a period of three years; the next day the Indian ambassador to the United States, Braj Kumar Nehru. Presented Black with a check for $100,000 during a ceremony at the River Club. Nehru said that the Indian people were hit by a "sad blow" when the President died, that they held him "in the highest regard and affection." He desired for Indian students abroad in the United States to use the library still planned for construction at Harvard along the banks of the Charles River. On December 13, 1964, the Kennedy family announced that I. M. Pei was unanimously chosen by a subcommittee as the architect of the library. Though Pei was unknown amongst the list of candidates, Mrs. Kennedy, who viewed him as filled with promise and imagination and after spending several months inspecting the many architects' offices and creations, selected him to create the vision she held for the project.
Pei did not have a design yet, but the idea as described by Robert Kennedy was to "stimulate interest in politics." Meanwhile, the suggestion that Harvard may not be a suitable site for