Animation is a method in which pictures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film. Today, most animations are made with computer-generated imagery. Computer animation can be detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth or faster real-time renderings. Other common animation methods apply a stop motion technique to two and three-dimensional objects like paper cutouts, puppets or clay figures; the effect of animation is achieved by a rapid succession of sequential images that minimally differ from each other. The illusion—as in motion pictures in general—is thought to rely on the phi phenomenon and beta movement, but the exact causes are still uncertain. Analog mechanical animation media that rely on the rapid display of sequential images include the phénakisticope, flip book and film. Television and video are popular electronic animation media that were analog and now operate digitally.
For display on the computer, techniques like animated GIF and Flash animation were developed. Animation is more pervasive. Apart from short films, feature films, animated gifs and other media dedicated to the display of moving images, animation is heavily used for video games, motion graphics and special effects. Animation is prevalent in information technology interfaces; the physical movement of image parts through simple mechanics – in for instance the moving images in magic lantern shows – can be considered animation. The mechanical manipulation of puppets and objects to emulate living beings has a long history in automata. Automata were popularised by Disney as animatronics. Animators are artists; the word "animation" stems from the Latin "animationem", noun of action from past participle stem of "animare", meaning "the action of imparting life". The primary meaning of the English word is "liveliness" and has been in use much longer than the meaning of "moving image medium"; the history of animation started long before the development of cinematography.
Humans have attempted to depict motion as far back as the paleolithic period. Shadow play and the magic lantern offered popular shows with moving images as the result of manipulation by hand and/or some minor mechanics. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree. In 1833, the phenakistiscope introduced the stroboscopic principle of modern animation, which would provide the basis for the zoetrope, the flip book, the praxinoscope and cinematography. Charles-Émile Reynaud further developed his projection praxinoscope into the Théâtre Optique with transparent hand-painted colorful pictures in a long perforated strip wound between two spools, patented in December 1888. From 28 October 1892 to March 1900 Reynaud gave over 12,800 shows to a total of over 500.000 visitors at the Musée Grévin in Paris. His Pantomimes Lumineuses series of animated films each contained 300 to 700 frames that were manipulated back and forth to last 10 to 15 minutes per film.
Piano music and some dialogue were performed live, while some sound effects were synchronized with an electromagnet. When film became a common medium some manufacturers of optical toys adapted small magic lanterns into toy film projectors for short loops of film. By 1902, they were producing many chromolithography film loops by tracing live-action film footage; some early filmmakers, including J. Stuart Blackton, Arthur Melbourne-Cooper, Segundo de Chomón and Edwin S. Porter experimented with stop-motion animation since around 1899. Blackton's The Haunted Hotel was the first huge success that baffled audiences with objects moving by themselves and inspired other filmmakers to try the technique for themselves. J. Stuart Blackton experimented with animation drawn on blackboards and some cutout animation in Humorous Phases of Funny Faces. In 1908, Émile Cohl's Fantasmagorie was released with a white-on-black chalkline look created with negative prints from black ink drawings on white paper; the film consists of a stick figure moving about and encountering all kinds of morphing objects, including a wine bottle that transforms into a flower.
Inspired by Émile Cohl's stop-motion film Les allumettes animées, Ladislas Starevich started making his influential puppet animations in 1910. Winsor McCay's Little Nemo showcased detailed drawings, his Gertie the Dinosaur was an early example of character development in drawn animation. During the 1910s, the production of animated short films referred to as "cartoons", became an industry of its own and cartoon shorts were produced for showing in movie theaters; the most successful producer at the time was John Randolph Bray, along with animator Earl Hurd, patented the cel animation process that dominated the animation industry for the rest of the decade. El Apóstol was a 1917 Argentine animated film utilizing cutout animation, the world's first animated feature film. A fire that destroyed producer Federico Valle's film studio incinerated the only known copy of El Apóstol, it is now considered a lost film. In 1919, the silent animated short Feline Follies was released, marking the debut of Felix the Cat, being the first animated character in the silent film era to win a high level of popularity.
The earliest extant feature-length animated film is The Adve
Scooby-Doo is an American animated franchise, comprising many animated television series produced from 1969 to the present day. Writers Joe Ruby and Ken Spears created the original series, Scooby-Doo, Where Are You!, for Hanna-Barbera Productions in 1969. This Saturday-morning cartoon series featured four teenagers—Fred Jones, Daphne Blake, Velma Dinkley, Norville "Shaggy" Rogers—and their talking brown Great Dane named Scooby-Doo, who solve mysteries involving supernatural creatures through a series of antics and missteps. Following the success of the original series, Hanna-Barbera and its successor Warner Bros. Animation have produced numerous follow-up and spin-off animated series and several related works, including television specials and made-for-TV movies, a line of direct-to-video films, two Warner Bros.–produced theatrical feature films. Some versions of Scooby-Doo feature different variations on the show's supernatural theme, include characters such as Scooby's cousin Scooby-Dum and nephew Scrappy-Doo in addition to or instead of some of the original characters.
Scooby-Doo was broadcast on CBS from 1969 to 1975, when it moved to ABC. ABC aired variations of the show until canceling it in 1986, presented a spin-off featuring the characters as children, A Pup Named Scooby-Doo, from 1988 until 1991. Two Scooby-Doo reboots aired as part of Kids' WB on The WB and its successor, The CW, from 2002 until 2008. Further reboots were produced for Cartoon Network beginning in 2010 and continuing through 2018. Repeats of the various Scooby-Doo series are broadcast on Cartoon Network's sister channel Boomerang in the United States as well as other countries. Boomerang is planning its own reboot, Scooby-Doo and Guess Who? Intended to air sometime in 2019. In 2013, TV Guide ranked Scooby-Doo the fifth greatest TV cartoon. In 1968, parent-run organizations Action for Children's Television, began protesting what they perceived as excessive violence in Saturday-morning cartoons. Most of these shows were Hanna-Barbera action cartoons such as Space Ghost, The Herculoids and Birdman and the Galaxy Trio, all of them were canceled by 1969 because of pressure from the parent groups.
Members of these watchgroups served as advisers to Hanna-Barbera and other animation studios to ensure that new programs would be safe for children. Fred Silverman, executive for daytime programming at CBS, was looking for a show that would both revitalize his Saturday-morning line and please the watch groups; the result was The Archie Show, based on Bob Montana's teenage humor comic book Archie. Successful were the musical numbers The Archies performed during each program. Eager to build upon this success, Silverman contacted producers William Hanna and Joseph Barbera about creating another show based on a teenage rock group, this time featuring teens who solved mysteries between gigs. Silverman envisioned the show as a cross between the popular I Love a Mystery radio serials of the 1940s and either the Archie characters or the popular early 1960s television series The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. After attempting to develop his own version of the show, called House of Mystery, who developed and sold Hanna-Barbera shows while Hanna produced them, passed the task along to storywriters Joe Ruby and Ken Spears, as well as artist/character designer Iwao Takamoto.
Their treatment, based in part on The Archie Show, was titled Mysteries Five and featured five teenagers: Geoff, Kelly and Linda's brother W. W. along with their bongo-playing dog, Too Much, who collectively formed the band Mysteries Five. When The Mysteries Five were not performing at gigs, they were out solving spooky mysteries involving ghosts and other supernatural creatures. Ruby and Spears were unable to decide whether Too Much would be a large cowardly dog or a small feisty one; when the former was chosen and Spears wrote Too Much as a Great Dane but revised the dog character to a large sheepdog just before their presentation to Silverman, as Ruby feared the character would be too similar to the comic strip character Marmaduke. Silverman rejected their initial pitch, after consulting with Barbera on next steps, got Barbera's permission to go ahead with Too Much being a Great Dane instead of a sheepdog. During the design phase, lead character designer Takamoto consulted a studio colleague, a breeder of Great Danes.
After learning the characteristics of a prize-winning Great Dane from her, Takamoto proceeded to break most of the rules and designed Too Much with overly bowed legs, a double chin, a sloped back, among other abnormalities. Ruby and Spears' second pass at the show used Dobie Gillis as the template for the teenagers rather than Archie; the treatment retained the dog Too Much, while reducing the number of teenagers to four, removing the Mike character and retaining Geoff, Linda, W. W; as their personalities were modified, so were the characters' names: Geoff became "Ronnie" – renamed "Fred", Kelly became "Daphne", Linda "Velma", W. W. "Shaggy". The teens were now based on four teenage characters from The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis: Dobie Gillis, Thalia Menninger, Zelda Gilroy and Maynard G. Krebs, respectively; the revised show was re-pitched to Silverman, who liked the material but, disliking the title Mysteries Five, decided to call the show Who's S-S-Scared? Silverman presented Who's S-S-Scared? to the CBS executives as the centerpiece for the upcoming 1969–70 season's Saturday morning cartoon block.
CBS president Frank Stanton felt that the presentation artwork was too scary for young viewers and, thinking the show would be t
A laugh track is a separate soundtrack for a recorded comedy show containing the sound of audience laughter. In some productions, the laughter is a live audience response instead; this was invented by American sound engineer Charles "Charley" Douglass. The Douglass laugh track became a standard in mainstream television in the U. S. dominating most prime-time sitcoms from the late 1950s to the late 1970s. Usage of the Douglass laughter decreased by the 1980s when stereophonic laughter was provided by rival sound companies as well as the overall practice of single-camera sitcoms eliminating audiences altogether. Before radio and television, audiences experienced live comedy performances in the presence of other audience members. Radio and early television producers used recordings of live shows and studio-only shows attempted to recreate this atmosphere by introducing the sound of laughter or other crowd reactions into the soundtrack. Jack Dadswell, former owner of WWJB in Florida, created the first "laughing record".
In 1946, Jack Mullin brought a Magnetophon magnetic tape recorder back from Radio Frankfurt, along with 50 reels of tape. The 6.5 mm tape could record 20 minutes per reel of high-quality analog audio sound. Bing Crosby adopted the technology to pre-record his radio show, scheduled for a certain time every week, to avoid having to perform the show live, as well as having to perform it a second time for West Coast audiences. With the introduction of this recording method, it became possible to add sounds during post-production. Longtime engineer and recording pioneer Jack Mullin explained how the laugh track was invented on Crosby's show: "The hillbilly comic Bob Burns was on the show one time, threw a few of his then-extremely racy and off-color folksy farm stories into the show. We recorded it live, they all got enormous laughs, which just went on and on, but we couldn't use the jokes. Today those stories would seem tame by comparison, but things were different in radio so scriptwriter Bill Morrow asked us to save the laughs.
A couple of weeks he had a show that wasn't funny, he insisted that we put in the salvaged laughs. Thus the laugh-track was born." In early television, most shows that were not broadcast live used the single-camera filmmaking technique, where a show was created by filming each scene several times from different camera angles. Whereas the performances of the actors and crew could be controlled, live audiences could not be relied upon to laugh at the "correct" moments. CBS sound engineer Charley Douglass noticed these inconsistencies, took it upon himself to remedy the situation. If a joke did not get the desired chuckle, Douglass inserted additional laughter; this editing technique became known as sweetening, in which recorded laughter is used to augment the response of the real studio audience if they did not react as as desired. Conversely, the process could be used to "desweeten" audience reactions, toning down unwanted loud laughter or removing inappropriate applause, thus making the laughter more in line with the producer's preferred method of telling the story.
While still working for CBS, Douglass built a prototype laugh machine that consisted of a large, wooden wheel 28 inches in diameter with a reel of tape glued to the outer edge of it containing recordings of mild laughs. The machine was operated by a key that played until it hit another detent on the wheel, thus playing a complete laugh; because it was constructed on company time, CBS demanded possession of the machine when Douglass decided to terminate his time with them. The prototype machine fell apart within months of use. Douglass developed an expansion of his technique in 1953 when he began to extract laughter and applause from live soundtracks recorded, placed the recorded sounds into a huge tape machine; this basic concept was reworked as the Chamberlin Music Master, succeeded by the Mellotron. These recorded laughs could be added to single-camera filmed programs; the first American television show to incorporate a laugh track was the sitcom The Hank McCune Show in 1950. Other single-camera filmed shows, like The Pride of the Family, soon followed suit, though several, like The Trouble with Father, The Beulah Show and The Goldbergs, did not feature an audience or a laugh-track.
Four Star Playhouse, an anthology series, did not utilize a laugh-track or audience on its occasional comedy episodes, with co-producer David Niven calling the laugh track "wild indiscriminate mirth" and stating that "I shall blackball the notion if it comes up. Not that it will. We shall carry on without mechanical tricks". Soon after the rise of the laugh track, Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz devised a method of filming with a live audience using a setup of multiple film cameras; this process was employed for their sitcom I Love Lucy, which used a live studio audience and no laugh track. Multi-camera shows with live audiences sometimes used recorded laughs to supplement responses. Sketch comedy and variety shows migrated from li
James Francis Durante was an American singer, pianist and actor. His distinctive clipped gravelly speech, Lower East Side Manhattan accent, comic language-butchery, jazz-influenced songs, prominent nose helped make him one of America's most familiar and popular personalities of the 1920s through the 1970s, he referred to his nose as the schnozzola, the word became his nickname. Durante was born on the Lower East Side of New York City, he was the youngest of four children born to Rosa and Bartolomeo Durante, both of whom were immigrants from Salerno, Italy. Bartolomeo was a barber. Young Jimmy served as an altar boy at St. Malachy Roman Catholic Church, known as the Actor's Chapel. Durante dropped out of school in seventh grade to become a full-time ragtime pianist, he first played with his cousin, whose name was Jimmy Durante. It was a family act, he continued working the city's piano bar circuit and earned the nickname "ragtime Jimmy", before he joined one of the first recognizable jazz bands in New York, the Original New Orleans Jazz Band.
Durante was the only member not from New Orleans. His routine of breaking into a song to deliver a joke, with band or orchestra chord punctuation after each line, became a Durante trademark. In 1920 the group was renamed Jimmy Durante's Jazz Band. By the mid-1920s, Durante had become a vaudeville star and radio personality in a trio called Clayton and Durante. Lou Clayton and Eddie Jackson, Durante's closest friends reunited with Durante in subsequent years. Jackson and Durante appeared in the Cole Porter musical The New Yorkers, which opened on Broadway on December 8, 1930. Earlier that same year, the team appeared in the movie Roadhouse Nights, ostensibly based on Dashiell Hammett's novel Red Harvest. By 1934, Durante had a major record hit with his own novelty composition, "Inka Dinka Doo", with lyrics by Ben Ryan, it became his theme song for the rest of his life. A year Durante starred on Broadway in the Billy Rose stage musical Jumbo. A scene in which a police officer stopped Durante's character—who was leading a live elephant across the stage—to ask, "what are you doing with that elephant?", followed by Durante's reply, "what elephant?", was a regular show-stopper.
This comedy bit reprised in his role in Billy Rose's Jumbo contributed to the popularity of the idiom the elephant in the room. Durante appeared on Broadway in Show Girl, Strike Me Pink and Red and Blue. During the early 1930s, Durante alternated between Broadway, his early motion pictures included an original Rodgers & Hart musical The Phantom President, which featured Durante singing the self-referential Schnozzola. He was paired with silent film legend Buster Keaton in a series of three popular comedies for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Speak Easily, The Passionate Plumber, What! No Beer?, which were financial hits and a career springboard for the distinctive newcomer. However, Keaton's vociferous dissatisfaction with constraints the studio had placed upon him, his perceived incompatibility with Durante's broad chatty humor, exacerbated by his alcoholism, led the studio to end the series. Durante went on to appear in The Wet Parade, Broadway to Hollywood, The Man Who Came to Dinner, Ziegfeld Follies, Billy Rose's Jumbo, It's a Mad, Mad, Mad World.
In 1934, he starred in Hollywood Party, where he dreams he is'Schnarzan', a parody of'Tarzan', popular at the time due to the Johnny Weissmuller films. On September 10, 1933, Durante appeared on Eddie Cantor's NBC radio show, The Chase and Sanborn Hour, continuing until November 12 of that year; when Cantor left the show, Durante took over as its star from April 22 to September 30, 1934. He moved on to The Jumbo Fire Chief Program. Durante teamed with Garry Moore for The Durante-Moore Show in 1943. Durante's comic chemistry with the young, brushcut Moore brought Durante an larger audience. "Dat's my boy dat said dat!" became an instant catchphrase, which would inspire the cartoon Augie Doggie and Doggie Daddy. The duo was one of the nation's favorites for the rest of the decade, their Armed Forces Radio Network Command Performance with Frank Sinatra remains a favorite of radio-show collectors today. Moore left the duo in mid-1947, the program returned October 1, 1947 as The Jimmy Durante Show. Durante continued the show for three more years, featured a reunion of Clayton and Durante on his April 21, 1948 broadcast.
Although Durante made his television debut on November 1, 1950 he continued to keep a presence in radio, as a frequent guest on Tallulah Bankhead's two-year NBC comedy-variety show The Big Show. Durante was one of the cast on the show's premiere November 5, 1950, along with humorist Fred Allen, singers Mindy Carson and Frankie Laine, stage musical performer Ethel Merman, actors Jose Ferrer and Paul Lukas, comic-singer Danny Thomas. A highlight of the premiere was Durante and Thomas, whose own nose rivaled Durante's, in a routine in which Durante accused Thomas of stealing his nose. "Stay outta dis, no-nose!" Durante barked at Bankhead to a big laugh. From 1950 to 1951, Durante was the host once a month on Wednesday evenings at 8 p.m, on NBC's comedy-variety series Four Star Revue. Jimmy continued with the show until 1954. Durante had a half-hour variety show - The Jimmy Durante Show - on NBC from
The Fantastic Four is a fictional superhero team appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The group debuted in The Fantastic Four #1, which helped to usher in a new level of realism in the medium; the Fantastic Four was the first superhero team created by editor/co-plotter Stan Lee and artist/co-plotter Jack Kirby, who developed a collaborative approach to creating comics with this title that they would use from on. The four individuals traditionally associated with the Fantastic Four, who gained superpowers after exposure to cosmic rays during a scientific mission to outer space, are Mister Fantastic, a scientific genius and the leader of the group, who can stretch his body into incredible lengths and shapes. Since their original 1961 introduction, the Fantastic Four have been portrayed as a somewhat dysfunctional, yet loving, family. Breaking convention with other comic book archetypes of the time, they would squabble and hold grudges both deep and petty and eschewed anonymity or secret identities in favor of celebrity status.
The team is well known for its recurring encounters with characters such as the villainous monarch Doctor Doom, the Kree Empire's ruthless and tyrannical enforcer Ronan the Accuser, the planet-devouring Galactus, ruler of the Negative Zone, the sea-dwelling prince Namor, the spacefaring Silver Surfer, the Skrull warrior Kl'rt. The Fantastic Four have been adapted into other media, including four animated series and four live-action films. Apocryphal legend has it that in 1961, longtime magazine and comic book publisher Martin Goodman was playing golf with either Jack Liebowitz or Irwin Donenfeld of rival company DC Comics known as National Periodical Publications, that the top executive bragged about DC's success with the new superhero team the Justice League of America. While film producer and comics historian Michael Uslan has debunked the particulars of that story, Goodman, a publishing trend-follower, aware of the JLA's strong sales, did direct his comics editor, Stan Lee, to create a comic-book series about a team of superheroes.
According to Lee, writing in 1974, "Martin mentioned that he had noticed one of the titles published by National Comics seemed to be selling better than most. It was a book called The Justice League of America and it was composed of a team of superheroes....'If the Justice League is selling', spoke he,'why don't we put out a comic book that features a team of superheroes?'"Lee, who had served as editor-in-chief and art director of Marvel Comics and its predecessor companies, Timely Comics and Atlas Comics, for two decades, found that the medium had become creatively restrictive. Determined "to carve a real career for myself in the nowhere world of comic books", Lee concluded that, "For just this once, I would do the type of story I myself would enjoy reading.... And the characters would be the kind of characters I could relate to: they'd be flesh and blood, they'd have their faults and foibles, they'd be fallible and feisty, — most important of all — inside their colorful, costumed booties they'd still have feet of clay."Lee said he created a synopsis for the first Fantastic Four story that he gave to penciller Jack Kirby, who drew the entire story.
Kirby turned in his penciled art pages to Lee, who captions. This approach to creating comics, which became known as the "Marvel Method", worked so well for Lee and Kirby that they used it from on. Kirby recalled events somewhat differently. Challenged with Lee's version of events in a 1990 interview, Kirby responded: "I would say that's an outright lie", although the interviewer, Gary Groth, notes that this statement needs to be viewed with caution. Kirby claims he came up with the idea for the Fantastic Four in Marvel's offices, that Lee had added the dialogue after the story had been pencilled. Kirby sought to establish, more credibly and on numerous occasions, that the visual elements of the strip were his conceptions, he pointed to a team he had created for rival publisher DC Comics in the 1950s, the Challengers of the Unknown. "f you notice the uniforms, they're the same... I always give them a skintight uniform with a belt... the Challengers and the FF have a minimum of decoration. And of course, the Thing's skin is a kind of decoration, breaking up the monotony of the blue uniform."
The chest insignia of a "4" within a circle, was designed by Lee. The characters wear no uniforms in the first two issues. Given the conflicting statements, outside commentators have found it hard to identify with precise detail who created the Fantastic Four. Although Stan Lee's typed synopsis for the Fantastic Four exists, Earl Wells, writing in The Comics Journal, points out that its existence does not assert its place in the creation: "e have no way of knowing of whether Lee wrote the synopsis after a discussion with Kirby in which Kirby supplied most of the ideas". Comics historian R. C. Harvey believes that the Fantastic Four was a furtherance of the work Kirby had been doing and so "more Kirby's creations than Lee's", but Harvey notes that the Marvel Method of collabora
Powered exoskeleton is a wearable mobile machine, powered by a system of electric motors, levers, hydraulics, or a combination of technologies that allow for limb movement with increased strength and endurance. The earliest known exoskeleton-like device was a set of walking and running assisted apparatus developed in 1890 by a Russian named Nicholas Yagin; the apparatus used energy stored in compressed gas bags to assist with movements, although it was passive and required human power. In 1917, United States inventor Leslie C. Kelley developed what he called a pedomotor, which operated on steam power with artificial ligaments acting in parallel to the wearer's movements. With the pedomotor, energy could be generated apart from the user; the first true exoskeleton in the sense of being a mobile machine integrated with human movements was co-developed by General Electric and the United States Armed Forces in the 1960s. The suit was named Hardiman, made lifting 110 kilograms feel like lifting 4.5 kilograms.
Powered by hydraulics and electricity, the suit allowed the wearer to amplify their strength by a factor of 25, so that lifting 25 kilograms was as easy as lifting one kilogram without the suit. A feature dubbed force feedback enabled the wearer to feel the objects being manipulated. While the general idea sounded somewhat promising, the Hardiman had major limitations, it was due to its 680-kilogram weight. Another issue was that it is a master-slave system, where the operator is in a master suit, which, in turn, is inside the slave suit that responds to the master and handles the workload; this multiple physical layer type of operation may work fine, but responds slower than a single physical layer. When the goal is physical enhancement, response time matters, its slow walking speed of 0.76 metres per second further limited practical uses. The project was not successful. Any attempt to use the full exoskeleton resulted in a violent uncontrolled motion, as a result it was never tested with a human inside.
Further research concentrated on one arm. Although it could lift its specified load of 340 kg, it weighed three quarters of a ton, just over twice the liftable load. Without getting all the components to work together, the practical uses for the Hardiman project were limited. Early active exoskeletons and humanoid robots were developed at the Mihajlo Pupin Institute in 1969, under the guidance of Prof. Miomir Vukobratović. Legged locomotion systems were developed first. Theories of these systems were developed in the frame of active exoskeletons. Active exoskeletons were predecessors of the modern high-performance humanoid robots; the present-day active exoskeletons are developed as the systems for enhancing capabilities of the natural human skeletal system. The most successful version of an active exoskeleton for rehabilitation of paraplegics and similar disabled persons, pneumatically powered and electronically programmed, was realized and tested at Belgrade Orthopedic Clinic in 1972. One specimen was delivered to the Central Institute for Traumatology and Orthopedy, Moscow, in the frame of the USSR-Yugoslav inter-state scientific cooperation.
From 1991 the exoskeleton belongs to the basic fund of Polytechnic Museum and State Museum Fund of Russian Federation. It is displayed in the frame of the museum's exposition dedicated to the development of automation and cybernetics. Los Alamos Laboratories worked on an exoskeleton project in the 1960s called Project Pitman. In 1986, an exoskeleton prototype called the LIFESUIT was created by Monty Reed, a United States Army Ranger who had broken his back in a parachute accident. While recovering in the hospital, he read Robert Heinlein's science fiction novel, Starship Troopers, from Heinlein's description of Mobile Infantry Power Suits, he designed the LIFESUIT, wrote letters to the military about his plans for the LIFESUIT. In 2001 LIFESUIT One was built. In 2003 LS6 was able to play back a human gait. In 2005 LS12 was worn in a foot race known as the Saint Patrick's Day Dash in Washington. Monty Reed and LIFESUIT XII set the Land Speed Distance Record for walking in robot suits. LS12 completed the 4.8-kilometre race in 90 minutes.
The current LIFESUIT prototype 14 can lift 92 kg for the wearer. In January 2007, Newsweek magazine reported that the Pentagon had granted development funds to a nanotechnologist, Ray Baughman of the University of Texas at Dallas, to develop military-grade artificial electroactive polymers; these electrically contractive fibers are intended to increase the strength-to-weight ratio of movement systems in military powered armor. Powered exoskeletons can improve the quality of life of persons who have lost the use of their legs, enabling system-assisted walking or restoration of other motor controls lost due to illness or accidental injury; such devices can help nurses and others doing medical care. Japanese engineers have developed exoskeletons designed to help nurses carry patients; the technology could help adapt to the growing number of people in elderly care and the need for more medical professionals. Exoskeletons can help with rehabilitation of stroke or spinal cord injury patients; such exoskeletons are sometimes called Step Rehabilitation Robots.
An exoskeleton could reduce the number of therapists needed by allowing the most impaired patient to be trained by one therapist, whereas several are needed. Training would be more uniform, easier to analyze retrospectively and can be customized for each patient. At this time there are several projec
Melvin Jerome Blanc was an American voice actor and radio personality. After beginning his over-60-year career performing in radio, he became known for his work in animation as the voices of Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Tweety Bird, Sylvester the Cat, Yosemite Sam, Foghorn Leghorn, Marvin the Martian, Pepé Le Pew, Speedy Gonzales, Wile E. Coyote, Road Runner, the Tasmanian Devil, many of the other characters from the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies theatrical cartoons during the golden age of American animation, he voiced all of the major male Warner Bros. cartoon characters except for Elmer Fudd, whose voice was provided by fellow radio personality Arthur Q. Bryan, although Blanc voiced Fudd, as well, after Bryan's death, he voiced characters for Hanna-Barbera's television cartoons, including Barney Rubble on The Flintstones and Mr. Spacely on The Jetsons. Blanc was the original voice of Woody Woodpecker for Universal Pictures and provided vocal effects for the Tom and Jerry cartoons directed by Chuck Jones for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, replacing William Hanna.
During the golden age of radio, Blanc frequently performed on the programs of famous comedians from the era, including Jack Benny and Costello, Burns and Allen and Judy Canova. Having earned the nickname The Man of a Thousand Voices, Blanc is regarded as one of the most influential people in the voice acting industry. Blanc was born in San Francisco, California, to Russian-Jewish parents Frederick and Eva Blank, the younger of two children, he grew up in the Western Addition neighborhood in San Francisco, in Portland, where he attended Lincoln High School. Growing up, he had a fondness for voices and dialect, which he began voicing at the age of 10, he claimed that he changed the spelling of his name when he was 16, from "Blank" to "Blanc", because a teacher told him that he would amount to nothing and be like his name, a "blank". Blanc joined the Order of DeMolay as a young man, was inducted into its Hall of Fame. After graduating from high school in 1927, he split his time between leading an orchestra, becoming the youngest conductor in the country at the age of 19, performing shtick in vaudeville shows around Washington and northern California.
Blanc began his radio career at the age of 19 in 1927, when he made his acting debut on the KGW program The Hoot Owls, where his ability to provide voices for multiple characters first attracted attention. He moved to Los Angeles in 1932, where he met Estelle Rosenbaum, whom he married a year before returning to Portland, he moved to KEX in 1933 to produce and co-host his Cobweb and Nuts show with his wife Estelle, which debuted on June 15. The program played Monday through Saturday from 11:00 pm to midnight, by the time the show ended two years it appeared from 10:30 pm to 11:00 pm. With his wife's encouragement, Blanc returned to Los Angeles and joined Warner Bros.–owned KFWB in Hollywood in 1935. He joined The Johnny Murray Show, but the following year switched to CBS Radio and The Joe Penner Show. Blanc was a regular on the NBC Red Network show The Jack Benny Program in various roles, including voicing Benny's Maxwell automobile, violin teacher Professor LeBlanc, Polly the Parrot, Benny's pet polar bear Carmichael, the train announcer.
The first role came from a mishap when the recording of the automobile's sounds failed to play on cue, prompting Blanc to take the microphone and improvise the sounds himself. The audience reacted so positively that Benny decided to dispense with the recording altogether and have Blanc continue in that role. One of Blanc's most memorable characters from Benny's radio programs was "Sy, the Little Mexican", who spoke one word at a time; the famous "Sí... Sy... Sue... sew" routine was so effective that no matter how many times it was performed, the laughter was always there, thanks to the comedic timing of Blanc and Benny. Blanc continued to work with him on radio until the series ended in 1955 and followed the program into television from Benny's 1950 debut episode through guest spots on NBC specials in the 1970s, they last appeared together on a Johnny Carson Tonight Show in January 1974. A few months Blanc spoke of Benny on a Tom Snyder Tomorrow show special aired the night of the comedian's death.
By 1946, Blanc appeared on over 15 radio programs in supporting roles. His success on The Jack Benny Program led to his own radio show on the CBS Radio Network, The Mel Blanc Show, which ran from September 3, 1946, to June 24, 1947. Blanc played himself as the hapless owner of a fix-it shop, as well as his young cousin Zookie. Blanc appeared on such other national radio programs as The Abbott and Costello Show, the Happy Postman on Burns and Allen, as August Moon on Point Sublime. During World War II, he appeared as Private Sad Sack on various radio shows, including G. I. Journal. Blanc recorded a song titled "Big Bear Lake". In December 1936, Mel Blanc joined Leon Schlesinger Productions, producing theatrical cartoon shorts for Warner Bros. After sound man Treg Brown was put in charge of cartoon voices, Carl Stalling became music director, Brown introduced Blanc to animation directors Tex Avery, Bob Clampett, Friz Freleng, Frank Tashlin, who loved his voices; the first cartoon Blanc worked on was Picador Porky as the voice of a drunken bull.
He soon after received his first starring role when he replaced Joe Dougherty as Porky Pig's voice in Porky's Duck Hunt, which marked the debut of Daffy Duck voiced by Blanc. Following this, Blanc became a prominent vocal artist for Warner Bros. voicing a wide variety of the "Looney Tunes" characters. Bugs Bunny, whom Blanc made his debut as in A Wild Hare, was