The Dominican Republic is a country located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region. It occupies the eastern five-eighths of the island, which it shares with the nation of Haiti, making Hispaniola one of two Caribbean islands, along with Saint Martin, that are shared by two sovereign states; the Dominican Republic is the second-largest Caribbean nation by area at 48,671 square kilometers, third by population with 10 million people, of which three million live in the metropolitan area of Santo Domingo, the capital city. Christopher Columbus landed on the island on December 5, 1492, which the native Taíno people had inhabited since the 7th century; the colony of Santo Domingo became the site of the first permanent European settlement in the Americas, the oldest continuously inhabited city, the first seat of the Spanish colonial rule in the New World. After more than three hundred years of Spanish rule the Dominican people declared independence in November 1821.
The leader of the independence movement José Núñez de Cáceres, intended the Dominican nation to unite with the country of Gran Colombia, but no longer under Spain's custody the newly independent Dominicans were forcefully annexed by Haiti in February 1822. Independence came 22 years after victory in the Dominican War of Independence in 1844. Over the next 72 years the Dominican Republic experienced internal conflicts and a brief return to colonial status before permanently ousting Spanish rule during the Dominican War of Restoration of 1863–1865. A United States occupation lasted eight years between 1916 and 1924, a subsequent calm and prosperous six-year period under Horacio Vásquez was followed by the dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo until 1961. A civil war in 1965, the country's last, was ended by U. S. military occupation and was followed by the authoritarian rule of Joaquín Balaguer, the rules of Antonio Guzmán & Salvador Jorge Blanco. Since 1996, the Dominican Republic has moved toward representative democracy and has been led by Leonel Fernández for most of the time since 1996.
Danilo Medina, the Dominican Republic's current president, succeeded Fernandez in 2012, winning 51% of the electoral vote over his opponent ex-president Hipólito Mejía. The Dominican Republic has the ninth-largest economy in Latin America and is the largest economy in the Caribbean and Central American region. Over the last two decades, the Dominican Republic has had one of the fastest-growing economies in the Americas – with an average real GDP growth rate of 5.4% between 1992 and 2014. GDP growth in 2014 and 2015 reached 7.3 and 7.0% the highest in the Western Hemisphere. In the first half of 2016 the Dominican economy grew 7.4% continuing its trend of rapid economic growth. Recent growth has been driven by construction, manufacturing and mining; the country is the site of the second largest gold mine in the Pueblo Viejo mine. Private consumption has been strong, as a result of low inflation, job creation, as well as a high level of remittances; the Dominican Republic is the most visited destination in the Caribbean.
The year-round golf courses are major attractions. A geographically diverse nation, the Dominican Republic is home to both the Caribbean's tallest mountain peak, Pico Duarte, the Caribbean's largest lake and point of lowest elevation, Lake Enriquillo; the island has an average temperature of biological diversity. The country is the site of the first cathedral, castle and fortress built in the Americas, located in Santo Domingo's Colonial Zone, a World Heritage Site. Music and sport are of great importance in the Dominican culture, with Merengue and Bachata as the national dance and music, baseball as the favorite sport; the "Dominican" word comes from the Latin Dominicus. However, the island has this name by Santo Domingo de Guzmán, founder of the Order of the Dominicans; the Dominicans established a house of high studies in the island of Santo Domingo that today is known as the Universidad Autónoma de Santo Domingo and dedicated themselves to the protection of the native taínos of the island, who were subjected to slavery, to the education of the inhabitants of the island.
For most of its history, up until independence, the country was known as Santo Domingo—the name of its present capital and patron saint, Saint Dominic—and continued to be known as such in English until the early 20th century. The residents were called "Dominicans", the adjective form of "Domingo", the revolutionaries named their newly independent country "Dominican Republic". In the national anthem of the Dominican Republic, the term "Dominicans" does not appear; the author of its lyrics, Emilio Prud'Homme uses the poetic term "Quisqueyans". The word "Quisqueya" derives from a native tongue of the Taino Indians and means "Mother of the lands", it is used in songs as another name for the country. The name of the country is shortened to "the D. R." The Arawakan-speaking Taíno moved into Hispaniola from the north east region of what is now known as South America, displacing earlier inhabitants, c. AD 650, they engaged in hunting and gathering. The fierce Caribs drove the Taíno to the northeastern Caribbean during much of the 15th century.
The estimates of Hispaniola's population in 1492 vary including one hundred thousand, three hundred thousand, an
El Seibo Province
El Seibo, alternatively spelt El Seybo, is a province of the Dominican Republic. Before 1992 it included; the province as of June 20, 2006 is divided into the following municipalities and municipal districts within them: Santa Cruz de El Seibo, head municipality of the province Pedro Sánchez San Francisco-Vicentillo Santa Lucía Miches El Cedro La Gina The following is a sortable table of the municipalities and municipal districts with population figures as of the 2014 estimate. Urban population are those living of municipal districts. Rural population are those living in the neighborhoods outside them; the population figures are from the 2014 population estimate. For comparison with the municipalities and municipal districts of other provinces see the list of municipalities and municipal districts of the Dominican Republic. For comparison with the municipalities and municipal districts of other provinces see the list of municipalities and municipal districts of the Dominican Republic. In the 2006 elections, one senator and three deputies were elected for the province.
The senator is Juan Roberto Rodríguez Hernández from the Dominican Revolutionary Party. The deputies are Kenia Milagros Mejía Mercedes of the Dominican Liberation Party, Juan Maldonado Castro, Juan Roberto Rodríguez Hernández. Carlos Febles - baseball player and coach Oficina Nacional de Estadística, Statistics Portal of the Dominican Republic Oficina Nacional de Estadística, Maps with administrative division of the provinces of the Dominican Republic, downloadable in PDF format
People of the Dominican Republic
Dominicans are people who are ethnically associated with the Dominican Republic. Dominican was the name for the inhabitants of the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo, the site of the first European settlement in the Western Hemisphere; the culture held in common by most Dominicans is referred to as mainstream Dominican culture, a mixture of different influences and customs having origins predominately in a European cultural basis derived from the traditions of Spain from Andalusia and the Canary Islands. The country has been influenced by African culture, Native Taino being a significant minority; the Dominican Republic has received immigration from other parts of Spain such as Catalonia as well as from other European countries such as France and Portugal. The majority of Dominicans reside in the Dominican Republic, while there is a large Dominican diaspora in the United States and Spain; the population of the Dominican Republic in 2016 was estimated at 10.2 million by the National Bureau of Statistics of the Dominican Republic.
The Dominican Republic was known as Santo Domingo, the name of its present capital and its patron saint, Saint Dominic. Hence the residents were called "Dominicanos", the adjective form of "Domingo", the revolutionaries named their newly independent country "La República Dominicana", it was referred to as the "Republic of San Domingo" in English language 19th Century publications. The first recorded use of the word "Dominican" is found in a letter written by King Phillip IV of Spain in 1625 to the inhabitants of the Captaincy General of Santo Domingo. In this letter, written before the arrival of French settlers on the Western side of the island, the King congratulates the Dominicans for their heroic efforts in defending the territory from an attack by a Dutch fleet; this letter can be found today in the "Archivo General de Indias" in Spain. Another name that's been used is "Quisqueyans". In the national anthem of the Dominican Republic the author uses the poetic term Quisqueyans instead of Dominicans.
The word "Quisqueya" is a derivative from a native tongue of the Taino Indians which means, "Mother of the Lands." It is used in songs as another name for the country. Prior to European colonization the inhabitants of the island were the Arawakan-speaking Taíno, a seafaring people who moved into Hispaniola from the north-east region of South America, displacing earlier inhabitants, c. AD 650; the native Tainos divided the island into several chiefdoms and engaged in farming, fishing,as well as hunting, gathering. The Spaniards arrived in 1492. Columbus and his crew were the first Europeans to encounter the Taíno people. Columbus described the native Taínos as a physically tall, well-proportioned people, with a noble character. After amicable relationships, the Taínos resisted the conquest, led by the female Chief Anacaona of Xaragua and her ex-husband Chief Caonabo of Maguana, as well as Chiefs Guacanagaríx, Guamá, Enriquillo; the latter's successes gained his people an autonomous enclave for a time on the island.
Within a few years after 1492 the population of Taínos had declined drastically, due to warfare and intermixing. Census records from 1514 reveal that at least 40% of Spanish men in Santo Domingo were married to Taino women, many present-day Dominicans have significant Taíno ancestry. Christopher Columbus arrived on the island in December 5, 1492, during the first of his four voyages to the Americas, he claimed the land for Spain and named it La Española due to its diverse climate and terrain which reminded him of the Spanish landscape. In 1496 Bartholomew Columbus, Christopher's brother, built the city of Santo Domingo, Western Europe's first permanent settlement in the "New World." The colony thus became the springboard for the further Spanish conquest of America and for decades the headquarters of Spanish colonial power in the hemisphere. The southern city of Santo Domingo served as a hub for military expeditions pushing across to the American mainland. In 1501, the colony began to import African slaves.
By the mid-17th century the French sent colonists and privateers to settle the northwestern coast of Hispaniola due to its strategic position in the region. After decades of armed struggles with the French, Spain ceded the western coast of the island to France with the 1697 Treaty of Ryswick, whilst the Central Plateau remained under Spanish domain. On April 17, 1655, the English landed on nearby Hispaniola and marched 30 miles overland to Santo Domingo, the main Spanish stronghold on the island; the sweltering heat soon felled many of the northern European invaders. The Spanish defenders, having had time to prepare an ambushed and sprang on them with mounted lancers, sending them careening back; the elite defenders of Santo Domingo were amply rewarded with titles from the Spanish Crown. By the middle of the 18th century, the population was bolstered by European emigration from the Canary Islands, resettling the northern part of the colony and planting tobacco in the Cibao Valley, importation of slaves was renewed.
After 1700, with the arrival of new Spanish colonists, the African slave trade resumed. However, as industry moved from sugar to cattle ranching and caste divisions became less important leading to a blend of cultures—Spanish and indigenous—which would form the basis of national identity for Dominicans, it is estimated that the population of the colony in 1777 was 400,000, of which 100,000 were Europeans and Criollos, 60,000 African, 100.000 mestizo, 60,000 zambo and 100,000 mulatto. Recent studies in population genetics have concluded that the Dominican gene pool is on average predominantly European, wi
Victor/Victoria is a 1982 British-American musical comedy film directed by Blake Edwards and starring Julie Andrews, James Garner, Robert Preston, Lesley Ann Warren, Alex Karras, John Rhys-Davies. The film scored by Henry Mancini, with lyrics by Leslie Bricusse. Released by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, it was adapted in 1995 as a Broadway musical; the film won the Academy Award for Best Original Score. It is a remake of the 1933 German film Viktor und Viktoria. In 1934 Paris, Toddy, a performer at Chez Lui in Paris, sees Labisse, the club owner, auditioning a frail, impoverished soprano, Victoria Grant. After her failed audition, Victoria reluctantly returns to her apartment to find herself deciding whether or not to spend her rent money for food; that night, when Richard, a hustler whom Toddy pays for sex, comes to Chez Lui as part of a straight foursome, Toddy incites a brawl. Labisse bans him from the club. Walking home, he spots Victoria in a restaurant, she invites him to join her. As neither of them can pay for the meal, she dumps a cockroach in her salad to avoid paying, but it escapes and mayhem ensues.
The duo run through the rain to Toddy's, he invites her to stay when she finds that the rain has shrunk her cheap clothes. The next morning, Richard shows up to collect his things. Victoria, wearing his clothes, hides in Toddy's closet; when she thinks that Richard might harm Toddy, she kicks him out. Seeing this, Toddy is struck with the inspiration of passing Victoria off as a man and presenting her to Andre Cassell, the most successful agent in Paris, as a female impersonator. Cassell accepts her as Count Victor Grazinski, a gay Polish female impersonator and Toddy's new boyfriend. Cassell gets her a booking in a nightclub show and invites a collection of club owners to the opening. Among the guests is King Marchand, a shady owner of nightclubs in Chicago, his ditzy moll Norma Cassidy and burly bodyguard Bernstein, a.k.a. Squash. Victor is an immediate hit, King is smitten, but he is shocked when she is "revealed" to be a man at the end of the act. King, however, is convinced. After a quarrel with Norma, King sends her back to America.
Determined to get the truth, King sneaks into Victoria and Toddy's suite and confirms his suspicion when he spies her getting into the bath. He invites Victoria and Cassell to Chez Lui. Another fight breaks out. Squash and Toddy are arrested, along with many of the club clientele. King kisses Victoria, pretending that he does not care about Victoria's gender, leading them to get together. Squash catches King in bed with Victoria. King tries to explain, but Squash reveals he himself is gay. Meanwhile, Labisse hires a P. I. Charles Bovin, to investigate Victor. Victoria and King live together for a while, but keeping up her deception strains the relationship to the breaking point, King ends it. Back in Chicago, Norma tells King's partner Sal Andretti. At the same time that Victoria has decided to give up the persona of Victor in order to be with King, Sal arrives and demands that King transfer his share of the empire to Sal for a fraction of its worth. Squash tells Victoria what is happening, she shows Norma that she is a woman, saving King's stake.
That night at the club, Cassell tells Toddy and Victoria that Labisse has lodged a complaint against him and "Victor" for perpetrating a fraud. The inspector tells Labisse that the performer is a man and Labisse is an idiot. In the end, Victoria joins King in the club as her real self; the announcer says that Victor is going to perform, but instead of Victoria, Toddy masquerades as "Victor". After an intentionally disastrous, but hilarious performance, Toddy claims that this is his last performance; the vocal numbers in the film are presented with choreography by Paddy Stone. However, the lyrics or situations of some of the songs are calculated to relate to the unfolding drama. Thus, the two staged numbers "Le Jazz Hot" and "The Shady Dame from Seville" help to present Victoria as a female impersonator; the latter number is reinterpreted by Toddy for diversionary purposes in the plot, the cozy relationship of Toddy and Victoria is promoted by the song "You and Me", sung before the audience at the nightclub.
"Gay Paree" – Toddy "Le Jazz Hot!" – Victoria "The Shady Dame from Seville" – Victoria "You and Me" – Toddy, Victoria "Chicago, Illinois" – Norma "Crazy World" – Victoria "Finale/Shady Dame from Seville" – Toddy Occasionally and Toddy sing "Home on the Range" when they are in the hotel. The film's screenplay was adapted by Blake Edwards and Hans Hoemburg from the 1933 German film Viktor und Viktoria by Reinhold Schünzel. According to Edwards, the screenplay took only one month to write. There was a 1935 remake named First a Girl, made in the United Kingdom and directed by Victor Saville, about a woman who stands in for a female impersonator and becomes a hit. Julie Andrews watched the 1933 version to prepare for her role; the film had been planned as early as 1978 with Julie Andrews to star alongside Peter Sellers, but Sellers died in 1980 while Andrews and Blake Edwards were filming S. O. B. So Robert Preston had to be cast in the role of Toddy, envisaged for Sellers; the costume worn by Julie Andrews in the number "The Shady Dame from Seville" is in fact the same costume worn by Robert Preston
Rafael Leónidas Trujillo Molina, nicknamed El Jefe, was a Dominican politician and dictator, who ruled the Dominican Republic from February 1930 until his assassination in May 1961. He served as president from 1930 to 1938 and again from 1942 to 1952, ruling for the rest of the time as an unelected military strongman under figurehead presidents, his 31 years in power, to Dominicans known as the Trujillo Era, are considered one of the bloodiest eras in the Americas, as well as a time of a personality cult, when monuments to Trujillo were in abundance. Trujillo and his regime were responsible for many deaths, including between 20,000 and 30,000 Haitians in the infamous Parsley massacre. During this long period of oppression and death, the Trujillo government extended its policy of state terrorism beyond national borders. Notorious examples of Trujillo’s reach abroad are the unsuccessful assassination attempt in Caracas against Venezuelan President Rómulo Betancourt, the abduction and subsequent disappearance in New York City of the Spaniard Jesús Galíndez, the murder of writer José Almoina in Mexico a Spaniard, crimes committed against Cubans, Costa Ricans, Puerto Ricans, as well as United States citizens.
The Trujillo era unfolded in a Hispanic Caribbean environment, fertile for dictatorial regimes. In the countries of the Caribbean Basin alone, his dictatorship was concurrent, in whole or in part, with those in Cuba, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and Haiti. In retrospect, the Trujillo dictatorship has been characterized as more prominent and more brutal than those that rose and fell around it. Trujillo's rule brought the country a great deal of stability and prosperity throughout his 31-year reign; the price, was high—civil liberties were non-existent and human rights violations were routine. Due to the longevity of Trujillo's rule, a detached evaluation of his legacy is difficult. Supporters of Trujillo claim that he reorganized both the state and the economy, left vast infrastructure to the country. From a moral point of view, however, a detached evaluation is not difficult at all. Everyone agrees on the brutality of his rule, critics claim that much of the country's wealth wound up in the hands of his family or close associates.
Rafael Leonidas Trujillo Molina was born on October 24, 1891 in San Cristóbal, Dominican Republic into a lower-middle-class family. His father was José Trujillo Valdez, the son of a Spanish sergeant, who arrived in Santo Domingo as a member of the Spanish reinforcement troops during the annexation era. Trujillo's mother was Altagracia Julia Molina Chevalier known as Mama Julia, the daughter of Pedro Molina Peña, of colonial Dominican origin, the teacher Luisa Erciná Chevalier, whose parents, although from Haiti, were predominantly of French origin: her father, Justin Alexis Víctor Turenne Carrié Blaise, was of French descent, while her mother, Eleonore Juliette Chevallier Moreau, was part of Haiti's mulatto class. Trujillo was the third of eleven children. In 1897, at age six, Trujillo was registered in the school of Juan Hilario Meriño. One year he transferred to the school of Broughton, where he became a pupil of Eugenio María de Hostos and remained there for the rest of his primary schooling.
At the age of 16, Trujillo got a job as a telegraph operator. Shortly after Trujillo turned to crime—cattle stealing, check counterfeiting, postal robbery, he spent several months in prison, which did not deter Trujillo, as he formed a violent gang of robbers called the 42. In 1916, the United States occupied the Dominican Republic due to threats of defaulting on foreign debts; the occupying force soon established a Dominican army constabulary to impose order. Trujillo joined the National Guard in 1918 and trained with the U. S. Marines. Seeing opportunity, Trujillo impressed the recruiters and won promotion from cadet to general and commander-in chief of the Army in only nine years. A rebellion against President Horacio Vásquez broke out in February 1930 in Santiago. Trujillo secretly cut a deal with rebel leader Rafael Estrella Ureña; as the rebels marched toward Santo Domingo, Vásquez ordered Trujillo to suppress them. However, feigning "neutrality", Trujillo kept his men in barracks, allowing Estrella's rebels to take the capital unopposed.
On 3 March, Estrella was proclaimed acting president, with Trujillo confirmed as head of the police and of the army. As per their agreement, Trujillo became the presidential nominee of the Patriotic Coalition of Citizens, with Estrella as his running mate; the other candidates became targets of harassment by the army. When it became apparent that the army would not allow anyone other than Trujillo to campaign unhindered, the other candidates pulled out; the Trujillo-Estrella ticket was proclaimed victorious with an implausible 99 percent of the vote. In a note to the State Department, American ambassador Charles Boyd Curtis wrote that Trujillo received far more votes than actual voters. Three and a half weeks after Trujillo ascended to the Presidency the destructive Hurricane San Zenon hit Santo Domingo and left 2,000 dead; as a response to this disaster, Trujillo placed the Dominican Republic under martial law and began to rebuild the city. After the
Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra
The Pontificia Universidad Católica Madre y Maestra, named after Pope John XXIII's encyclical Mater et magistra, that is, Mother and Teacher, is the first private, Roman Catholic, university in the Dominican Republic. The university grants undergraduate, graduate and professional degrees through three campuses, its main campus is in the city of Santiago de los Caballeros, it has smaller campus in Santo Domingo and an extension in Puerto Plata. PUCMM has been listed as the second best university in the Dominican Republic, after UNIBE, by QS Latin America University Rankings; the university was established on September 9, 1962 and it has become one of the country's top institutions of higher education. It was the first University to offer Industrial, Electrical and Electronics Engineering careers, it offers graduate level degrees and dual degrees with associated universities in the United States and France. The university was recognized in Quacquarelli Symonds top Latin American universities 2012 by ranking in at 205 out of the top 250 universities in the region.
The PUCMM School of Business is the highest ranking school of business in the Dominican Republic followed by the School of Business of the UASD. This ranking was done by their prestigious Palmes business school ranking; the PUCMM received the 2 Palmes ranking which represents a Good business school with regional influence. In 1991, the institution was delegated as the responsible for country domain registration, that is.do domains. School of Social and Administrative Sciences: Business Administration, Hotel Management, Social Communication, Financial Management and Auditing, Psychology, Economics and Environmental Management. School of Engineering: Industrial Engineering and Computer Engineering, Telematics Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electromechanical Engineering, Electronic Engineering. School of Sciences and Humanities: Architecture, Basic Education, Secondary Education, Philosophy. School of Health Sciences: Physical Therapy, Stomatology, Nursing. Mater et magistra Official website Dominican Republic Student & University Guide
The Lebanese people are the people inhabiting or originating from Lebanon. The term may include those who had inhabited Mount Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains prior to the creation of the modern Lebanese state; the religious groups among the Lebanese people are Shias, Maronites, Greek Orthodox, Druze, Protestants. There is a large diaspora in North America, South America, Europe and Africa; as the relative proportion of the various sects is politically sensitive, Lebanon has not collected official census data on ethnic background since the 1932 under the French Mandate. It is therefore difficult to have an exact demographic analysis of Lebanese society; the largest concentration of people of Lebanese ancestry may be in Brazil having an estimated population of 5.8 to 7 million, but it may be an exaggeration, given that an official survey conducted by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics showed that less than 1 million Brazilians claimed any Middle-Eastern origin. The Lebanese have always traveled the world, many of them settling permanently, most notably in the last two centuries.
Reduced in numbers and estimated to have lost their status as a majority in Lebanon itself as a result of their emigration, Christians still remain one of the principal religious groups in the country. Descendants of Lebanese Christians make up the majority of Lebanese people worldwide, appearing principally in the diaspora; the people residing in Lebanon—both those who would become Muslim and the vast majority who would remain Christian, along with the tiny Jewish minority—still spoke Aramaic, or more a Western Aramaic language. However, since at least the 15th century, the majority of people of all faiths living in what is now Lebanon have been Arabic-speaking, or more speakers of Lebanese Arabic, although up until the 17th century, travellers in the Lebanon still reported on several Aramaic-speaking villages. Among the Lebanese Maronites, Aramaic still remains the liturgical language of the Maronite Church, although in an Eastern Aramaic form, distinct from the spoken Aramaic of Lebanon, a Western Aramaic language.
As the second of two liturgical languages of Judaism, Aramaic was retained as a language in the sphere of religion among Lebanese Jews, although here too in an Eastern Aramaic form. Among Lebanese Muslims, Aramaic was lost twice, once in the shift to Arabic in the vernacular and again in the religious sphere, since Arabic is the liturgical language of Islam; some Lebanese Christians Maronites, identify themselves as Lebanese rather than Arab, seeking to draw "on the Phoenician past to try to forge an identity separate from the prevailing Arab culture". They argue that Arabization represented a shift to the Arabic language as the vernacular of the Lebanese people, that, according to them, no actual shift of ethnic identity, much less ancestral origins, occurred. With their own histories and lore, that therefore they do not belong to the one pan-Arab ethnicity, thus such categorisation is erred or inapplicable. Certain portions of Lebanon's Christian population in particular tend to stress aspects of Lebanon's non-Arab prior history to encompass all Lebanon's historical stages, instead of considering the beginning of Lebanese history being with the Arab conquests.
In light of this "old controversy about identity", some Lebanese prefer to see Lebanon, Lebanese culture and themselves as part of "Mediterranean" and "Levantine" civilization, in a concession to Lebanon's various layers of heritage, both indigenous, foreign non-Arab, Arab. The total population of Lebanese people is estimated at 13-18 million. Of these, the vast majority, or 8.6 - 14 million, are in the Lebanese diaspora, 4.7 million in Lebanon itself. There are 4.7 million Lebanese citizens in Lebanon. In addition to this figure, there are an additional 1 million foreign workers, about 470,000 Palestinian refugees in the nation. Lebanon is a home to various ethnic minorities found refuge in the country over the centuries. Prominent ethnic minorities in the country include the Armenians, the Kurds, the Turks, the Assyrians, the Iranians and many European ethnicities. There are a small number of nomadic Dom Gypsies The Lebanese diaspora consists of 8.6 - 14 million, both Lebanese-born living abroad and those born-abroad of Lebanese descent.
The majority of the Lebanese in the diaspora are Christians, disproportionately so in the Americas where the vast majority reside. An estimate figure show. Lebanese abroad are considered "rich and influential" and over the course of time immigration has yielded Lebanese "commercial networks" throughout the world; the largest number of Lebanese is to be found in Brazil, where according to the Brazilian and Lebanese governments claim, there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent. These figures, may be an exaggeration given that, according to a 2008 survey conducted by IBGE, in 2008, covering only the states of Amazonas, Paraíba, São Paulo, Rio Grande do Sul, Mato Grosso and Distrito Federal, 0.9% of white Brazilian respondents said they had family origins in the Middle EastLarge numbers reside elsewhere in North America, most notably