Ludwig I of Bavaria
Ludwig I was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states. Born in the Hôtel des Deux-Ponts in Strasbourg, he was the son of Count Palatine Maximilian Joseph of Zweibrücken by his first wife Princess Augusta Wilhelmine of Hesse-Darmstadt. At the time of his birth, his father was an officer in the French army stationed at Strasbourg, he was the namesake of Louis XVI of France. On 1 April 1795 his father succeeded Ludwig's uncle, Charles II, as duke of Zweibrücken, on 16 February 1799 became Elector of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Arch-Steward of the Empire, Duke of Berg on the extinction of the Sulzbach line with the death of the elector Charles Theodore, his father assumed the title of King of Bavaria on 1 January 1806. Starting in 1803 Ludwig studied in Landshut where he was taught by Johann Michael Sailer and in Göttingen. On 12 October 1810 he married Therese of Saxe-Hildburghausen, the daughter of Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen; the wedding was the occasion of the first-ever Oktoberfest.
Ludwig rejected the alliance of his father with Napoleon I of France but in spite of his anti-French politics the crown prince had to join the emperor's wars with allied Bavarian troops in 1806. As commander of the 1st Bavarian Division in VII Corps, he served under Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre in 1809, he led his division in action at the Battle of Abensberg on 20 April. With the Treaty of Ried of 8 October 1813 Bavaria left the Confederation of the Rhine and agreed to join the Sixth Coalition against Napoleon in exchange for a guarantee of her continued sovereign and independent status. On 14 October, Bavaria made a formal declaration of war against Napoleonic France; the treaty was passionately backed by Marshal von Wrede. At the 1815 Congress of Vienna, Ludwig advocated a German national policy; until 1816 the crown prince served as governor-general of the Duchy of Salzburg, which cession to Austria he opposed. His second son Otto, the King of Greece, was born there. Between 1816 and 1825, he spent his years in Würzburg.
He made numerous trips to Italy and stayed in the Villa Malta in Rome, which he also bought. Ludwig supported generously as a Philhellene the Greek War of Independence, in which he in the war of 1821 provided a loan of 1.5 million florins from his private funds. In 1817 Ludwig was involved in the fall of Prime Minister Count Max Josef von Montgelas whose policies he had opposed, he succeeded his father on the throne in 1825. Ludwig's rule was affected by his enthusiasm for the arts and women and by his overreaching royal assertiveness. An enthusiast for the German Middle Ages, Ludwig ordered the re-erection of several monasteries in Bavaria, closed during the German Mediatisation, he reorganized the administrative regions of Bavaria in 1837 and re-introduced the old names Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, Swabia, Upper Palatinate and Palatinate. He changed his royal titles to Ludwig, King of Bavaria, Duke of Franconia, Duke in Swabia and Count Palatine of the Rhine, his successors kept these titles.
Ludwig's plan to reunite the eastern part of the Palatinate with Bavaria could not be realized. The Electoral Palatinate, a former dominion of the Wittelsbach, had disappeared under Napoleon when France first annexed the left bank of the Rhine, including about half of the Palatinate, gave what remained on the right bank including and Heidelberg, to Baden during the German Mediatization of 1803. In 1815, Baden's possession of Manheim and Heidelberg was confirmed and only the left bank territories were given back to Bavaria. Ludwig founded the city of Ludwigshafen there as a Bavarian rival to Mannheim. Ludwig moved the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität from Landshut to Munich in 1826; the king encouraged Bavaria's industrialization. He initiated the Ludwig Canal between the Danube. In 1835 the first German railway was constructed in his domain, between the cities of Fürth and Nuremberg. Bavaria joined the Zollverein in 1834; as Ludwig had supported the Greek fight of independence his second son Otto was elected king of Greece in 1832.
Otto's government was run by a three-man regency council made up of Bavarian court officials. After the July Revolution of 1830 in France, Ludwig's previous liberal policy became more and more repressive; the Hambacher Fest in 1832 revealed the discontent of the population caused by high taxes and censorship. In connection with the unrest of May 1832, some 142 political trials were initiated; the seven death sentences that were pronounced were commuted to long-term imprisonment by the king. About 1,000 political trials were to take place during Ludwig's reign; the strict censorship, which he had reinstated after having abolished it in 1825, was opposed by large sectors of the population. In 1837 the Ultramontanes backed by the Roman Catholic Church gained control of the Bavarian parliament and began a campaign of changes to the constitution, such as removing civil rights that had earlier been granted to Protestants, as well as enforcing political censorship. On 14 August 1838, the King issued an order for all members of the military to kneel in the presence of the Blessed Sacrament at Corpus Christi processions and church services.
This policy, in place when Bavaria was still purely Catholic in the period before 1803, had been discontinued the inclusion of large Protestant areas. Catholic disturbances during the funeral of the Protestant Queen Caroline of Baden in 1841 caused a scandal; this treatment of his beloved stepmother permanently softened the attitude of Car
Saxe-Meiningen was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine line of the Wettin dynasty, located in the southwest of the present-day German state of Thuringia. Established in 1681, by partition of the Ernestine duchy of Saxe-Gotha among the seven sons of deceased Duke Ernst der Fromme, the Saxe-Meiningen line of the House of Wettin lasted until the end of the German monarchies in 1918; the Wettiner had been the rulers of sizeable holdings in today's states of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia since the Middle Ages. In the Leipziger Teilung of 1485, the Wettiner were split into two branches named after their founding princes Albrecht and Ernst. Thuringia was part of the Ernestine holdings of Kursachsen. In 1572, the branches Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach and Saxe-Weimar were established there; the senior line again split in 1641/41 including the Duchy of Saxe-Gotha. Duke Ernst I who founded this duchy with its seat at Gotha opposed the system of primogeniture; as a result, on his death in 1675 all of his sons inherited part of his holdings and were supposed to rule under the leadership of his oldest son.
In practice, this proved complicated and brought on three settlements in 1679, 1680 and 1681 that established the following princedoms: Saxe-Gotha, Saxe-Coburg, Saxe-Meiningen, Saxe-Eisenberg, Saxe-Hildburghausen and Saxe-Saalfeld. Bernhard, Ernst I third son, received the town of Meiningen as well as several other holdings. Bernhard became the first Duke of Saxe-Meiningen. From 1682 Duke Bernhard I had the Schloss Elisabethenburg built and in 1690 established a court orchestra, in which Johann Ludwig Bach became the Kapellmeister. In the reshuffle of Ernestine territories that occurred following the extinction of the Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg line upon the death of Duke Friedrich IV in 1825, Duke Bernhard II of Saxe-Meiningen received the lands of the former Duchy of Saxe-Hildburghausen as well as the Saalfeld territory of the former Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld duchy; as Bernhard II had supported Austria in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, the prime minister of victorious Prussia, Otto von Bismarck, enforced his resignation in favour of his son Georg II, after which Saxe-Meiningen was admitted to join the North German Confederation.
By 1910, the Duchy had grown to 278,762 inhabitants. The ducal summer residence was at Altenstein Castle. Since 1868, the duchy comprised the Kreise of Hildburghausen and Saalfeld as well as the northern exclaves of Camburg and Kranichfeld. In the German Revolution after World War I, Duke Bernhard III, brother-in-law of Emperor Wilhelm II, was forced to abdicate and his oldest son Ernst on 11/12 November 1918 refused the succession; the succeeding "Free State of Saxe-Meiningen" was merged into the new state of Thuringia on 1 May 1920. As of 2012 the head of the Ducal House of Saxe-Meiningen, Prince Konrad, has no children, so the representation of his house will pass to Prince Constantin, son of his half brother Friedrich Ernst. Bernhard I Ernst Ludwig I, son of Bernhard I Ernst Ludwig II, son of Ernst Ludwig I Karl Friedrich, son of Ernst Ludwig I Friedrich Wilhelm, son of Bernhard I Anton Ulrich, son of Bernhard I Karl Wilhelm, son of Anton Ulrich Georg I, son of Anton Ulrich, father of Queen Adelaide Bernhard II, son of Georg I Georg II, son of Bernhard II Bernhard III, son of Georg IINotes: Friedrich Wilhelm and Friedrich II of Saxe-Gotha reigned as guardians for the minor Karl Friedrich in 1729-1733 Friedrich Wilhelm and Anton Ulrich reigned jointly in 1743-46 Charlotte Amalie reigned as regent/guardian for the minors Karl Wilhelm und Georg I in 1763-82 Luise Eleonore reigned as regent/guardian for the minor Bernhard II in 1803-1821 Dukedom abolished in 1918.
Bernhard III Prince Ernst Prince Georg III Prince Bernhard IV Prince Konrad Ernestine duchies Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Saxe-Meiningen". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press
Princess Louise of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Princess Charlotte Luise Friederike Amalie Alexandrine of Saxe-Hildburghausen, full German name: Charlotte Luise Friederike Amalie Alexandrine, Prinzessin von Sachsen-Hildburghausen was a member of the House of Saxe-Hildburghausen and a Princess of Saxe-Hildburghausen by birth. Through her marriage to William, Duke of Nassau, Louise was a member of the House of Nassau-Weilburg and Duchess consort of Nassau. Louise was Princess consort of Nassau-Weilburg in 1816. Louise was the seventh child of Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen and his wife Duchess Charlotte Georgine of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. One of her godparents were her aunt, Louise of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen consort of Kingdom of Prussia. Louise and her sister Therese were considered beautiful, were the subject of the Friedrich Rückert poem “Mit drei Moosrosen." In 1809, Crown Prince of Bavaria visited Schloss Hildburghausen to choose his bride. Ludwig chose between Louise and Therese and selected Therese. Louise married William, Duke of Nassau, eldest son of Frederick William, Prince of Nassau-Weilburg and his wife Burgravine Louise Isabelle of Kirchberg, on 24 June 1813 in Weilburg.
To honor the occasion of their marriage, the Civil Guard of Weilberg and Samuel Luja composed the "Cantate am Feste der Heimführung des Erbprinzen Wilhelm von Nassau mit der Prinzessin Louise von Sachsen-Hildburghausen." Louise and William had eight children: Auguste Luise Friederike Maximiliane Wilhelmine of Nassau. Therese Wilhelmine Friederike Isabelle Charlotte of Nassau. Married in Biebrich on 23 April 1837 Duke Peter of Oldenburg, their grandson was the Tsarist General Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia the Younger. Adolphe, Grand Duke of Luxembourg; the Present Grand Ducal Family of Luxembourg, which became extinct in the male line in 1912, descends from him. Wilhelm Karl Heinrich Friedrich of Nassau. Moritz Wilhelm August Karl Heinrich of Nassau and without issue. Marie Wilhelmine Luise Friederike Henriette of Nassau. Wilhelm Karl August Friedrich of Nassau. Marie Wilhelmine Friederike Elisabeth of Nassau, married in Biebrich on 20 June 1842 Hermann, Prince of Wied, their daughter Elisabeth married King Carol I of Romania.
The marriage was an unhappy one. Louise's husband was not only autocratic in politics, but with regard to his family circle and bullied his wife and children. Louise died in 1825 shortly after the birth of Marie. Following her death, Louise's husband married her sister Charlotte's daughter Princess Pauline of Württemberg; the Luisenplatz and Luisenstraße in Wiesbaden are named for Louise. 28 January 1794 – 24 June 1814: Her Highness Princess Louise of Saxe-Hildburghausen 24 June 1814 – 9 January 1816: Her Highness The Hereditary Princess of Nassau-Weilburg 9 January 1816 – 24 March 1816: Her Highness The Princess of Nassau-Weilburg 24 Marth 1816 – 6 April 1825: Her Highness The Duchess of Nassau Heinrich Ferdinand Schoeppl: Die Herzoge von Sachsen-Altenburg. Bozen 1917, Neudruck Altenburg 1992 Dr. Rudolf Armin Human: Chronik der Stadt Hildburghausen, Hildburghausen 1886
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820. He was concurrently Duke and prince-elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg in the Holy Roman Empire before becoming King of Hanover on 12 October 1814, he was the third British monarch of the House of Hanover, but unlike his two predecessors, he was born in Great Britain, spoke English as his first language, never visited Hanover. His life and with it his reign, which were longer than those of any of his predecessors, were marked by a series of military conflicts involving his kingdoms, much of the rest of Europe, places farther afield in Africa, the Americas and Asia. Early in his reign, Great Britain defeated France in the Seven Years' War, becoming the dominant European power in North America and India. However, many of Britain's American colonies were soon lost in the American War of Independence.
Further wars against revolutionary and Napoleonic France from 1793 concluded in the defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. In the part of his life, George III had recurrent, permanent, mental illness. Although it has since been suggested that he had bipolar disorder or the blood disease porphyria, the cause of his illness remains unknown. After a final relapse in 1810, a regency was established. George III's eldest son, Prince of Wales, ruled as Prince Regent until his father's death, when he succeeded as George IV. Historical analysis of George III's life has gone through a "kaleidoscope of changing views" that have depended on the prejudices of his biographers and the sources available to them; until it was reassessed in the second half of the 20th century, his reputation in the United States was one of a tyrant. George was born in London at Norfolk House in St James's Square, he was the grandson of King George II, the eldest son of Frederick, Prince of Wales, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha.
As he was born two months prematurely and thought unlikely to survive, he was baptised the same day by Thomas Secker, both Rector of St James's and Bishop of Oxford. One month he was publicly baptised at Norfolk House, again by Secker, his godparents were the King of Sweden, his uncle the Duke of Saxe-Gotha and his great-aunt the Queen of Prussia. Prince George grew into a healthy but shy child; the family moved to Leicester Square, where George and his younger brother Prince Edward, Duke of York and Albany, were educated together by private tutors. Family letters show that he could read and write in both English and German, as well as comment on political events of the time, by the age of eight, he was the first British monarch to study science systematically. Apart from chemistry and physics, his lessons included astronomy, French, history, geography, commerce and constitutional law, along with sporting and social accomplishments such as dancing and riding, his religious education was wholly Anglican.
At age 10, George took part in a family production of Joseph Addison's play Cato and said in the new prologue: "What, tho' a boy! It may with truth be said, A boy in England born, in England bred." Historian Romney Sedgwick argued that these lines appear "to be the source of the only historical phrase with which he is associated". George's grandfather, King George II, disliked the Prince of Wales, took little interest in his grandchildren. However, in 1751 the Prince of Wales died unexpectedly from a lung injury at the age of 44, George became heir apparent to the throne, he inherited his father's title of Duke of Edinburgh. Now more interested in his grandson, three weeks the King created George Prince of Wales. In the spring of 1756, as George approached his eighteenth birthday, the King offered him a grand establishment at St James's Palace, but George refused the offer, guided by his mother and her confidant, Lord Bute, who would serve as Prime Minister. George's mother, now the Dowager Princess of Wales, preferred to keep George at home where she could imbue him with her strict moral values.
In 1759, George was smitten with Lady Sarah Lennox, sister of the Duke of Richmond, but Lord Bute advised against the match and George abandoned his thoughts of marriage. "I am born for the happiness or misery of a great nation," he wrote, "and must act contrary to my passions." Attempts by the King to marry George to Princess Sophie Caroline of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel were resisted by him and his mother. The following year, at the age of 22, George succeeded to the throne when his grandfather, George II, died on 25 October 1760, two weeks before his 77th birthday; the search for a suitable wife intensified. On 8 September 1761 in the Chapel Royal, St James's Palace, the King married Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, whom he met on their wedding day. A fortnight on 22 September both were crowned at Westminster Abbey. George remarkably never took a mistress, the couple enjoyed a genuinely happy marriage until his mental illness struck, they had 15 children -- six daughters. In 1762, George purchased Buckingham House for use as a family retreat.
His other residences were Windsor Castle. St James's Palace was retained for
Prince Paul of Württemberg
Prince Paul of Württemberg was the fourth child and second son of King Frederick I and his wife, Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Paul was born in St. Petersburg during a period when his father, not yet the ruler of Württemberg, was made governor of Old Finland by Catherine the Great in Russia; the couple had traveled to Russia to visit Frederick's sister Sophie, married to the heir to the Russian throne, the Tsesarevich Paul. Prince Paul's parents separated shortly after his birth; the marriage was unhappy, there were allegations of abusive treatment of his mother. His mother was never returned to Württemberg, she died in exile in Koluvere, Estonia, in 1788. In 1797, Frederick married Charlotte, Princess Royal, eldest daughter of King George III of the United Kingdom, who supervised the education of Paul and his two surviving siblings and Catharina. Charlotte regarded Paul as "a comical boy and, in my partial eyes, his manners are like Adolphus."As Paul grew up, her opinion changed.
During the visit of the Allied sovereigns to London in 1814, along with many other princes, was taken to visit the Ascot races by the Prince Regent. He got the Prince of Orange blind drunk. "For thirteen years he has done nothing but offend his father with the improprieties of his conduct", his stepmother wrote. On 28 September 1805 in Ludwigsburg, Paul married Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Hildburghausen, second daughter of Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen, they had five children: Friederike Charlotte Marie. Paul Friedrich Pauline Friederike Marie. Through Pauline, Paul is an ancestor of the present Belgian, Dutch, Luxembourg and Swedish royal families. August. In 1815 Paul moved from his home in Stuttgart to Paris, leaving his wife and two sons, but taking his daughters with him. There he led a modest life, but was in the company of intellectuals such as Georges Cuvier. Paul's family did not approve of this and ordered him to return to Württemberg. While in Paris, he fathered two illegitimate daughters by mistresses.
Shortly after the death of his wife in 1847, Paul went to England with his long-term mistress Magdalena Fausta Angela de Creus y Ximenes or Madeleine Creux, the widow of Sir Sandford Whittingham KCB, they were married in the Parish Church of St Nicholas, Sussex, on 26 April 1848. She died in Paris, 27 December 1852, their daughter Pauline Madeleine Ximenes, born in Paris 3 March 1825, was created Countess von Helfenstein in 1841. She married Count Gustave de Monttessuy in Paris on 24 August 1843 and died in Paris on 24 February 1905. Paul died in Paris aged 67. Shortly before his marriage, Paul had an actress named Friederike Margrethe Porth. Friederike was the daughter of his wife Caroline. Paul and Friederike had a daughter named Adhelaide Paulina, alias Karoline, von Rothenburg. On 16 February 1836, in Augsburg, Karoline married Karl, Baron von Pfeffel. Karoline and Karl had at least one son Hubert, Baron von Pfeffel, born in Munich on 8 December 1843, who married Hélène Arnous-Rivière, born on 14 January 1862.
Hubert and Hélène had one daughter, Marie Louise, Baroness von Pfeffel, born in Paris on 15 August 1882, married Stanley F. Williams of Bromley, Kent. Marie and Stanley's daughter Irene Williams married Osman Wilfred Kemal, alias Wilfred Johnson, born in 1909 at Bournemouth, Dorset. Osman was the son of Ali Kemal Bey, sometime Interior Minister of Turkey, by his first wife Winifred Brun. Irene and Wilfred's son, Stanley Patrick Johnson, married firstly Charlotte Fawcett, daughter of Sir James Fawcett, they had four children. Wilfred married Jennifer Kidd and had two further children. Charlotte married American academic Nicholas Wahl; the four children born to Stanley and Charlotte are: Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson, former Mayor of London and Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs Rachel Johnson, a journalist, married to Ivo Dawnay, the communications director of the National Trust, has three children.
Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Hildburghausen
Princess Charlotte of Saxe-Hildburghausen was the child of Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg and his wife, Duchess Charlotte Georgine of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. She was the wife of Prince Paul of mother to his five children. Charlotte was the eldest daughter of Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg, his wife Duchess Charlotte Georgine of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, she was the second of twelve children. One of her godparents was Catherine the Great of Russia. Along with her sisters and Louise, Charlotte was considered quite a beauty. Poet Friedrich Rückert dedicated one of Mit drei Moosrosen, to these three young ladies; the title translates to "Three Moss Roses". On 28 September 1805, she married Prince Paul of Wurttemberg in an extravagant wedding, but it was not a happy marriage, they had numerous arguments, Paul was said to have many mistresses, with whom he had several affairs. However, during their marriage, they had five children: Princess Charlotte of Württemberg. Prince Frederick of Württemberg. Prince Paul of Württemberg.
The idea of divorce was rejected by the King of Württemberg. Charlotte lived in a house called Sovereignty in Hildburghausen, her eldest daughter, Princess Charlotte, visited her there quite often. Her brother, was a frequent visitor. Charlotte died at the Royal Palace in Bamberg and is buried in the crypt of the House of Württemberg in Ludwigsburg. Soon after Charlotte's death, Paul remarried. Charlotte was the maternal grandmother of Sofia of Nassau, who became the Queen consort of Sweden
Georg, Duke of Saxe-Altenburg
Georg Karl Frederick was a duke of Saxe-Altenburg. He was the fourth but second surviving son of Frederick, Duke of Saxe-Hildburghausen and Duchess Charlotte Georgine of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, he fought in the Austrian ranks against Napoleonic France in the 1813–1814 war. Georg succeeded his brother Joseph as Duke of Saxe-Altenburg when he abdicated, in 1848. In Ludwigslust on 7 October 1825 Georg married with Duchess Marie Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, she was a daughter of Frederick Louis, Hereditary Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Grand Duchess Elena Pavlovna of Russia. They had three sons: Ernst I Frederick Paul Georg Nikolaus. Albrecht Frederick August Bernhard Ludwig Anton Carl Gustav Eduard. Moritz Franz Friedrich Constantin Alexander Heinrich August Carl Albrecht. Heinrich Ferdinand Schoeppl: Die Herzoge von Sachsen-Altenburg.. Altenburger Verlag, Altenburg 1992. Rudolf Armin Human: Chronik der Stadt Hildburghausen. Verlag Frankenschwelle, Hildburghausen 1999, ISBN 3-86180-082-9