Glasgow Caledonian University
Glasgow Caledonian University is a public university in Glasgow, Scotland. It was formed in 1993 by the merger of The Queen's College and Glasgow Polytechnic. In June 2017, the university's New York partner institution, founded in 2013, was granted permission to award degrees in the state, the first higher education institution founded by a foreign university to achieve this status; the University traces its origin from The Queen's College and the Glasgow College of Technology. The Queen's College, which specialised in providing training in domestic science, received the Royal accolade of being named after Queen Elizabeth in its centenary celebrations in 1975. Queen Elizabeth was, Patron of the College since 1944. Glasgow Polytechnic, one of the largest central institutions in Scotland, offered externally validated degrees and diplomas in engineering and the humanities: the first of, a BA in Optics, followed by degrees in Social Sciences and Nursing. On 1 April 1993, the two institutions amalgamated to form Glasgow Caledonian University.
The new university took its name from the poetic Latin name for present-day Scotland. The main campus of the university is built on the site of the former Buchanan Street Station, built by the Caledonian Railway. Independent research carried out in 2015 revealed that the University contributes over £480m to Scotland's economy each year with the quantifiable lifetime premium of a one-year class of graduates estimated at around £400m, bringing the University's total annual economic impact to around £880m in Scotland alone. Annie Lennox was installed as GCU's first female chancellor, taking over the role from Nobel Peace Prize laureate Muhammad Yunus, at a ceremony in July 2018. Pamela Gillies is the Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University, appointed in 2006; the University's coat of arms is the work of university academic and artist Malcolm Lochhead and draws on four elements from the coat of arms of the University's predecessor institutions. The Caledonian Oak Tree and the Book of Knowledge were borrowed from the arms of Glasgow Polytechnic while the Saltire Ermine and the Crossed Keys were taken from the arms of The Queen's College.
A visual feature was added to the new arms with the illuminated capital letters in the Book's paragraphs reading: G C U. The Coat of Arms was matriculated by the Lord Lyon King of Arms and is inscribed into university degree parchments; the University's motto: "for the common weal", adopted since 1975, features in the full design of the arms. GCU's main campus is in Glasgow city-centre. A second campus in London is home to the British School of Fashion. In September 2013 the university founded Glasgow Caledonian New York College, an independent partner institution whose Wooster Street campus is based in the city's SoHo district. GCU's IT, engineering and construction experience is housed within the School of Computing and Built Environment; the School is composed of 8 departments: Applied Science Electrical and Electronic Engineering Mechanical Engineering Construction and Surveying Civil Engineering and Environmental Management Applied Computer Games Computing Cyber Security and NetworksThe School's links with industry include the £1.2m Doble Innovation Centre for On-Line Systems, which works on diagnostic test instruments and expert consulting and knowledge exchange services for the electric power industry.
GCU is a partner in five of the Scottish Government-funded collaborative Innovation Centres which bring knowledge from higher education institutions to solve real-world business challenges – these are DataLab, the Digital Health and Care Institute, Construction Scotland Innovation Centre and Gas Innovation Centre and CENSIS. The School performs research into built environment and connections with industry leaders in growing markets such as games design; the School has a Centre for Climate Justice, involved in policy relevant research for development and learning, broadening knowledge in the area of climate justice. The Glasgow School for Business and Society brings together disciplines in business and social sciences and research in Fashion, Risk Management and Multimedia Journalism; the School leads the University-wide delivery of the Principles for Responsible Management Education, a United Nations Global Compact-backed initiative which places social responsibility and sustainability at the top of the agenda for training future leaders.
GCU became a PRiME signatory in January 2012 and is a founding member of the UK and Ireland PRiME Chapter. GCU is a member of Business in the Community Scotland and school students and staff manage the Work Ready Action Programme, which sees students mentor school pupils from the Glasgow area. In 2015, the School's 10 BA Business Programme Set and its MSc International Fashion Marketing Programmes achieved the EPAS accreditation, becoming the first institution in Scotland and one of only 69 recognised worldwide, it is designated a Centre of Excellence by the Chartered Institute for Securities and Investment and is the only business school to offer triple-accredited degrees in financial services. The school is home to the Moffat Centre, one of the world's university research centres in tourism and travel; the School is composed of the following three departments: Department of Law, Accountancy & Risk Department of Busin
Edinburgh Festival Fringe
The Edinburgh Festival Fringe is the world's largest arts festival, which in 2018 spanned 25 days and featured more than 55,000 performances of 3,548 different shows in 317 venues. Established in 1947 as an alternative to the Edinburgh International Festival, it takes place annually in Edinburgh, Scotland, in the month of August, it is an open access performing arts festival, meaning there is no selection committee, anyone may participate, with any type of performance. The official Fringe Programme categorises shows into sections for theatre, dance, physical theatre, cabaret, children's shows, opera, spoken word and events. Comedy is the largest section, making up over one-third of the programme and the one that in modern times has the highest public profile, due in part to the Edinburgh Comedy Awards; the Festival is supported by the Festival Fringe Society, which publishes the programme, sells tickets to all events from a central physical box office and website, offers year-round advice and support to performers.
The Society's permanent location is at the Fringe Shop on the Royal Mile, in August they manage Fringe Central, a separate collection of spaces in Appleton Tower and other University of Edinburgh buildings, dedicated to providing support for Fringe participants during their time at the festival. The Fringe board of directors is drawn from members of the Festival Fringe Society, who are Fringe participants themselves – performers or administrators. Elections are held once a year, in August, Board members serve a term of four years; the Board appoints the Fringe Chief Executive Shona McCarthy who assumed the role in March 2016. The Chief Executive operates under the chair Professor Sir Timothy O'Shea; the Fringe started life when eight theatre companies turned up uninvited to the inaugural Edinburgh International Festival in 1947. With the International Festival using the city's major venues, these companies took over smaller, alternative venues for their productions. Seven performed in Edinburgh, one undertook a version of the medieval morality play "Everyman" in Dunfermline Abbey, about 20 miles north, across the River Forth in Fife.
These groups aimed to take advantage of the large assembled theatre crowds to showcase their own alternative theatre. Although at the time it was not recognised as such, this was the first Edinburgh Festival Fringe; this meant that two defining features of the future Fringe were established at the beginning – the lack of official invitations to perform and the use of unconventional venues. These groups referred to themselves as the "Festival Adjuncts" and were referred to as the "semi-official" festival, it was not until the following year, 1948, that Robert Kemp, a Scottish playwright and journalist, is credited with coining the title "Fringe" when he wrote during the second Edinburgh International Festival: Round the fringe of official Festival drama, there seems to be more private enterprise than before... I am afraid some of us are not going to be at home during the evenings! The word "fringe" had in fact been used in a review of Everyman in 1947, when a critic remarked it was a shame the show was so far out "on the fringe of the Festival".
In 1950, it was still being referred to in similar terms, with a small'f': On the fringe of the official Festival there are many praiseworthy "extras," including presentations by the Scottish Community Drama Association and Edinburgh University Dramatic Society – Dundee Courier, 24 August 1950 The Fringe did not benefit from any official organisation until 1951, when students of the University of Edinburgh set up a drop-in centre in the YMCA, where cheap food and a bed for the night were made available to participating groups. Late night revues, which would become a feature of Fringes, began to appear in the early 50s; the first one was the New Drama Group's After The Show, a series of sketches taking place after Donald Pleasence's Ebb Tide, in 1952. Among the talent to appear in early Fringe revues were Ned Sherrin in 1955, Ken Loach and Dudley Moore with the Oxford Theatre Group in 1958. Due to many reviewers only being able to attend Fringe events late night after the official festival was finished, the Fringe came to be seen as being about revues.
It was a few years. John Menzies compiled a list of shows under the title "Other Events" in their omnibus festival brochure, but it was printer C. J. Cousland, the first to publish a listings guide, in 1954; this was funded by participating companies and was entitled "Additional Entertainments", since the name "Fringe" was still not yet in regular usage. By that year, the Fringe was attracting around a dozen companies, a meeting was held to discuss creating "a small organisation to act as a brain for the Fringe", or what The Scotsman called an "official unofficial festival". A first attempt was made to provide a central booking service in 1955 by students from the university, although it lost money, blamed on those who had not taken part. Formal organisation progressed with the formation of the Festival Fringe Society; the push for such an organisation was led by director of Oxford Theatre Group. A constitution was drawn up, in which the policy of not vetting or censoring shows was set out, the Society produced the first guide to Fringe shows.
Nineteen companies participated in the Fringe in that year. By that time it provided a "complete... counter-festival programme". Not long after came the first complaints that the Fringe had become too big. Director Gerard Slevin claimed in 1961 that "it would be much better if only ten
County Armagh is one of the traditional counties of Ireland and one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the southern shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of 1,326 km² and has a population of about 174,792. County Armagh is known as the "Orchard County" because of its many apple orchards; the county is part of the historic province of Ulster. The name "Armagh" derives from the Irish word Ard meaning Macha. Macha is mentioned in The Book of the Taking of Ireland, is said to have been responsible for the construction of the hill site of Emain Macha to serve as the capital of the Ulaid kings thought to be Macha's height. From its highest point at Slieve Gullion, in the south of the County, Armagh's land falls away from its rugged south with Carrigatuke and Camlough mountains, to rolling drumlin country in the middle and west of the county and flatlands in the north where rolling flats and small hills reach sea level at Lough Neagh. County Armagh's boundary with Louth is marked by the rugged Ring of Gullion rising in the south of the county whilst much of its boundary with Monaghan and Down goes unnoticed with seamless continuance of drumlins and small lakes.
The River Blackwater marks the border with County Tyrone and Lough Neagh otherwise marks out the County's northern boundary. There are a number of uninhabited islands in the county's section of Lough Neagh: Coney Island Flat, Croaghan Flat, Phil Roe's Flat and the Shallow Flat. Despite lying in the east of Ireland, Armagh enjoys an oceanic climate influenced by the Gulf Stream with damp mild winters, temperate, wet summers. Overall temperatures drop below freezing during daylight hours, though frost is not infrequent in the months November to February. Snow lies for longer than a few hours in the elevated south-east of the County. Summers are mild and wet and although with sunshine interspersed with showers, daylight lasts for 18 hours during high-summer. Ancient Armagh was the territory of the Ulaid before the fourth century AD, it was ruled by the Red Branch. The site, subsequently the city, were named after the goddess Macha; the Red Branch play an important role in the Ulster Cycle, as well as the Cattle Raid of Cooley.
However, they were driven out of the area by the Three Collas, who invaded in the 4th century and held power until the 12th. The Clan Colla ruled the area known as Oriel for these 800 years; the chief Irish septs of the county were descendants of the Collas, the O'Hanlons and MacCanns, the Uí Néill, the O'Neills of Fews. Armagh was divided into several baronies: Armagh was held by the O'Rogans, Lower Fews was held by O'Neill of the Fews, Upper Fews were under governance of the O'Larkins, who were displaced by the MacCanns. Oneilland East was the territory of the O'Garveys, who were displaced by the MacCanns. Oneilland West, like Oneilland East, was once O'Neill territory, until it was held by the MacCanns, who were Lords of Clanbrassil. Upper and Lower Orior were O'Hanlon territory. Tiranny was ruled by Ronaghan. Miscellaneous tracts of land were ruled by O'Kelaghan; the area around the base of Slieve Guillion near Newry became home to a large number of the McGuinness clan as they were dispossessed of hereditary lands held in the County Down.
Armagh was the seat of St. Patrick, the Catholic Church continues to be his see. County Armagh is presently one of four counties of Northern Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Catholic background, according to the 2011 census; the southern part of the County has been a stronghold of support for the IRA, earning it the nickname "Bandit Country" though this is regarded as an untrue media label that has resulted in the vilification and demonisation of the local community. South Armagh is predominantly nationalist, with most of the population being opposed to any form of British presence that of a military nature; the most prominent opposition to British rule was the Provisional IRA South Armagh Brigade. On 10 March 2009, the CIRA claimed responsibility for the fatal shooting of a PSNI officer in Craigavon, County Armagh—the first police fatality in Northern Ireland since 1998; the officer was fatally shot by a sniper as he and a colleague investigated "suspicious activity" at a house nearby when a window was smashed by youths causing the occupant to phone the police.
The PSNI officers responded to the emergency call, giving a CIRA sniper the chance to shoot and kill officer Stephen Carroll. County Armagh is no longer used as an administrative district for local Government purposes. County Armagh ceased to serve as a local government unit in 1973; the county is covered for local government purposes by four district councils, namely Armagh City and District Council, most of Craigavon Borough Council the western third of Newry and Mourne District Council and a part of Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council, centred around Peatlands Park. With the proposed reform of local government in Northern Ireland in 2011, County Armagh would have comprised part of two new council areas, Armagh City and Bann District, Newry City and Down. Armagh ceased to serve as an electoral constituency in 1983, but remains the core of the Newry and Armagh constituency represented at Westminster and
John Maclean (Scottish socialist)
John Maclean was a Scottish schoolteacher and revolutionary socialist of the Red Clydeside era. He was notable for his outspoken opposition to the First World War, which caused his arrest under the Defence of the Realm Act and loss of his teaching post, after which he became a full-time Marxist lecturer and organiser. In April 1918 he was arrested for sedition, his 75-minute speech from the dock became a celebrated text for Scottish left-wingers, he was released after the November armistice. Maclean believed that Scottish workers were fitted to lead the revolution, talked of "Celtic communism", inspired by clan spirit, but his launch of a Scottish Workers Republican Party and a Scottish Communist Party were unsuccessful. Although he had been appointed Bolshevik representative in Scotland, he was not in harmony with the Communist Party of Great Britain though it had absorbed the British Socialist Party, to which he had belonged. In captivity, Maclean had been on hunger strike, prolonged force-feeding had permanently affected his health.
He died of pneumonia, aged forty-four. Maclean was born in Pollokshaws on the outskirts of Glasgow, Scotland, his father Daniel was a potter who hailed from Bo ` his mother Ann came from Corpach. His parents spoke Gaelic and he was raised in a Calvinist household, Maclean trained as a schoolteacher under the auspices of the Free Church and attended part-time classes at the University of Glasgow, graduating with a Master of Arts degree in 1904.. Maclean first came to politics through the Pollokshaws Progressive Union and Robert Blatchford's Merrie England, he became convinced that the living standards of the working-classes could only be improved by social revolution and it was as a Marxist that he joined the Social Democratic Federation, remained in the organisation as it formed the British Socialist Party. In 1906, Maclean gave a series of speeches in Pollokshaws which led to the formation of an SDF branch there, through these, he met James D. MacDougall, who became his strongest supporter for the remainder of his life.
Maclean was an active member of the Co-operative movement and it was his prominent role that led the Renfrewshire Co-operative Societies to pressurise local school boards to provide facilities for adult classes in economics. By the time of World War I his socialism was of a revolutionary nature, although he worked with others on the Clyde Workers' Committee who were more reformist in outlook, such as his friend James Maxton, he opposed the war, as he felt it was a war of imperialism which divided workers from one another, as he explained in his letter to Forward. His politics made him well known to the authorities of the day, on 27 October 1915 he was arrested under the Defence of the Realm Act and Govan School Board sacked him from his teaching post at Lorne Street Primary School; as a consequence, he became a full-time Marxist lecturer and organiser, educating other Glaswegian workers in Marxist theory. He would found the Scottish Labour College. During World War I, he was active in anti-war circles and was imprisoned in 1916 for breaching the Defense of the Realm Act, but was released in 1917 after demonstrations following the February Revolution in Russia.
In January 1918 Maclean was elected to the chair of the Third All-Russian Congress of Soviets and a month appointed Bolshevik consul in Scotland. He established a Consulate at 12 South Portland Street in Glasgow but was refused recognition by the British Government; as a revolutionary enemy of what he saw as an imperialist war, Maclean was fiercely opposed to the stance adopted by the leadership of the BSP around H. M. Hyndman; however he was not to be a part of the new leadership which replaced Hyndman in 1916. Maclean was a supporter of Home Rule for Ireland but opposed an Independent Ireland because he was afraid that an Independent Catholic Ireland would be disastrous, he became committed to Irish independence as part of a worldwide anti-imperialist struggle. He wrote a pamphlet called ` The Irish Tragedy: Scotland's Disgrace'. Following the Easter Rising he had contacts with members of the Scottish Divisional Board of the Irish Republican Brotherhood In the summer of 1907 he went on a speaking tour of Ireland, here he made friends with Jim Larkin.
When the Easter Rising happened he distanced himself from it because he viewed it to be a Bourgeois-democratic revolution and in contradiction with his pacifist principles. In July 1919 he gave speeches. By the end of his life his attitude to Ireland had been radicalised and he gave up his opposition to physical force Irish republicanism, he described the Irish War of Independence as "The Irish fight for freedom", defended killings of "scabs and traitors to their race", condoned the assassination of a magistrate, Alan Bell, saying "What self-respecting man or woman can blame the Irish for ridding the earth of such a foul skunk?". He saw the war in Ireland as strengthening the Bolshevik revolution in Russia, arguing that "Irish Sinn Féiners, who make no profession of socialism or communism... are doing more to help Russia and the revolution than all we professed Marxian Bolsheviks in Britain". He saw Irish independence as being a positive thing for Scotland. Maclean believed that the British "starve youths out of their native land" and that the ending of this British policy in Ireland would decrease Irish emigration to Scotland, thus allowing for more opportunities for Scottish workers.
The Irish are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies. For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been a Gaelic people. Viking invasions of Ireland during the 8th to 11th centuries established the cities of Dublin, Waterford and Limerick. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of the smaller Northern Ireland; the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Northern Irish or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports and mythology. Although Irish was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language.
The Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, the Irish had their own religion, law code and style of dress. There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars"; the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe", followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C. S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides. Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.
The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found in English-speaking countries Great Britain, the United States and Australia. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand; the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland. Many Icelanders have Scottish Gaelic forebears. During the past 12,500 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores; the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are unknown. Neither their languages nor the terms they used to describe; as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves.
Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, Hibernia to the Romans. Scotland takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia which became known as Scotland. Other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael; this last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations; the terms Irish and Ireland are derived from the goddess Ériu. A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Conmaicne and Ulaid.
In the cases of the Conmaicne, Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg and Wihtlaeg; the Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson proposed that the Norse gods were historical war leaders and kings, who became cult figures set into society as gods; this view is in agreement with Irish historians such as Francis John Byrne. One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons conquered Ireland around 1000 BC or
Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
Easterhouse is a suburb of Glasgow, located 6 miles east of the city centre built on land gained from the county of Lanarkshire as part of a boundary expansion of Glasgow prior to the Second World War. Building began in the mid-1950s by Glasgow Corporation; the goal was to provide better housing for the people of the East End living in sub-standard conditions. The area is on south of the River Kelvin and Campsie Fells, it was built to house over 50,000 people but as of the 2001 UK Census, its population was 26,495, of which 96.85% were born in Scotland. 172 people or 0.63% of this population were born outside Scotland, the lowest percentage in the country. In 2011, the population of Easterhouse decreased to 8,923 based on a narrower definition of the area and regeneration of housing which replaced tenements with houses. Neighbourhoods considered to be part of Easterhouse include Wellhouse, Provanhall, Lochend and Commonhead; the nearby communities of Barlanark, Cranhill and Ruchazie were constructed during the same period using the same general building principles.
The remains of crannogs from the Iron Age were found in Bishop Loch, dating from around 700 BC by an archaeological dig in 1898. The Bishops of Glasgow were granted the land on which much of modern Easterhouse was built when the church of Glasgow was elevated into a bishopric in the 12th century; the remains of the Bishop of Glasgow's country palace have been revealed by the West of Scotland Archaeology Service next to Bishops Loch at Lochwood. The palace was called Lochwood Castle and was demolished after the reformation to build a mausoleum at nearby Bedlay Castle, in turn dismantled and the stones reused as a lodge in the early nineteenth century. Local oral history talks of the Bishops of Glasgow sailing in a Venetian gondola from Glasgow Cathedral to his palace at Bishops Loch. Hogganfield Loch is the source of the Molindinar Burn next to the Cathedral, so some truth may lie in this claim; the Forestry Commission administers land around Easterhouse under the name'Bishops Estate', thus maintaining a link to the medieval bishops.
The far western and far northern parts of modern-day Easterhouse are believed to have been administered by the prebends of Barlanark, called the'Lands of Provan' but the boundaries of this has never been defined. The 15th century mansion house, Provan Hall, is a reminder of this ecclesiastical Pre-Reformation Papal administration; the southern and eastern parts of the area, Blairtummock, Easterhouse, Hallhill and Commonhead were part of the Bishopric although granted by Malcolm IV to the Monks of Newbattle a little after 1162 in an unnamed charter by permission of Bishop Herbert of the See of Glasgow. The lands remained under the monks until 1268 when Bishop John de Cheam redeemed the'lands along the Clud' called Kermyl - most of the area now comprising modern Easterhouse were included in this grant - to sustain three chaplains to'minister for the salvation of the Bishop's soul and for the souls of all the faithful deceased'. Easterhouse has always had a poor reputation in the UK as a whole.
Easterhouse's reputation is due to riots in the 1970s that started there and spread to surrounding areas such as Garrowhill and Barlarnark. Another factor negatively affecting the area's reputation is that it consists of council estates; the crime problems in Easterhouse and as many surrounding areas in Glasgow's East End is associated with "Ned" culture. Easterhouse is famous for having a gang problem, though not in the traditional sense. Many members of said gangs have stated that there are no leaders, no money and no narcotics involved but fighting between gangs is purely territorial; these gangs are fuelled by alcohol, a large problem in working-class areas of Glasgow although most prominent in Easterhouse. This is due to the drinking culture and availability of cheap beverages such as the infamous Buckfast. Drugs are a problem in the area, as many people have died of drug-related causes; however a charity formed in 1991 called "GEAAP" has tried to improve the alcohol problems of the area.
Their main aims are to get any child victim of alcohol abuse to speak out which they have done by collaborating with local schools such as Garrowhill Primary School and Bannerman High School another important part of the charity is to help alcoholics overcome their addiction. The gangs have been formed by young, unemployed young adults in Easterhouse whose complaints are that there is nothing to do in the area, so drinking goes on throughout the day until erupting into violence at night; the gangs are numerous in Easterhouse and there are about sixteen in a 6½ mile radius such as: the Provy in the centre of Easterhouse, or the Anarchists in Easthall. All sixteen gangs come from a different housing estate, where they will stay to avoid conflict; the gangs are not exclusive to Easterhouse. The area maintains a sub-par life expectancy, a high crime rate, average pay in the area. Easterhouse's reputation does nothing to help it reform as today, it is still seen as a poor and violent place. Recent attempts to improve the areas image include: the construction of the Bridge, a public library and a swimming pool attached to John Wheatley College.
In Timothy Pont's map and manuscript of 1596 the area where the late 19th century village of Easterhouse developed